Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.078
Filtrar
1.
Vet Rec ; 191(8): 346-347, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269249
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(55): 83907-83920, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776298

RESUMO

The increasing worldwide automobile production and usage adversely impact the environmental, economic, and social well-being. Although the automobile companies are trying to solve this problem by adopting corporate sustainability, there is a gap in the extant literature on sustainable corporate practices that are the most important to empower better sustainability performance. This study highlights the impact of core corporate sustainable practices attributes, government initiative, technology usage, and organizational culture on the sustainable performance of the automobile industry in India. The study proposed six aspects and fifty-three criteria from the literature review. The current article has used survey questionnaires to collect the primary data. The present article also applied the smart-PLS to test the association among the variables. The results indicated that the corporate sustainable practices attributes, technology usage, and organizational culture have a positive and significant linkage with the sustainable performance of the automobile industry. The current article guides the regulators in developing the regulations to improve sustainable organizational performance using sustainable corporate practices.


Assuntos
Cultura Organizacional , Corporações Profissionais , Automóveis , Governo , Tecnologia
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262334, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986203

RESUMO

This paper contributes to the lack of longitudinal studies concerning online information access to corporate governance (CG) practices in the banking sector of Latin American countries. In particular, this study aims to analyze the factors that influence information transparency, both mandatory and voluntary, related to CG practices of banks that operate in Paraguay via their websites from 2016 to 2019. Findings indicate the need to improve the level of information available on websites, with disclosure of voluntary information on CG practices being more prevalent than the disclosure of mandatory information. Likewise, banks that operate in Paraguay have made scant "progress" regarding online access to their governance information over the years analyzed. Moreover, the factors "Bank size" and "listed status" positively influence the information transparency regarding CG practices of Paraguayan banks. In contrast, "leverage," "liquidity," "size of the audit firm," and "credit risk rating" are factors that have a negative relation with the extent of CG disclosure.


Assuntos
Organizações/estatística & dados numéricos , Corporações Profissionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso à Informação , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Governo , Humanos , Paraguai , Responsabilidade Social
5.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48486

RESUMO

Health impacts of the corporate practices of the alcohol, automobile, firearms, food and beverage, pharmaceutical or tobacco industries.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Corporações Profissionais
7.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 94(8): 1809-1821, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189625

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the association between self-reported sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk among men and women corporate executives and investigate potential lifestyle, work- and stress-related mediators thereof. METHODS: Self-reported sleep duration and lifestyle, occupational, psychological and measured anthropometrical, blood pressure (BP) and blood marker variables were obtained from health risk assessment data of 3583 corporate executives. Sex-stratified regression analyses investigated the relationships between occupational and psychological variables with self-reported sleep duration, and sleep duration with individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Mediation analyses investigated the effects of work, psychological and lifestyle factors on the relationships between self-reported sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors, as well as a continuous cardiometabolic risk score calculated from the sum of sex-stratified z-standardized scores of negative fasting serum HDL, and positive plasma Glu, serum TG, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic BP. RESULTS: Longer work hours and work commute time, depression, anxiety and stress were associated with shorter sleep duration in both men and women (all p < 0.05). Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher BMI, larger waist circumference and greater cardiometabolic risk scores in both men and women (all p < 0.05), higher diastolic BP in men (p < 0.05) and lower HDL cholesterol in women (p < 0.05). Physical activity, working hours and stress significantly mediated the relationships between self-reported sleep duration and BMI, waist circumference, diastolic BP and cardiometabolic risk score in men only. CONCLUSION: In these corporate executives, shorter self-reported sleep duration is associated with poorer psychological, occupational and cardiometabolic risk outcomes in both men and women. Given that physical activity, working hours and stress mediate this association among the men, the case for sleep health interventions in workplace health programmes is warranted.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Corporações Profissionais , Sono , Adulto , Ansiedade , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Autorrelato , África do Sul , Estresse Psicológico , Circunferência da Cintura , Carga de Trabalho
8.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945537

RESUMO

Corporate governance is the way of governing a firm in order to increase its accountability and to avoid any massive damage before it occurs. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of capital structure, firms' size, and competitive advantages of firms as control variables on credit ratings. We investigate the role of corporate governance in improving the firms' credit rating using a sample of Jordanian listed firms. We split firms into four categories according to WVB credit rating. We use both the binary logistic regression (LR) and the ordinal logistic regression (OLR) to model credit ratings in Jordanian environment. The empirical results show that the control variables are strong determinants of credit ratings. When we evaluate the relationship between the governance variables and credit ratings, we found interesting results. The board stockholders and board expertise are moderately significant. The board independence and role duality are weakly significant, while board size is insignificant.


Assuntos
Contabilidade/economia , Corporações Profissionais/economia , Comércio/economia , Comércio/organização & administração , Jordânia , Modelos Econômicos , Cultura Organizacional , Corporações Profissionais/organização & administração
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250115, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914764

RESUMO

Trade credit is a payment extension granted by a selling firm to its customer. Companies typically respond to late payments from their customers by delaying payments to suppliers, thus generating a ripple through the transaction network. Therefore, trade credit is as a potential vehicle of propagation of losses in case of default events. The goal of this work is to leverage information on the trade credit among connected firms to predict imminent defaults of firms. We use a unique dataset of client firms of a major Italian bank to investigate firm bankruptcy between October 2016 to March 2018. We develop a model to capture network spillover effects originating from the supply chain on the probability of default of each firm via a sequential approach: the output of a first model component on single firm features is used in a subsequent model which captures network spillovers. While the first component is the standard econometrics way to predict such dynamics, the network module represents an innovative way to look into the effect of trade credit on default probability. This module looks at the transaction network of the firm, as inferred from the payments transiting via the bank, in order to identify the trade partners of the firm. By using several features extracted from the network of transactions, this model is able to predict a large fraction of the defaults, thus showing the value hidden in the network information. Finally, we merge firm and network features with a machine learning model to create a 'hybrid' model, which improves the recall for the task by almost 20 percentage points over the baseline.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira/economia , Previsões/métodos , Corporações Profissionais/economia , Falência da Empresa/economia , Comércio/economia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Econômicos , Probabilidade
11.
Med J Aust ; 214(5): 212-217, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether integrating pharmacists into general practices reduces the number of unplanned re-admissions of patients recently discharged from hospital. DESIGN, SETTING: Stepped wedge, cluster randomised trial in 14 general practices in southeast Queensland. PARTICIPANTS: Adults discharged from one of seven study hospitals during the seven days preceding recruitment (22 May 2017 - 14 March 2018) and prescribed five or more long term medicines, or having a primary discharge diagnosis of congestive heart failure or exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. INTERVENTION: Comprehensive face-to-face medicine management consultation with an integrated practice pharmacist within seven days of discharge, followed by a consultation with their general practitioner and further pharmacist consultations as needed. MAJOR OUTCOMES: Rates of unplanned, all-cause hospital re-admissions and emergency department (ED) presentations 12 months after hospital discharge; incremental net difference in overall costs. RESULTS: By 12 months, there had been 282 re-admissions among 177 control patients (incidence rate [IR], 1.65 per person-year) and 136 among 129 intervention patients (IR, 1.09 per person-year; fully adjusted IR ratio [IRR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.52-1.18). ED presentation incidence (fully adjusted IRR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.94) and combined re-admission and ED presentation incidence (fully adjusted IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48-0.99) were significantly lower for intervention patients. The estimated incremental net cost benefit of the intervention was $5072 per patient, with a benefit-cost ratio of 31:1. CONCLUSION: A collaborative pharmacist-GP model of post-hospital discharge medicines management can reduce the incidence of hospital re-admissions and ED presentations, achieving substantial cost savings to the health system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616001627448 (prospective).


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Modelos Organizacionais , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos , Corporações Profissionais/organização & administração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Reconciliação de Medicamentos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Queensland
12.
s.l; Harvard Business School; 2021.
Não convencional em Inglês | ODS | ID: biblio-1344806

RESUMO

As an organization's environmental impact has become a central societal consideration, thereby affecting industry and organizational competitiveness, interest in measuring and analyzing environmental impact has increased. We develop a methodology to derive comparable and scalable monetized environmental impact estimates by applying characterization pathways and monetization factors to organization level environmental outputs, including carbon emissions, water use, and other emission types. The median environmental impact as a percentage of an organization's sales (operating income), referred to as environmental intensity, is 2% (22%) suggesting a significant level of 'hidden liabilities' and potential for value erosion if environmental impacts are priced. About 60% of the variation in environmental intensity is driven by industry membership, while the rest can be attributed to firm specific factors or to country and more granular industry classifications. Environmental intensity exhibits moderate correlation with various environmental ratings across firms and industries and no correlation across firms within industries. Firms with higher environmental intensity exhibit lower corporate market valuation, consistent with investors viewing environmental impacts as financially material and pricing them in some but not all industries. We document the dynamic materiality of environmental intensity, where the relation between environmental intensity and corporation valuation has become stronger in recent years.(AU)


Assuntos
Corporações Profissionais/economia , Dióxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Meio Ambiente , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Indústrias
13.
Saúde Soc ; 30(4): e200894, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341693

RESUMO

Resumo Este artigo investiga as implicações do comportamento corporativo sindical para a construção do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no Brasil. Tendo em vista a luta sindical por assistência à saúde, analisamos o dinamismo do mercado de planos de saúde a partir das negociações coletivas de trabalho. Ao documentar esse vínculo, problematizamos o corporativismo como um fenômeno político que, ao se reatualizar no tempo, conforma um momento da tradição de lutas do trabalho que fragiliza a base de apoio social ao SUS, afetando a correlação de forças políticas em torno da superação do hibridismo público e privado de interesses presente no mercado de planos de saúde. Tendo em vista esse cenário, dialogamos com as teses da saúde coletiva, apontando que a centralidade do sindicalismo brasileiro para a realização dos propósitos públicos e universais da Reforma Sanitária ainda carece de pleno reconhecimento nos estudos da área. Como conclusão, apontamos que a aproximação política entre sanitaristas e sindicalistas é condição fundamental para a ampliação das lutas e da legitimação pública do SUS, para o qual será necessário superar o sentido corporativo do acesso à saúde.


Abstract This article investigates the implications of union corporate behavior for the construction of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) in Brazil. In view of the union struggle for health care, we analyzed the dynamics of the health insurance market based on collective labor negotiations. By documenting this link, we characterize corporatism as a political phenomenon which, over time, shapes the tradition of labor struggles in a way that weakens the social support base for SUS, by affecting the capacity of political forces to act collectively to overcome the hybridity of public and private interests present in the health insurance market. Against this backdrop, we dialogue with collective health theses, pointing out that studies in this area still fail to fully recognize the centrality of Brazilian unions in the realization of the public and universal aims of the Public Health Reform movement. In conclusion, we suggest that political alignment between health workers and union members is a crucial condition for advancing the struggles and public legitimacy of SUS, something that will be necessary to overcome sectoral fragmentation in health access.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Corporações Profissionais , Sistema Único de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Saúde Suplementar , Sindicatos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317027

RESUMO

High-polluting industries are regarded as the main sources of air pollutant emissions and the major factors that significantly destroy the ecological environment. Corporate innovation in high-polluting industries improves the energy consumption efficiency and reduces the emission of air pollutant, which mitigates the conflict between environment and economy. Using the sample of China's listed firms from 2010 to 2017, this study examines the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and financialization on corporate innovation in high-polluting industries. The results show that there is a positive association between CSR and corporate innovation, while there is a negative association between financialization and corporate innovation. Furthermore, the financialization of high-polluting firms can alleviate the promotion role of CSR in the innovation process. The financialization of state-owned enterprises in high-polluting industries may not have a crowding-out effect on research and development (R&D), but it can limit the R&D promotion effect of CSR engagements. In contrast, the financialization of non-state-owned enterprises will hinder corporate innovation, but it will not affect the association between CSR and technology innovation. We also find that the financialization of high-polluting firms with low financial constraints can alleviate the promotion role of CSR engagements in innovation. Meanwhile, the CSR engagements of high-polluting firms with high financial constraints play a stronger role in corporate innovation. During the implementation of environmental policies, the negative association between financialization and corporate innovation has been strengthened. Our findings can encourage high-polluting firms to make more efforts in environmental protection and social stability.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Corporações Profissionais , Responsabilidade Social , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústrias/ética , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Invenções , Corporações Profissionais/ética , Corporações Profissionais/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Global Health ; 16(1): 107, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the business literature, the term "corporate political activity" (CPA) refers to the political strategies undertaken by corporations to protect or expend their markets, by influencing, directly or indirectly, the policy process. There is evidence that food industry actors use such political practices, which poses a significant threat to public health. Our study objective was to identify the political practices of the food industry in Chile. RESULTS: In Chile, food industry actors supported community initiatives, particularly those targeted at children and those focused on environmental sustainability. Food industry actors also funded research through prizes, scholarships, and by supporting scientific events. Food industry actors lobbied against the development and implementation of a front-of-pack nutrition labelling policy, including with support from the Ministries of Economy, Agriculture and Foreign Affairs. Food industry actors, for example, claimed that there would be unintended negative consequences for society and the economy, and that the policy would breach trade agreements. The same arguments were used against a proposed tax increase on sugar-sweetened beverages. Food industry actors stressed their crucial role in the Chilean economy and claimed to be part of the solution in the prevention and control of obesity, with a particular focus on their efforts to reformulate food products, and their support of physical activity initiatives. Interviewees noted that the political influence of the food industry is often facilitated by the neo-liberal and market-driven economy of Chile. Nevertheless, this system was questioned through social protests that started in the country during data collection. CONCLUSIONS: In Chile, food industry actors used numerous action- and argument-based CPA practices which may influence public health policy, research, and practice. Despite strong influence from the food industry, Chile adopted a front-of-pack nutrition labelling policy. While the country has some measures in place to manage the interactions between government officials or public health professionals, and the industry, there is still a need to develop robust mechanisms to address undue influence from corporations.


Assuntos
Comércio , Indústria Alimentícia , Política Nutricional , Política , Criança , Chile , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Indústrias , Obesidade , Corporações Profissionais , Saúde Pública
17.
J Hum Lact ; 36(4): 568-578, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035127

RESUMO

Douglas A. Johnson began his career as a human rights activist while earning his undergraduate degree in philosophy (1975) at Macalester College in the United States. He lived at Gandhi's ashram in India to study nonviolent organizing (1969 to 1970). He served as the director of the Third World Institute in Minneapolis, MN, USA (1973-1979), which functioned as the international social justice program of the Archdiocese of Minneapolis and St. Paul. Johnson's work included creating and running a political collective; leading development study tours into villages in Guatemala and Honduras; and investigating how transnational companies (e.g., Nestlé) were penetrating the developing world. He was the co-founder of the Infant Formula Action Coalition (INFACT), elected national chairperson (1977-1985), and appointed as Executive Director (1978-1984). His role included representing INFACT before national and international organizations, the human milk substitute industry, the US Congress and Executive Branch, and the press. He initiated and coordinated the first international grass-roots consumer boycott (against Nestlé) in ten nations. He was also a co-founder of the International Nestlé Boycott Committee and the International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN). He earned a Master's in Public and Private Management at Yale University (1988). Then he became the first Executive Director of the Center for Victims of Torture, in Minneapolis (1988-2012), the first treatment center for torture victims in the US. Since 2013, he has been teaching human rights theory and practice, and sharing lessons he has learned, as a Lecturer in Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University (US). (This interview was conducted via Zoom and transcribed verbatim. It has been edited for ease of readability. DJ refers to Doug Johnson and LD refers to Laura Duckett.).


Assuntos
Marketing/normas , Substitutos do Leite/normas , Defesa do Paciente , Corporações Profissionais/normas , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Marketing/ética , Marketing/tendências , Substitutos do Leite/metabolismo , Leite Humano
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750071

RESUMO

Whereas governments are increasingly considering affirmative action programs to increase corporate board diversity, the effect of such programs can be superficial as they do not address the underlying problem, which is women's access to and inclusion in relevant corporate networks. To address this issue, we study the relationship among affirmative action programs (binding gender quotas and non-binding gender targets), director networks, and the number of board positions individual directors hold given their gender. We use personal, professional, and network characteristics of 25,127 unique directors from 2,435 public firms in 32 European countries over the period of 2000 through 2017. We find that in the absence of affirmative action programs, women directors benefit less from their networks than men directors suggesting the existence of a gender gap in network benefits. After the passage of binding gender quotas, this gender gap in network benefits narrows between women and men directors. Overall, this research suggests that binding gender quotas make director networks a more salient tool for hiring women and may help in leveling the playing field in the way these networks are used for achieving top management positions.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Ética nos Negócios , Cultura Organizacional , Corporações Profissionais/organização & administração , Política Pública , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008756, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853280

RESUMO

This Pearl article recounts the story of a US corporation, Lennar, the nation's leading homebuilder, an essential function in the US (not allowed to lock down), when faced with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at the end of February 2020. The culture of the company, which allowed it to proceed safely, is one of cohesion, trust, teamwork, and respect for fellow humans. Theirs is a culture in which the safety, wellness, and health of the associates (employees) and the communities they serve is the number one priority. All associates wear a name badge with first name only, and all name badges share the same family name, Lennar. At Lennar, individual success means nothing, and collective success means everything. This is the story of how Lennar took control of the COVID-19 pandemic, metamorphosed itself into an even stronger organization, better suited to deal with COVID-19, and more importantly, optimally suited for the 21st century. The lessons learned not only were instrumental to Lennar but could also apply to any company eager to reopen their business.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cultura Organizacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Corporações Profissionais , Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribuição , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...