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2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610015

RESUMO

Carceral settings in the United States have been the source of many single site COVID-19 outbreaks. Quarantine is a strategy used to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in correctional settings, and specific quarantine practices differ state to state. To better understand how states are using quarantine in prisons, we reviewed each state's definition of quarantine and compared each state's definition to the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) definition and recommendations for quarantine in jails and prisons. Most prison systems, 45 of 53, define quarantine, but definitions vary widely. No state published definitions of quarantine that align with all CDC recommendations, and only 9 states provide quarantine data. In these states, the highest recorded quarantine rate occurred in Ohio in May 2020 at 843 per 1,000. It is necessary for prison systems to standardize their definitions of quarantine and to utilize quarantine practices in accordance with CDC recommendations. In addition, data transparency is needed to better understand the use of quarantine and its effectiveness at mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks in carceral settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estabelecimentos Correcionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Quarentena/normas , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e052221, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in 13 Zambian correctional facilities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 13 correctional facilities in seven of the 10 provinces in Zambia. PARTICIPANTS: All incarcerated individuals were eligible for TB and HIV screening and testing. Of the total study population of 9695 individuals, which represent 46.2% of total correctional population at the beginning of the study, 8267 and 8160 were screened for TB and HIV, respectively. INTERVENTIONS: TB and HIV screening and testing was done between July 2018 and February 2019. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: All forms of TB, bacteriologically confirmed TB, drug-resistant TB, HIV. RESULTS: Prevalence of all forms of TB and bacteriologically confirmed TB was 1599 (1340-1894) per 100 000 population and 1056 (847-1301) per 100 000 population, respectively. Among those with bacteriologically confirmed TB, 4.6% (1.3%-11.4%) had drug-resistant TB.There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of all forms of TB, bacteriologically confirmed TB and drug resistant TB between adults and juveniles: (p=0.82), (p=0.23), (p=0.68) respectively. Of the bacteriologically confirmed TB cases, 28.7% were asymptomatic. The prevalence of HIV was 14.3% (13.6%-15.1%). The prevalence of HIV among females was 1.8 times the prevalence of HIV among males (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Compared with the study in 2011 which screened inmates representing 30% of the country's inmate population, then the prevalence of all forms of TB and HIV in correctional facilities has reduced by about 75% and 37.6%, respectively. However, compared with the general population, the prevalence of all forms of TB and HIV was 3.5 and 1.3 times higher, respectively. TB/HIV programmes in correctional facilities need further strengthening to include aspects of juvenile-specific TB programming and gender responsive HIV programming.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Adulto , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574849

RESUMO

Of the 2.5 million people who are incarcerated in the United States, over half are parents. While it is well-established that incarceration has a detrimental impact on the children of incarcerated parents, less is known regarding the psychological impact of incarceration on parents themselves. The present review summarizes existing literature on the impact of incarceration on parents retrieved via online databases. Published articles were classified according to their overall themes and summarized. Pertinent studies include the psychological and emotional consequences of incarceration on parents, the experience of parenting while incarcerated, including barriers to parenting, the utility of parenting program interventions during periods of incarceration, and how these results differ for mothers and fathers. While the existing evidence introduces these issues, there is a need for additional research on the impact of incarceration on parents. These areas for future research as well as clinical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Prisioneiros , Criança , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Estados Unidos
5.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(10): 1237-1239, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384232

RESUMO

Incarceration can disrupt healthy sleep, and insomnia is associated with psychiatric symptoms and poor general medical health among incarcerated people. In recent years, considerable litigation has arisen over sleep deprivation in U.S. jails and prisons. This column examines litigation over conditions of incarceration, such as noise, inadequate bedding, constant illumination, medication restrictions, and early wake-up times, that may affect sleep duration and quality. The potential adverse effects of inadequate sleep on incarcerated individuals, as well as associated litigation, suggest the need for policies that reduce unnecessary sleep deprivation and promote healthy sleep in correctional facilities.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Prisões , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Humanos , Prisões Locais , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia
6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(3): 330-337, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand abortion incidence among incarcerated people and the relation to prison and jail pregnancy policies. METHODS: We collected abortion numbers and policy data from convenience sample of 22 state prison systems, all Federal Bureau of Prisons sites, and six county jails that voluntarily reported monthly, aggregate pregnancy outcomes for 12 months in 2016-2017. Sites also completed a baseline survey of institution characteristics and pregnancy policies, including abortion. We reported facility policies and abortion incidence according to state-level abortion characteristics. RESULTS: Only half of state prisons in the study allowed abortion in both the first and second trimesters, and 14% did not allow abortion at all. Of the 19 state prisons permitting abortion, two thirds required the incarcerated woman to pay. Four jails of the six study jails (67%) allowed abortions in the first and second trimesters, and 25% of those required the incarcerated woman to pay for the procedure. The three prisons and two jails that did not allow abortions were in states considered hostile to abortion access. In the state and federal prisons studied, 11 of the 816 pregnancies (1.3%) that ended during the study time period were abortions. Of the 224 pregnancies that ended at study jails, 33 were abortions (15%), with more than half of those (55%) occurring in the first trimester. The abortion ratio (proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion) was 1.4% for prisons and 18% for jails. CONCLUSION: Although some incarcerated individuals have abortions, many prisons and jails have restrictive policies surrounding abortion, either through self-payment requirements or explicit prohibition. Findings from this study should prompt further inquiry into abortion incidence in these settings and address interventions to ensure incarcerated people, in accordance with legal requirements and health equity, have access to abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Políticas , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher
7.
J Correct Health Care ; 27(3): 172-177, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407378

RESUMO

Youth with a mental illness are incarcerated at much higher rates than youth without a psychological diagnosis. Correctional officers serve as a source of daily interaction for these youth and are required to manage juvenile mental health symptoms with minimal training. When staff do not fully understand mental health needs or hold stigmatic perceptions, youth may experience negative consequences. Being aware of officer perceptions of juvenile mental health issues has the potential to improve monitoring and treatment of youth at correctional facilities. This study took place at a Midwestern juvenile correctional facility-the only one in the state. Officer attitudes surrounding mental health, mental health training, and treatment needs were assessed among a sample of juvenile correctional officers employed at the facility. Findings suggest overall positive perceptions of juvenile mental health issues, but suggest the need for increased mental health training for juvenile correctional officers.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Percepção , Prisões
8.
Contraception ; 104(6): 618-622, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): Incarcerated individuals have an unmet need for contraception, yet have also been subject to coercive permanent contraception practices. Data do not exist on prison and jail policies around access to permanent contraception or how often it occurs among women in custody. We sought to describe permanent and reversible contraception policies at U.S carceral institutions and the frequency of these procedures. STUDY DESIGN: We surveyed a convenience sample of 22 state prison systems and 6 county jails from 2016 to 2017 about female permanent contraception and reversible contraception policies. In addition, 10 prisons and 4 jails reported 6 months of monthly data on the number of postpartum permanent contraception procedures performed on women who gave birth in custody. We analyzed results for descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Eleven prisons (50%) and 5 jails (83%) permitted female permanent contraception; 7 of these prisons and 3 of these jails allowing permanent contraception did not have a written policy about it. Six prisons and no jails provided access to permanent but not reversible contraception. Over 6 months, 3 women from 2 prisons and 4 women at 2 jails received postpartum permanent contraception. CONCLUSION(S): The majority of prisons and jails in our study allowed incarcerated women to have permanent contraception in custody, often without formalized policies in place. Postpartum permanent contraception occurred during the study period. Given the inherent lack of autonomy of incarceration and history of sterilization abuses in this marginalized group, policy-makers should advance policies that avoid coercive permanent contraception and increase access to reversible contraception in carceral settings. IMPLICATIONS: Many carceral institutions permit women to undergo permanent contraception but provide no access to reversible contraception; this practice raises concern for compromised autonomy and further reproductive marginalization of a group with limited access to quality reproductive health care.


Assuntos
Prisões Locais , Prisões , Anticoncepção , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Feminino , Humanos , Políticas
10.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1439-1442, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464183

RESUMO

Improvements to correctional facilities' food environment can provide healthier food and beverage options for incarcerated individuals, a population disproportionately affected by chronic disease. This article describes efforts to increase healthy options in the commissary program at Washington State correctional facilities from 2017 to 2019, and the role of a multidisciplinary collaboration between the state's Department of Corrections, Department of Health, and Statewide Family Council. Through the development, implementation, and promotion of nutrition standards, the nutritional quality of foods and beverages in the commissary program improved.


Assuntos
Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Prisioneiros , Washington
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 694795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307287

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 outbreaks in prisons and jails may affect both inmates and correctional workers. An observational study has been performed to investigate the efficacy of specific procedures and of a serial testing approach adopted for the COVID-19 prevention in an Italian correctional facility (Bari, Apulia) for inmates affected by chronic diseases. Methods: Two SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing campaigns were carried out for all the prisoners and correctional workers, including correctional officers (CO), administrative staff (AS), correctional health care workers (HCW), and operators working with people completing their sentence outside the prison (OOP). Antigen testing was conducted on nasopharyngeal swab specimens, using a fluorescence immunoassay for the qualitative detection of nucleocapsid SARS-CoV-2 antigen. All subjects positive to the antigen test underwent confirmation by rRT-PCR test. Results: In total, 426 new and residential inmates were tested during the first campaign and 480 during the second campaign. Only two new inmates resulted positive at the first campaign, while no positive cases were observed at the second campaign or outside of the testing campaigns. In total, 367 correctional workers were tested at the first campaign and 325 at the second. At the first, 4 CO and 2 HCW showed positive test results, while no new positive cases were observed at the second. Moreover, 1 CO and 1 HCW resulted positive outside of the testing campaigns for the onset of symptoms while at home. Conclusion: The implementation of a full risk management plan in a correctional facility, including both a strict protocol for the application of preventive measures and a serial testing approach, seems to be able to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks in both inmates and correctional workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença Crônica , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont) ; 34(2): 35-38, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197292

RESUMO

The Ministry of the Solicitor General is responsible for Ontario's 25 provincial prisons. On any given day, there are approximately 6,400 persons detained in provincial custody in Ontario, with many staying less than three days.


Assuntos
Estabelecimentos Correcionais/tendências , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Estabelecimentos Correcionais/organização & administração , Humanos , Ontário , Apoio Social
15.
Maturitas ; 150: 37-41, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274074

RESUMO

Menopause is an age-associated physiological transition in women, usually occurring between the ages of 40 and 58 years, with an average of 51 years. As the age of women residing in the prison system is increasing globally, it becomes increasingly important for older female inmates to be assessed for menopausal symptoms and offered effective, personalized management. Middle-aged and older women, regardless of their living situation, are at increased risk of experiencing vasomotor symptoms and developing pelvic floor problems, bladder dysfunction and osteoporosis. However, all of these menopausal sequelae are typically exacerbated by prison conditions and by a lack of health support. Therefore, it is critical to implement prison programs and to create gender-specific training to aid in the health care needs of aging female inmates. Addressing this growing population of incarcerated women and attending to their menopausal needs require advocacy and active monitoring of prison-specific templates of care to ensure quality care. One such initiative legislated to address the health care needs of incarcerated women was commenced in New Jersey, USA. This entity, the NJ Commission on Women's Reentry, is addressing the unique health care needs of women, including menopausal ones, while incarcerated and then upon reentry into their community.


Assuntos
Estabelecimentos Correcionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Menopausa , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Org Chem ; 86(15): 10501-10516, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282918

RESUMO

A double-stranded spiroborate helicate bearing a bisporphyrin unit in the middle forms an inclusion complex with electron-deficient aromatic guests that are sandwiched between the porphyrins. In the present study, we systematically investigated the effects of size, electron density, and substituents of a series of aromatic guests on inclusion complex formations within the bisporphyrin. The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors during the guest-encapsulation process were also investigated in detail. The guest-encapsulation abilities in the helicate increased with the increasing core sizes of the electron-deficient aromatic guests and decreased with the increasing bulkiness and number of substituents of the guests. Among the naphthalenediimide derivatives, those with bulky N-substituents at both ends hardly formed an inclusion complex. Instead, they formed a [2]rotaxane-like inclusion complex through the water-mediated dynamic B-O bond cleavage/reformation of the spiroborate groups of the helicate, which enhanced the conformational flexibility of the helicate to enlarge the bisporphyrin cavity and form an inclusion complex. Based on the X-ray crystal structure of a unique pacman-like 1:1 inclusion complex between the helicate and an ammonium cation as well as the molecular dynamics simulation results, a plausible mechanism for the inclusion of a planar aromatic guest within the helicate is also proposed.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Cinética , Termodinâmica
19.
J Correct Health Care ; 27(2): 81-84, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232776

RESUMO

Many incarcerated individuals have chronic health conditions and mental health issues that have not been addressed by health care providers in years, if not decades. Patients in correctional settings are isolated from society and have reduced access to health care. Prison is a lonely scary place. How then do nurses impact the lives of these patients? It can be challenging given safety concerns, resource issues, and the bias of not only the nurse but also the security staff with whom they are working. Nurses have a responsibility to their patients to beneficence, justice, nonmaleficence, and autonomy. Compassion in corrections, though, is often viewed as naivete or weakness. Should these qualities be left out of corrections? By identifying one's own bias and asserting firm consistent practices, correctional nurses can set an example of unbiased care. The standards of care are the minimum required, but are they enough?


Assuntos
Empatia , Prisões , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
20.
J Correct Health Care ; 27(2): 89-102, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232781

RESUMO

During a pandemic, basic public health precautions must be taken across settings and populations. However, confinement conditions change what can be done in correctional settings. Correctional nursing (CN) care, like all nursing care, needs to be named and encoded to be recognized and used to generate data that will advance the discipline and maintain standards of care. The Omaha System is a standardized interprofessional terminology that has been used since 1992 to guide and document care. In 2019, a collaboration between the newly formed American Correctional Nurses Association and the Omaha System Community of Practice began a joint effort with other stakeholders aimed at encoding evidence-based pandemic response interventions used in CN. The resulting guidelines are included and illustrated with examples from CN practice.


Assuntos
COVID-19/enfermagem , Estabelecimentos Correcionais/normas , Documentação/normas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/normas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/organização & administração , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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