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1.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga.2010) ; 13(1): 1-20, 20221213.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369171

RESUMO

Introducción: El SARS-CoV-2 es un Betacoronavirus, así como el SARS-CoV y el MERS-CoV, ambos asociados a abortos espontáneos, parto prematuro, morbi-mortalidad materna y alto número de ingresos a UCI en las gestantes. Además, al ser un virus nuevo, se conoce poco sobre los efectos en la gestación. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo analizar la evidencia disponible sobre el SARS-CoV-2 en la gestación. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura en PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, BVS y SciElo. Se realizó la crítica de la evidencia y la extracción de la información con dos instrumentos propuestos por el Instituto Joanna Briggs. Lo anterior bajo las directrices de PRISMA-ScR. Resultados: Se incluyeron 85 artículos que evidenciaron que la mayoría de gestantes con SARS-CoV-2 desarrollaron enfermedad leve a moderada, pero presentaron mayor riesgo de muerte y complicaciones comparado con las pacientes no embarazadas. Se documentó bajo riesgo de transmisión vertical y los resultados perinatales se asociaron a la severidad del cuadro clínico materno. La efectividad del tratamiento no fue concluyente.Discusión: Se discute la presentación clínica de la infección en las gestantes, la transmisión vertical, el tratamiento, la gravedad de la enfermedad y los desenlaces neonatales.Conclusiones: La COVID-19 en la gestación es una complicación que genera mayor morbimortalidad, por lo que es de vital importancia el desarrollo de más investigaciones que amplíen la comprensión de su comportamiento, las implicaciones fisiológicas, emocionales y el posible tratamiento. Esta revisión hace un análisis riguroso de la calidad de los estudios y aporta información valiosa de la evidencia.


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus as well as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, both associated with spontaneous miscarriage, preterm birth, maternal morbidity and mortality and a higher number of ICU admissions for pregnant women. Being a new virus, its effects on pregnancy are little known. This review aims to analyze the available evidence on SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A literature review was conducted in PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, BVS and SciElo. Evidence criticism and information extraction were conducted using two instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute, following the PRISMA-ScR guidelines. Results: 85 articles were included evidencing that most pregnant women with SARS-COV-2 suffered mild to moderate disease and were at a higher risk of death and complications compared to non-pregnant patients. Low risk of vertical transmission was documented and adverse perinatal outcomes were associated with severe maternal clinical manifestations. The effectiveness of treatment was inconclusive. Discussion: Clinical presentation of infection in pregnant women, vertical transmission, treatment, disease severity and neonatal outcomes were discussed. Conclusions: COVID-19 during pregnancy is a complication that generates greater morbidity and mortality, for which it is vital to develop further research on the understanding of the behavior, physiological and emotional implications and possible treatment. This review makes a rigorous analysis of the quality of studies and provides valuable information from evidence.


Introdução: O SARS-CoV-2 é um betacoronavírus, assim como o SARS-CoV e o MERS-CoV, ambos associados ao aborto espontâneo, parto prematuro, morbidade e mortalidade materna e alto número de internações na UTI em mulheres grávidas. Além disso, sendo um novo vírus, pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos na gravidez. Esta revisão tem como objetivo analisar as evidências disponíveis sobre o SARS-CoV-2 na gravidez. Materiais e métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica na PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, BVS e SciElo. A analise crítica das provas e a extração de dados foram realizadas utilizando dois instrumentos propostos pelo Instituto Joanna Briggs sob as diretrizes do PRISMA-ScR. Resultados: 85 artigos foram incluídos, mostrando que a maioria das mulheres grávidas com SRA-CoV-2 desenvolveu doença leve a moderada, mas tinha um risco maior de morte e complicações em comparação com pacientes não grávidas. Baixo risco de transmissão vertical foi documentado e os resultados perinatais foram associados à gravidade do quadro clínico materno. A eficácia do tratamento foi inconclusiva. Discussão: Apresentação clínica da infecção em mulheres grávidas, transmissão vertical, tratamento, gravidade da doença e resultados neonatais são discutidos. Conclusões: A COVID-19 na gravidez é uma complicação que gera maior morbidade e mortalidade, portanto, mais pesquisas para expandir a compreensão de seu comportamento, implicações fisiológicas e emocionais, e o tratamento potencial são de vital importância. Esta revisão fornece uma análise rigorosa da qualidade dos estudos e informações valiosas a partir das evidências.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274490, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107832

RESUMO

The straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) is a pteropodid whose conservation is crucial for maintaining functional connectivity of plant populations in tropical Africa. Land conversion has pushed this species to adapt to roosting in urban centers across its range. These colonies often host millions of individuals, creating intensive human-bat contact interfaces that could facilitate the spillover of coronaviruses shed by these bats. A better understanding of coronavirus dynamics in these roosts is needed to identify peak times of exposure risk in order to propose evidence-based management that supports safe human-bat coexistence, as well as the conservation of this chiropteran. We studied the temporal patterns of coronavirus shedding in E. helvum, by testing thousands of longitudinally-collected fecal samples from two spatially distant urban roosts in Ghana and Tanzania. Shedding of coronaviruses peaked during the second part of pup weaning in both roosts. Assuming that coronavirus shedding is directly related to spillover risk, our results indicate that exposure mitigation should target reducing contact between people and E. helvum roosts during the pup "weaning" period. This recommendation can be applied across the many highly-populated urban sites occupied by E. helvum across Africa.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Gana , Humanos , Estações do Ano
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 972499, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081520

RESUMO

Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus that causes respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, is widely spread worldwide, but there is no effective drug or vaccine against it. This study investigated the optimal Selenium Nano-Particles (SeNPs) addition concentration (2 - 10 µg/mL) and the mechanism of PDCoV effect on ST (Swine Testis) cell apoptosis, the antagonistic effect of SeNPs on PDCoV. The results indicated that 4 µg/mL SeNPs significantly decreased PDCoV replication on ST cells. SeNPs relieved PDCoV-induced mitochondrial division and antagonized PDCoV-induced apoptosis via decreasing Cyt C release and Caspase 9 and Caspase 3 activation. The above results provided an idea and experimental basis associated with anti-PDCoV drug development and clinical use.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Selênio , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Apoptose , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Masculino , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Suínos
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 921613, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052062

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports the ability of eugenol to maintain intestinal barrier integrity and anti-inflammatory in vitro and in vivo; however, whether eugenol alleviates virus-mediated intestinal barrier damage and inflammation remains a mystery. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a coronavirus, is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in piglets and significantly impacts the global swine industry. Here, we found that eugenol could alleviate TGEV-induced intestinal functional impairment and inflammatory responses in piglets. Our results indicated that eugenol improved feed efficiency in TGEV-infected piglets. Eugenol not only increased serum immunoglobulin concentration (IgG) but also significantly decreased serum inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α) in TGEV-infected piglets. In addition, eugenol also significantly decreased the expression of NF-κB mRNA and the phosphorylation level of NF-κB P65 protein in the jejunum mucosa of TGEV-infected piglets. Eugenol increased villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum, and decreased serum D-lactic acid levels. Importantly, eugenol increased tight junction protein (ZO-1) and mRNA expression levels of nutrient transporter-related genes (GluT-2 and CaT-1) in the jejunum mucosa of TGEV-infected piglets. Meanwhile, compared with TGEV-infected IPEC-J2 cells, treatment with eugenol reduced the cell cytopathic effect, attenuated the inflammatory response. Interestingly, eugenol did not increase the expression of ZO-1 and Occludin in IPEC-J2 cells. However, western blot and immunofluorescence results showed that eugenol restored TGEV-induced down-regulation of ZO-1 and Occludin, while BAY11-7082 (The NF-κB specific inhibitor) enhanced the regulatory ability of eugenol. Our findings demonstrated that eugenol attenuated TGEV-induced intestinal injury by increasing the expression of ZO-1 and Occludin, which may be related to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway. Eugenol may offer some therapeutic opportunities for coronavirus-related diseases.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Eugenol/farmacologia , Eugenol/uso terapêutico , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ocludina , RNA Mensageiro , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível/fisiologia
7.
Drug Saf ; 45(10): 1099-1109, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030299

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The BBV152 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine (COVAXIN) has recently been approved for adolescents. OBJECTIVE: We provide the first real-world safety data of COVAXIN use in adolescents and compare with adults. METHODS: A prospective observational study was initiated in January 2022. Enrolled adolescents and adults were contacted by telephone after 14 days of receiving the BBV152 vaccine. The primary outcome was vaccine safety assessed as rate of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs). Severity grading of AEFIs was done using the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scale. Interim results are presented. RESULTS: A total of 698 adolescents and 326 adults were enrolled. AEFIs after the first dose developed in 243 out of 670 adolescents (36.3%), with 21% reporting only local AEFIs and 15.2% reporting systemic AEFIs. Among 340 adolescents who had received the second dose of vaccine, 129 (37.9%) developed AEFIs, with only local involvement in 20.3% and systemic involvement in 17.6%. Injection site pain and fever were the common AEFIs. The majority of AEFIs were mild-moderate. Nearly 0.9% of adolescents receiving the first dose reported severe AEFIs. Atypical AEFIs were observed in 0.6-0.9% of adolescents. The majority of the AEFIs resolved in 1-2 days. AEFIs were persistent in > 2% of adolescents at day 14 after the second dose, and also in 3.7% of adults overall at follow-up. No difference was observed in AEFI incidence and patterns between adolescents and adults. Regression analysis showed females and those with a history of allergy to be, respectively, at 1.6 times and 3 times increased risk of AEFIs among adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: COVAXIN carries an overall favorable short-term safety profile in adolescents. The observed AEFI rates in adolescents are much lower than that reported with mRNA vaccines, but head-head comparisons in the same population are required to generate relative vaccine safety data. Female adolescents and those with a history of allergy need watchfulness for severe and persistent AEFIs. With some AEFIs persisting at 14 days, a longer follow-up is recommended to strengthen the safety data of COVAXIN.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Hipersensibilidade , Vacinas , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
8.
Ciudad de Panamá; OPS; 2022-08-03.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56223

RESUMO

Hasta el 30 de julio, se reportan 7.743 pacientes (0,8%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 163 pacientes (0,0%) se encuentran hospitalizados (132 en sala general y 31 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo - UCI). Se informan 938.038 (98,3%) casos como recuperados. Se notifica un total de 8.425 fallecidos con 41 nuevas muertes desde el 8 de julio, para un porcentaje de fallecidos de 0,9%.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Análise de Situação , Emergências , América , Panamá
9.
Brasilia, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-08-02. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/22-0025).
Não convencional em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56210

RESUMO

Este documento tem como objetivo descrever um conjunto mínimo de atividades de vigilância recomendadas em nível nacional para detectar e monitorar a prevalência relativa de variantes do SARS-CoV-2 e delinear um conjunto de atividades para a caracterização e avaliação do risco apresentado por essas variantes. Também é fornecido um conjunto de indicadores para padronizar o monitoramento e a divulgação pública da circulação de variantes. O documento destina-se principalmente às autoridades de saúde pública nacionais e subnacionais e aos parceiros que apoiam a implementação da vigilância de variantes do SARS-CoV-2. Orientações adicionais foram publicadas para as partes interessadas laboratoriais sobre testes diagnósticos para SARS-CoV-2 e sequenciamento para objetivos de saúde pública, com um guia de implementação para sequenciamento do SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus
10.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(4)2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041837

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To manage the rapid rise of misleading information on the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the pandemic, the Breakthrough ACTION project developed a theory-based rumor-tracking system to inform Guyana's COVID-19 communication campaign. METHODS: The rumor-tracking project used the extended parallel processing model (EPPM) to identify and categorize rumors reflecting perceived high versus low vulnerability to COVID-19 and high versus low efficacy of engaging in recommended COVID-19 prevention behaviors. The project designed contextually relevant social and behavior change messages, called "MythBusters," responded to rumor categories with the following objectives: (1) high perceived vulnerability and high efficacy rumors included a call to action; high perceived vulnerability and low efficacy rumors educated about effective and achievable solutions; (3) low perceived vulnerability and high efficacy rumors educated about risk; and (4) low perceived vulnerability and low efficacy rumors educated about risk and effective and achievable solutions. RESULTS: Most rumors emanated from regions 4 and 8 (29%). Over two-thirds of the rumors (71%) recurred. Rumors were typically related to COVID-19 treatment or prevention (40%) and transmission (35%). Most rumors (48%) reflected low perceived vulnerability and low efficacy, 29% reflected high perceived vulnerability and low efficacy, 13% reflected low perceived vulnerability and high efficacy, and 10% reflected high perceived vulnerability and high efficacy. The project rapidly developed 12 MythBusters from June through December 2020 and integrated them into the national COVID-19 communication campaign, disseminated via radio, television, and Facebook. Estimates indicate that they have reached most of the target Guyanese population. DISCUSSION: The EPPM was a particularly useful tool, giving direction to countering myths with appropriate messaging to affect relevant behaviors. The COVID-19 MythBusters provided the Guyanese public with valid and verifiable information and promoted preventive and protective behaviors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Guiana/epidemiologia , Humanos
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 909874, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017317

RESUMO

The aim: To study the association of demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors and the use of glucose-lowering drugs and anti-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination with the COVID-19-related case fatality rate (CFR) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Methods: This study is a nationwide observational cohort study based on the data from the National Diabetes Register (NDR) that is the database containing online clinical information about the population with DM. The outcomes (death or recovery) for COVID-19 were registered in 235,248 patients with DM [type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), n = 11,058; type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), n = 224,190] from March 20, 2020, until November 25, 2021. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the risk factors for CFR. Then the ranging of significant factors was performed and the most vulnerable groups of factors for the lethal outcome were chosen. Results: The CFR due to COVID-19 was 8.1% in T1DM and 15.3% in T2DM. Increased CFR was associated with the male population [OR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.09-1.44) in T1DM and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.15-1.21) in T2DM], age ≥65 years [OR = 4.44 (95% CI: 3.75-5.24) in T1DM and 3.18 (95% CI: 3.09-3.26) in T2DM], DM duration ≥10 years [OR = 2.46 (95% CI: 2.06-2.95) in T1DM and 2.11 (95% CI: 2.06-2.16) in T2DM], body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 [OR = 1.95 (95% CI: 1.52-2.50)] in T1DM, HbA1c ≥7% [OR = 1.35 (95% CI: 1.29-1.43)] in T2DM. The atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were associated with higher CFR in T1DM but not in T2DM. The pre-COVID-19 glucose-lowering therapy in T2DM was differently associated with CFR (OR): 0.61 (95% CI: 0.59-0.62) for metformin, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.57-0.61) for dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors), 0.46 (95% CI: 0.44-0.49) for sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, 0.38 (95% CI: 0.29-0.51) for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (arGLP-1), 1.34 (95% CI: 1.31-1.37) for sulfonylurea (SU), and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.43-1.51) for insulin. Anti-COVID-19 vaccination was associated with a lower fatality risk in both DM types: OR = 0.07 (95% CI: 0.03-0.20) in T1DM and OR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.17-0.22) in T2DM. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that increased COVID-19-related fatality risk in both T1DM and T2DM patients associated with the male population, older age, longer DM duration, and absence of anti-COVID-19 vaccination. In T2DM, pre-COVID-19 glucose-lowering therapy with metformin, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and arGLP-1 had a positive effect on the risk of death. The most vulnerable combination of risk factors for lethal outcome in both DM types was vaccine absence + age ≥65 years + DM duration ≥10 years.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Metformina , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Glucose , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
12.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 114(8): 448-454, agosto 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-205700

RESUMO

Background: the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown on liver transplant (LT) patients remains unknown. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical and mental health of LT patients during the lockdown period.Methods: a web-based questionnaire was emailed to 238 LT patients undergoing regular follow-up at our unit between August and October 2020. This pseudonymized survey explored demographic and lifestyle variables (i.e., eating and physical habits), disruptions in routine medical care, different dimensions of mental health, COVID-19-related mood and coping (worries/anxiety, depression, insomnia, fear of COVID, resilience, etc.) and health perception using different validated instruments.Results: altogether, 48.7 % (116 of 238) LT recipients accepted to participate in the study, 104 of whom gave their consent to publish the data. The median age was 63 years. Up to 39.4 % presented worrying scores indicating moderate/severe generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), whereas 25.5 % exhibited moderate/severe insomnia and only 10.5 % moderate/severe depression. Forty patients (38.5 %) gained weight, 24 % experienced a worsening in their eating habits and 63.4 % referred to practicing less or much less exercise during the lockdown. Only 25 % perceived a worsening in the control of their chronic comorbidities. Missed medical appointments (0.9 %) or poor adherence to therapy (1.9 %) were exceptional.Conclusions: COVID-19 lockdown has negatively impacted the mental and physical health of LT patients. Long-term consequences remain unclear. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Coronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Transplante de Fígado , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias
13.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 114(8): 455-460, agosto 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-205701

RESUMO

Background: the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on several aspects of health care services worldwide. The aim of the study was to determine its influence on the case volume, success rate and complication rate of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).Method: all patients who underwent ERCP one-year before and after applying COVID-19 safety measures at the Qena University Hospital were included. Data were collected from the patients' records, analyzed and compared.Results: a total of 250 patients underwent ERCP between April 1st, 2019 and March 31st, 2021, and the mean age of participants was 52 ± 18 years. There was a 5 % increase in case volume after applying COVID-19 safety measures (128 vs 122) and the total procedure time was significantly shorter (42 vs 46 minutes, p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in the overall success rate and complication rate. Procedure success significantly correlated with cannulation attempts and total procedure time in both groups, and serum bilirubin and cannulation time in the pre-COVID-19 patients and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in post-COVID patients. ERCP-related complications significantly correlated with cannulation attempts in both groups, and ALP, international normalized ratio (INR), cannulation time and total procedure time in pre-COVID-19 patients, and platelet count and amylase in post-COVID patients. Two patients were confirmed COVID-19 cases at the time of ERCP; therapeutic targets were achieved in both with a smooth post-ERCP recovery. Three out of nine ERCP team members caught a mild to moderate COVID-19 infection and recovered after receiving proper management.Conclusion: our result show that there was no negative impact of using COVID-19 safety measures and precautions on the case-volume, indications, overall outcome or complication rate of ERCP. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fosfatase Alcalina , Coronavirus , Cateterismo/métodos , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/métodos , Pandemias
15.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 380(2233): 20210301, 2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965470

RESUMO

We present a method for rapid calculation of coronavirus growth rates and [Formula: see text]-numbers tailored to publicly available UK data. We assume that the case data comprise a smooth, underlying trend which is differentiable, plus systematic errors and a non-differentiable noise term, and use bespoke data processing to remove systematic errors and noise. The approach is designed to prioritize up-to-date estimates. Our method is validated against published consensus [Formula: see text]-numbers from the UK government and is shown to produce comparable results two weeks earlier. The case-driven approach is combined with weight-shift-scale methods to monitor trends in the epidemic and for medium-term predictions. Using case-fatality ratios, we create a narrative for trends in the UK epidemic: increased infectiousness of the B1.117 (Alpha) variant, and the effectiveness of vaccination in reducing severity of infection. For longer-term future scenarios, we base future [Formula: see text] on insight from localized spread models, which show [Formula: see text] going asymptotically to 1 after a transient, regardless of how large the [Formula: see text] transient is. This accords with short-lived peaks observed in case data. These cannot be explained by a well-mixed model and are suggestive of spread on a localized network. This article is part of the theme issue 'Technical challenges of modelling real-life epidemics and examples of overcoming these'.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Epidemias , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Reprodução , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273654, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are various risk factors for death in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. The effects of symptoms on death have been investigated, but symptoms were considered individually, rather than in combination, as predictors. We examined the effects of symptom combinations on in-hospital mortality. METHODS: Data from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency were analyzed. A cohort of 5,153 patients confirmed with COVID-19 in South Korea was followed from hospitalization to death or discharge. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify symptom combinations, and the hazard ratios (HRs) of death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Three sets of symptom factors were isolated for symptom combination. Factor 1 symptoms were cold-like symptoms, factor 2 were neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms, and factor 3 were more severe symptoms such as dyspnea and altered state of consciousness. Factor 1 (HR 1.14, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.01-1.30) and factor 3 (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.19-1.31) were associated with a higher risk for death, and factor 2 with a lower risk (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.71-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: The effect on in-hospital mortality differed according to symptom combination. The results are evidence of the effects of symptoms on COVID-19 mortality and may contribute to lowering the COVID-19 mortality rate. Further study is needed to identify the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of symptom combinations on mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2122851119, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994656

RESUMO

Disease transmission prediction across wildlife is crucial for risk assessment of emerging infectious diseases. Susceptibility of host species to pathogens is influenced by the geographic, environmental, and phylogenetic context of the specific system under study. We used machine learning to analyze how such variables influence pathogen incidence for multihost pathogen assemblages, including one of direct transmission (coronaviruses and bats) and two vector-borne systems (West Nile Virus [WNV] and birds, and malaria and birds). Here we show that this methodology is able to provide reliable global spatial susceptibility predictions for the studied host-pathogen systems, even when using a small amount of incidence information (i.e., [Formula: see text] of information in a database). We found that avian malaria was mostly affected by environmental factors and by an interaction between phylogeny and geography, and WNV susceptibility was mostly influenced by phylogeny and by the interaction between geographic and environmental distances, whereas coronavirus susceptibility was mostly affected by geography. This approach will help to direct surveillance and field efforts providing cost-effective decisions on where to invest limited resources.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Bases de Dados Factuais , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Incidência , Aprendizado de Máquina , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Malária/veterinária , Filogenia , Medição de Risco , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(8): e1010763, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939522

RESUMO

Transmembrane Protein 41B (TMEM41B) and Vacuole Membrane Protein 1 (VMP1) are two ER-associated lipid scramblases that play a role in autophagosome formation and cellular lipid metabolism. TMEM41B is also a recently validated host factor required by flaviviruses and coronaviruses. However, the exact underlying mechanism of TMEM41B in promoting viral infections remains an open question. Here, we validated that both TMEM41B and VMP1 are essential host dependency factors for all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), but not chikungunya virus (CHIKV). While HCoV-OC43 failed to replicate entirely in both TMEM41B- and VMP1-deficient cells, we detected diminished levels of DENV infections in these cell lines, which were accompanied by upregulation of the innate immune dsRNA sensors, RIG-I and MDA5. Nonetheless, this upregulation did not correspondingly induce the downstream effector TBK1 activation and Interferon-beta expression. Despite low levels of DENV replication, classical DENV replication organelles were undetectable in the infected TMEM41B-deficient cells, suggesting that the upregulation of the dsRNA sensors is likely a consequence of aberrant viral replication rather than a causal factor for reduced DENV infection. Intriguingly, we uncovered that the inhibitory effect of TMEM41B deficiency on DENV replication, but not HCoV-OC43, can be partially reversed using exogenous fatty acid supplements. In contrast, VMP1 deficiency cannot be rescued using the metabolite treatment. In line with the observed phenotypes, we found that both TMEM41B- and VMP1-deficient cells harbor higher levels of compromised mitochondria, especially in VMP1 deficiency which results in severe dysregulations of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Using a metabolomic profiling approach, we revealed distinctive global dysregulations of the cellular metabolome, particularly lipidome, in TMEM41B- and VMP1-deficient cells. Our findings highlight a central role for TMEM41B and VMP1 in modulating multiple cellular pathways, including lipid mobilization, mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and global metabolic regulations, to facilitate the replication of flaviviruses and coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Dengue , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Lipídeos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Replicação Viral
19.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05031, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040909

RESUMO

Background: Treatment of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still challenging due to the lack of evidence-based treatment protocols and continuously changing epidemiological situations and vaccinations. Remdesivir (RDV) is among the few antiviral medications with confirmed efficacy for specific patient groups. However, real-world data on long-term outcomes for a short treatment course are scarce. Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included real-life data collected during the second and third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hungary (September 1, 2020-April 30, 2021) from inpatients at a University Center (n = 947). Participants consisted of two propensity score-matched cohorts (370/370 cases): Group RDV including patients receiving RDV and supplementary oxygen and Group standard of care (SOC) as control. The primary outcome was the effect of 5-day RDV treatment on 30- and 60-day all-cause mortality. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of RDV by different covariates. Results: Group RDV included significantly more patients from the alpha variant wave, with greater frequency of comorbidities diabetes and anemia, and larger degree of parenchymal involvement. All-cause mortality at 30- and 60-day were significantly lower in Group RDV compared to Group SOC. Significant risk reduction of 60-day all-cause mortality was observed for RDV treatment in men and patients with COPD or multiple comorbidities. Conclusions: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with 5-day RDV treatment had significantly lower 30- and 60-day all-cause mortality, despite their more severe clinical condition. Men and patients with multiple comorbidities, including COPD, profited the most from RDV treatment in the long term. Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, effective treatment regimens are needed for hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
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