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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267319, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum cotinine has become the most widely used biomarker of secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) over time in all ages. The aim of this study was to review the serum cotinine cut-points used to classify children under 5 years as exposed to SHS. METHODS: A systematic review performed in the Pubmed (MEDLINE) and EMBASE databases up to April 2021 was conducted using as key words "serum cotinine", "tobacco smoke pollution" (MeSH), "secondhand smoke", "environmental tobacco smoke" and "tobacco smoke exposure". Papers which assessed SHS exposure among children younger than 5 years old were included. The PRISMA 2020 guidelines were followed. Analysis was pre-registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42021251263). RESULTS: 247 articles were identified and 51 fulfilled inclusion criteria. The selected studies were published between 1985-2020. Most of them included adolescents and adults. Only three assessed postnatal exposure exclusively among children under 5 years. None of the selected studies proposed age-specific cut-points for children < 5 years old. Cut-point values to assess SHS exposure ranged from 0.015 to 100 ng/ml. The most commonly used cut-point was 0.05 ng/ml, derived from the assay limit of detection used by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). CONCLUSIONS: No studies have calculated serum cotinine age-specific cut-points to ascertained SHS exposure among children under 5 years old. Children's age-specific cut-points are warranted for health research and public health purposes aimed at accurately estimating the prevalence of SHS exposure and attributable burden of disease to such exposure, and at reinforcing 100% smoke-free policies worldwide, both in homes, private vehicles and public places.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência
2.
Environ Int ; 163: 107208, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366557

RESUMO

Several primary aromatic amines (AAs) are known or suspected carcinogens. Despite this, the exposure of pet animals to this class of chemicals is unknown. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of 30 AAs and two tobacco chemical markers (nicotine and cotinine) in 63 pet urine (42 dog and 21 cat) and 77 pet feces (37 dog and 40 cat) samples collected from the Albany area of New York State. Eight of the 30 AAs (∑8AAs) were found in > 38% of dog and cat urine samples, at median concentrations of 7.99 (range: 0.42-52.3 ng/mL) and 31.4 (2.63-75.9) ng/mL, respectively. Nine of the 30 AAs (∑9AAs) were found in > 73% of dog and cat feces samples, at median concentrations of 278 (range: 61.7-613 ng/g) and 240 (55.4-645) ng/g dry wt, respectively. Among the 30 AAs, 2,6-dimethylaniline (2,6-DMA) accounted for the highest median concentrations in both urine and fecal samples. Median concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were below 0.92 ng/mL in urine and below 3.86 ng/g in feces of both dogs and cats. No significant relationship was found between AA concentrations and pet age or gender. The lack of significant Spearman's rank correlation between the concentrations of AA and nicotine in pet urine/feces suggested that sources other than tobacco smoke contributed to AA exposure in pets. Furthermore, the calculated fecal excretion rates of AAs were higher than the intake rates (estimated through reverse dosimetry), which indicates that cats and dogs are exposed to AA precursors such as azo dyes. Concentrations in urine and feces reflected exposure to direct and indirect exposure sources, respectively, of AAs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Aminas , Animais , Gatos , Cotinina , Cães , New York , Nicotina , Estados Unidos
3.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448274

RESUMO

The detection of salivary cotinine is useful for convenient smoking tests in spite of the high background effect of saliva. For precise results, the conventional salivary cotinine analysis for smoking detection requires complex pretreatment processes. Hence, in this study, we developed a modified paper-based lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA), termed "gap-LFIA", for the direct application of saliva collected using cotton swabs for on-site detection. The gap-LFIA was constructed by modifying a conventional LFIA sensor, where the sample pad was divided to have a 3 mm gap. A saliva-collected cotton swab was inserted into the gap, and then, a buffer solution was added to the outer sample pad to dilute the saliva automatically. The gap-LFIA reduced the interference in salivary samples and showed improved signals, allowing for using the whole saliva directly without additional steps. Further, the deviation of results using a strip was less than that when the saliva was not diluted in a conventional cotinine kit, and it helped to distinguish between smokers and non-smokers more clearly in 15 min. This method of automatic dilution may apply to various clinical samples, including blood and serum, for direct application in future detections.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Saliva , Cotinina/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Testes Imunológicos , Saliva/química , Fumar
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 739, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence is available about the combination of multiple smoking cessation modalities in low- and middle-income countries. The study aimed to assess the feasibility of a smoking cessation intervention that integrates follow-up counselling phone calls and scheduled text messages with brief advice from physicians in Vietnam. METHODS: This was a single-arm intervention study. Smokers were referred to the study Quitline after brief advice by physicians at three rural district hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. Following referral, participants received nine counselling phone calls in 12 months and a scheduled text message service that lasted for three months. Participants who reported smoking cessation for at least 30 days at the 12-month follow-up were invited for a urinary cotinine test to confirm cessation. RESULTS: The Quitline centre had 431 referrals from participating hospitals. Among them, 221 (51.3%) were enrolled. After the baseline phone call, 141 (63.8%) participated in all 4 follow-up calls within the first month and 117 (52.9%) participated in all phone calls in 12 months. The median number of successful phone calls was 8 (interquartile range: 6 - 8). At the end of the study, 90 (40.7%) self-reported abstinence from smoking over the previous 30 days. Among them, 22 (24.4%) submitted a sample for cotinine test, of which 13 (59.1% of those tested) returned a negative result. The proportion of biochemically-verified quitters was 5.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of brief advice and referral from healthcare facilities, Quitline counselling phone calls, and scheduled text messaging was feasible in rural health facilities in northern Vietnam. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12619000554167 .


Assuntos
Cotinina , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos de Coortes , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar , Vietnã
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483789

RESUMO

Skeletal fluorosis is a severe case in which bone deformations and bone tissue weakening occur due to excessive fluorine deposition. Recently, data on smoking have been published that smoke constituents can indirectly influence bone mass and interfere in the metabolism of fluorides in humans. Thus, the present in vitro study aimed to assess the genetic instability in human osteoblast MG63 cells exposed to fluorosilicic acid (FA) and cotinine (COT), separately and in combination, in concentrations found in human plasma. For this, cell cytotoxicity was performed by MTT assay; DNA damage was performed by alkaline comet assay (CA), modified by repair endonucleases (+FPG); micronuclei test (MN) using CBMN-Cyt assay; and telomere length (TL) by qPCR in MG63 cells. No cytotoxicity was observed for all concentrations tested in this study. Alkaline CA results showed a significant increase in DNA damage at all FA concentrations (0.03125-0.300 mg/L), in the two highest concentrations of COT (125 and 250 ng/mL), and the highest concentration of FA+COT (0.300 mg/L+250 ng/mL). Alkaline CA+FPG test was used to detect oxidized nucleobases, which occurred at the two highest concentrations of FA, COT, and FA+COT. Micronuclei test showed an increase in the frequency of MN at all concentrations of FA (0.075-0.300 mg/L) except in the lowest concentration (0.03125 mg/L), in the two highest concentrations of COT (125 and 250 ng/mL), and all concentrations of FA+COT. There was no significant difference in nuclear division index, binucleated cells, nucleoplasmic bridge, and nuclear bud. A TL reduction was observed in cells treated with the highest concentrations of FA alone (0.300 mg/L) and FA+COT (0.300 mg/L+250 ng/mL). Finally, our study showed that FA and COT (mainly alone) at concentrations found in human plasma induced oxidative damage and genetic instability in human osteoblast cells.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Fluoretos , Linhagem Celular , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Osteoblastos , Ácido Silícico , Telômero
6.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 24(5): 768-777, 2022 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35348786

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study is a longitudinal cohort study on tobacco use behavior, attitudes and beliefs, and tobacco-related health outcomes, including biomarkers of tobacco exposure in the U.S. population. In this report we provide a summary of urinary nicotine metabolite measurements among adult users and non-users of tobacco from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the PATH Study. METHODS: Total nicotine and its metabolites including cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (HCTT), and other minor metabolites were measured in more than 11 500 adult participants by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. Weighted geometric means (GM) and least square means from statistical modeling were calculated for non-users and users of various tobacco products. RESULTS: Among daily users, the highest GM concentrations of nicotine, cotinine and HCTT were found in exclusive smokeless tobacco users, and the lowest in exclusive e-cigarette users. Exclusive combustible product users had intermediate concentrations, similar to those found in users of multiple products (polyusers). Concentrations increased with age within the categories of tobacco users, and differences associated with gender, race/ethnicity and educational attainment were also noted among user categories. Recent (past 12 months) former users had GM cotinine concentrations that were more than threefold greater than never users. CONCLUSIONS: These urinary nicotine metabolite data provide quantification of nicotine exposure representative of the entire US adult population during 2013-2014 and may serve as a reference for similar analyses in future measurements within this study. IMPLICATIONS: Nicotine and its metabolites in urine provide perhaps the most fundamental biomarkers of recent nicotine exposure. This report, based on Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, provides the first nationally representative data describing urinary nicotine biomarker concentrations in both non-users, and users of a variety of tobacco products including combustible, e-cigarette and smokeless products. These data provide a urinary biomarker concentration snapshot in time for the entire US population during 2013-2014, and will provide a basis for comparison with future results from continuing, periodic evaluations in the PATH Study.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Cotinina , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Nicotina/urina , Autorrelato , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/urina
7.
Andrology ; 10(4): 740-748, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has been reported to cause DNA fragmentation and has been suggested to cause mutations in spermatozoa. These effects have been ascribed to the action of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in the smoke. Simultaneously, DNA fragmentation has been associated with mutagenesis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary biomarkers of PAH and nicotine exposure were associated with sperm DNA fragmentation. METHODS: In the urine of 381 men recruited from two cohorts of young men (17-21 years old) from the general Swedish population, the PAH metabolites 1-hydroxypyrene and 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, as well as the nicotine metabolite cotinine, were measured. The sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was analysed using the sperm chromatin structure assay. Associations between the DFI, and PAH metabolite levels as continuous variables as well as in quartiles, were studied by general linear models adjusted for abstinence time. A similar analysis was carried out for cotinine levels, according to which the men were categorised as "non-smoking" (n = 216) and "smoking" (n = 165). RESULTS: No association was found between levels of any of the three biomarkers and DFI, either as a continuous variable (p = 0.87-0.99), or when comparing the lowest and the highest quartiles (p = 0.11-0.61). The same was true for comparison of men categorised as non-smoking or smoking (DFI 11.1% vs. 11.8%, p = 0.31). DISCUSSION: We found no evidence of PAH or nicotine exposure to be associated with DFI, which does not exclude that these exposures may have other effects on sperm DNA. CONCLUSION: In these young men, levels of biomarkers of nicotine and PAH exposure were not associated with DFI.


Assuntos
Nicotina , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Cotinina/urina , Fragmentação do DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Nicotina/urina , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329347

RESUMO

We characterize nicotine exposure in the U.S. population by measuring urinary nicotine and its major (cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) and minor (nicotine 1'-oxide, cotinine N-oxide, and 1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol-4-carboxylic acid, nornicotine) metabolites in participants from the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This is one of the first U.S. population-based urinary nicotine biomarker reports using the derived total nicotine equivalents (i.e., TNEs) to characterize exposure. Serum cotinine data is used to stratify tobacco non-users with no detectable serum cotinine (-sCOT), non-users with detectable serum cotinine (+sCOT), and individuals who use tobacco (users). The molar concentration sum of cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine was calculated to derive the TNE2 for non-users. Additionally, for users, the molar concentration sum of nicotine and TNE2 was calculated to derive the TNE3, and the molar concentration sum of the minor metabolites and TNE3 was calculated to derive the TNE7. Sample-weighted summary statistics are reported. We also generated multiple linear regression models to analyze the association between biomarker concentrations and tobacco use status, after adjusting for select demographic factors. We found TNE7 is positively correlated with TNE3 and TNE2 (r = 0.99 and 0.98, respectively), and TNE3 is positively correlated with TNE2 (r = 0.98). The mean TNE2 concentration was elevated for the +sCOT compared with the -sCOT group (0.0143 [0.0120, 0.0172] µmol/g creatinine and 0.00188 [0.00172, 0.00205] µmol/g creatinine, respectively), and highest among users (33.5 [29.6, 37.9] µmol/g creatinine). Non-daily tobacco use was associated with 50% lower TNE7 concentrations (p < 0.0001) compared with daily use. In this report, we show tobacco use frequency and passive exposure to nicotine are important sources of nicotine exposure. Furthermore, this report provides more information on non-users than a serum biomarker report, which underscores the value of urinary nicotine biomarkers in extending the range of trace-level exposures that can be characterized.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Nicotina , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Creatinina , Humanos , Nicotina/metabolismo , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Óxidos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329433

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the reason for approximately 1% of global mortality. ETS exposure can happen either as inhalation of direct cigarette smoke (second-hand smoke) or its associated residue particles (third-hand smoke), especially when living with a smoker in the same family. This study investigated the association between the urinary cotinine levels, as biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke, of smokers and those exposed to second-hand and third-hand smoke while living in the same family, through a Korean nationwide survey. Direct assessment of ETS exposure and its lifetime effect on human health is practically difficult. Therefore, this study evaluated the internal estimated daily intake (I-EDI) of nicotine and equivalent smoked cigarette per day (CPD). The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic inhalation risks of ETS exposure were assessed by considering the calculated equivalent CPD and composition of cigarette smoke of high-selling cigarette brands in South Korea. The results show that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between the cotinine levels of smokers and those of the non-smokers living in the same family. The risk assessment results yielded that hazard index (HI) and total excess lifetime cancer risk (ECR) for both second-hand and third-hand smoke exposure can exceed 1 and 1 × 10-6, respectively, especially in women and children. In the composition of the cigarette smoke, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein substances had the highest contribution to HI and ECR. Consequently, the provision of appropriate plans for smoking cessation as a strategy for the prevention of ETS exposure to women and children is deemed necessary.


Assuntos
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Cotinina/urina , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Nicotina/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
10.
Public Health ; 205: 79-82, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) is associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Abnormal P-wave axis (aPWA) is a marker for atriopathy that is also associated with CVA risk. We hypothesized that SHSE is associated with aPWA. METHODS: This analysis included 5986 non-smokers (age 61.7 ± 13.8 years, 45.8% men, 77.4% Whites) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SHSE was defined as serum cotinine ≥1 ng/ml aPWA was defined as any P-wave axis outside of 0-75°. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between SHSE and aPWA, overall and among subgroups stratified by demographics and comorbidities. RESULTS: About 18.5% (n = 1109) of the participants had SHSE. aPWA was more prevalent among those with SHSE than those without (23.9% versus 19.8%, respectively, P-value = 0.003). In a model adjusted for sociodemographic and potential confounders, presence (versus absence) of SHSE was associated with increased odds of aPWA (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.28 [1.09, 1.50]; P-value = 0.003). This association was stronger among Whites vs non-Whites (interaction P-value = 0.04) and non-obese versus obese (interaction P-value = 0.04). Higher levels of serum cotinine were associated with increased odds of aPWA. Compared with serum cotinine level <1 ng/ml, serum cotinine ≥3 ng/ml and ≥6 ng/ml were associated with 35% (P-value = 0.002) and 38% (P-value = 0.002) increased odds of aPWA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE is associated with abnormal atrial conduction, measured as aPWA, with possible effect modification by ethnicity and obesity. These findings underscore the harmful effects of SHSE on cardiovascular health which merits a personalized risk assessment when counseling patients on SHSE.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Idoso , Cotinina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 233: 109358, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal cigarette smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for low birth weight in the US. We investigated the maternal nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) - a genetically-informed biomarker of nicotine clearance - as a moderator of links between prenatal cigarette use and birth weight. We also explored the role of race in these associations. METHODS: Participants were 454 pregnant women (Mage = 25 years; 11% Black) who smoked cigarettes and their 537 infants from the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Cigarettes smoked per day were assessed at each prenatal visit; maternal NMR was assayed from third trimester serum. Birth weight was obtained from medical records. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate associations between cigarette smoking, NMR, race, and birth weight. RESULTS: NMR moderated continuous associations between cigarettes per day over pregnancy and infant birth weight (p = .025). Among women who smoked at moderate levels (<15 cigarettes per day), those with slower NMR showed ~50-100 g decrements in birth weight versus those with faster NMR., while there were no significant associations between NMR and birth weight among women who smoked 15+ cigarettes per day. Although effects of NMR on birthweight were similar for Black and white women, Black women showed significantly slower NMR (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration that the maternal nicotine metabolism phenotype moderates associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth weight. Infants of women with slower nicotine metabolism - including disproportionate representation of Black women - may be at heightened risk for morbidity from maternal smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Produtos do Tabaco , Peso ao Nascer , Cotinina , Feminino , Humanos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Nicotina/metabolismo , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
12.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 117(3): 532-542, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35338651

RESUMO

The goal of our laboratory is to study the mechanisms that promote nicotine use, particularly in vulnerable populations. To more closely mimic human use patterns, the present study employed nicotine vapor methods involving passive exposure for 14 days in adolescent and adult female and male rats. Age and sex differences in approach behavior (nosepokes) were assessed in a port that delivered nicotine plumes on Day 1 and 14 of our exposure regimen. Controls received ambient air in exposure chambers. After the final session, rats received a nicotinic receptor antagonist to precipitate withdrawal. Then, physical signs, anxiety-like behavior, and plasma levels of cotinine (a nicotine metabolite) were assessed. Over time, females displayed a larger increase in approach behavior to the nicotine port than males, an effect that was larger in adolescents. Nosepoke responses in adolescent females were correlated with anxiety-like behavior, but not physical signs of withdrawal. Adolescents gained more weight than adults regardless of treatment, and the weight gain was larger in male adolescents. Female adolescents also displayed the highest levels of cotinine than all other groups. These findings suggest that nicotine vapor produces greater motivational effects in adolescent females as compared to their adult and male counterparts.


Assuntos
Nicotina , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Animais , Ansiedade , Comportamento de Escolha , Cotinina , Feminino , Masculino , Nicotina/farmacologia , Ratos
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3550, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241770

RESUMO

Insulin resistance can be affected directly or indirectly by smoking. This cross-sectional study aimed at examining the association between smoking patterns and insulin resistance using objective biomarkers. Data from 4043 participants sourced from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2016 to 2018, were examined. Short-term smoking patterns were used to classify participants according to urine levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and cotinine as continuous-smokers, past-smokers, current-smokers, and non-smokers. Insulin resistance was calculated using the triglyceride-glucose index from blood samples and was defined as either high or low. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between smoking behavior and insulin resistance. Men and women who were continuous-smokers (men: odds ratio [OR] = 1.74, p = 0.001; women: OR = 2.01, p = 0.001) and past-smokers (men: OR = 1.47, p = 0.033; women: OR = 1.37, p = 0.050) were more likely to have high insulin resistance than their non-smoking counterparts. Long-term smokers (≥ 40 days) are at an increased risk of insulin resistance in short-term smoking patterns. Smoking cessation may protect against insulin resistance. Therefore, first-time smokers should be educated about the health benefits of quitting smoking.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Cotinina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Triglicerídeos
14.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 20(1): 127-132, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285601

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To the assess whole salivary cotinine and interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) levels among individuals involuntarily exposed to vapor from electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) (test group) and unexposed individuals (control group). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic data and information related to ENDS vapor exposure were collected using a questionnaire. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected, unstimulated whole-saliva flow rate (UWSFR) was calculated, and cotinine and IL-1ß levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sample-size estimation and statistical analysis were performed. Regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation between whole salivary cotinine and IL-1ß levels. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Forty-eight individuals (24 and 24 in test and control groups, respectively) were included. Mean ages of individuals in the test and control groups were comparable. In the test group, the mean duration for which the individuals inhaled vapor from ENDS in each session was 22.3 ± 9.5 min and they were exposed to ENDS vapor 12.2 ± 2.4 times daily. There was no difference in the UWSFR between patients in the test (0.21 ± 0.02 ml/min) and control (0.22 ± 0.04 ml/min) groups. Whole salivary cotinine (p < 0.001) and IL-1ß (p < 0.001) levels were significantly higher in the test than control group. CONCLUSION: Young adults involuntarily exposed to vapor from ENDS express elevated whole salivary cotinine and IL-1ß levels. Long-term exposure to ENDS vapor may potentially predispose vulnerable populations to oral and systemic inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-1beta , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Cotinina/análise , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Saliva/química , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 302, 2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking intensity, which is generally based on self-reported average cigarettes per day (CPD), is a major behavioural risk factor and strongly related to socioeconomic status (SES). To assess the validity of the CPD measure, correlations with objective markers of tobacco smoke exposure - such as urinary nicotine metabolites - were examined. Yet, it remains unclear, whether this correlation is affected by SES, which may indicate imprecise or biased self-reports of smoking intensity. METHODS: We investigated the role of SES in the association between CPD and nicotine metabolites in current smokers among the participants of the population-based, prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. We determined urinary cotinine and additionally trans-3'-hydroxy-cotinine. SES was assessed by the International Socio-Economic Index of occupational status, and education. We calculated correlations (Pearson's r) between logarithmised CPD and cotinine in subgroups of SES and analysed SES and further predictors of cotinine in multiple linear regression models separately by gender. RESULTS: Median reported smoking intensity was 20 CPD in male and 19 CPD in female smokers. Men showed higher cotinine concentrations (median 3652 µg/L, interquartile range (IQR) 2279-5422 µg/L) than women (3127 µg/L, IQR 1692-4920 µg/L). Logarithmised CPD correlated moderately with cotinine in both, men and women (Pearson's r 0.4), but correlations were weaker in smokers with lower SES: Pearson's r for low, intermediate, and high occupational SES was 0.35, 0.39, and 0.48 in men, and 0.28, 0.43, and 0.47 in women, respectively. Logarithmised CPD and urinary creatinine were main predictors of cotinine in multiple regression models, whereas SES showed a weak negative association in women. Results were similar for trans-3'-hydroxy-cotinine. CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing precision of self-reported CPD was indicated for low SES in men and women. We found no strong evidence for biased self-reports of smoking intensity by SES.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Nicotina , Cotinina/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nicotina/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/urina , Classe Social
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e054535, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Accurate assessment of tobacco smoke exposure is key to evaluate its effects. We sought to validate and establish cut-offs for self-reported smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy using urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(-3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in a large contemporary prospective study from the USA, with lower smoking prevalence than has previously been evaluated. DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort. SETTING: Pregnancy clinics in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. PARTICIPANTS: 1396 women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study with self-reported smoking, urinary cotinine, NNAL and pregnancy outcomes. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Cut-offs for urinary cotinine and NNAL concentrations were estimated from logistic regression models using Youden's method to predict SHS and active smoking. Cotinine and NNAL were each used as the exposure in separate multifactorial models for pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Self-reported maternal smoking was: 72% non-smokers, 5.7% ex-smokers, 6.4% SHS exposure, 6.2% currently smoked, 10% unreported. Cotinine and NNAL levels were low and highly intercorrelated (r=0.91). Geometric mean cotinine, NNAL were 0.99 ng/mL, 0.05 pmol/mL, respectively. Cotinine cut-offs for SHS, current smoking were 1.2 ng/mL and 1.8 ng/mL (area under curve (AUC) 95% CI: 0.52 (0.47 to 0.57), 0.90 (0.85 to 0.94)). NNAL cut-off for current smoking was 0.09 pmol/mL (AUC=0.82 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.87)). Using cotinine and NNAL cut-offs combined gave similar AUC to cotinine alone, 0.87 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.91). Cotinine and NNAL gave almost identical effect estimates when modelling pregnancy outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, we observed high concordance between self-complete questionnaire smoking data and urinary cotinine and NNAL. With respect to biomarkers, either cotinine or NNAL can be used as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure overall but only cotinine can be used to detect SHS.


Assuntos
Nitrosaminas , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Cotinina , Feminino , Humanos , New Hampshire/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 212: 114648, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151069

RESUMO

Exposure to tobacco smoke is one of the most common causes of premature death worldwide and is the cause of 8 million deaths annually. We have developed, optimized, and validated a procedure for the detection of nicotine, cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine (biomarkers of tobacco exposure) in oral fluid using the dried saliva spots sampling approach and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, thus allowing the distinction between active and passive smokers. For optimization, four parameters were evaluated, namely extraction solvent, extraction solvent volume, extraction time and spots drying time. During method validation, the parameters selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy, recovery, stability, and dilution factor were assessed. Linearity was obtained for all target analytes in the concentration range of 10-200 ng/mL allowing the quantification of compounds up to 1000 ng/mL considering the dilution factor. The method recoveries ranged from 29.2% to 43.30% for nicotine, 66.60-89.10% for cotinine and 80.30-92.80% for trans-3-hydroxycotinine, while achieving intra-day, inter-day and intermediate precision and accuracy values never higher than 10.37% and ±6.62% respectively for all compounds. The herein described analytical method is the first to allow the determination of tobacco biomarkers in oral fluid using dried saliva spots, which is considered a sensitive, simple and low-cost alternative to conventional methods.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Biomarcadores/análise , Cotinina/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Saliva/química
18.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 472-481, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196033

RESUMO

Objectives. To test the efficacy of Babies Living Safe and Smokefree (BLiSS), a multilevel intervention initiated in a citywide safety net health system to improve low-income maternal smokers' abstinence and reduce child tobacco smoke exposure. Methods. This randomized controlled trial in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (2015-2020), recruited low-income maternal smokers who received a brief smoking intervention (Ask, Advise, Refer [AAR]) from nutrition professionals in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children before randomization to (1) a multilevel intervention (AAR + multimodal behavioral intervention [MBI]; n = 199) or (2) an attention control intervention (AAR + control; n = 197). Results. AAR + MBI mothers had significantly higher 12-month bioverified abstinence rates than did AAR + control mothers (odds ratio [OR] = 9.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.54, 59.30; P = .015). There were significant effects of time (b = -0.15; SE = 0.04; P < .001) and condition by time (b = -0.19; SE = 0.06; P < .001) on reported child exposure favoring AAR + MBI, but no group difference in child cotinine. Presence of other residential smokers was related to higher exposure. Higher baseline nicotine dependence was related to higher child exposure and lower abstinence likelihood at follow-up. Conclusions. The multilevel BLiSS intervention was acceptable and efficacious in a population that experiences elevated challenges with cessation. Public Health Implications. BLiSS is a translatable intervention model that can successfully improve efforts to address the persistent tobacco-related burdens in low-income communities. Trial Registration. Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT02602288. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(3):472-481. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306601).


Assuntos
Mães/educação , Pobreza , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/terapia , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Cotinina/sangue , Feminino , Assistência Alimentar , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Fumantes/educação , Fumantes/psicologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
19.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163947

RESUMO

The routine techniques currently applied for the determination of nicotine and its major metabolites, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, in biological fluids, include spectrophotometric, immunoassays, and chromatographic techniques. The aim of this study was to develop, and compare two new chromatographic methods high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS), and RP-HPLC enriched with chaotropic additives, which would allow reliable confirmation of tobacco smoke exposure in toxicological and epidemiological studies. The concentrations of analytes were determined in human plasma as the sample matrix. The methods were compared in terms of the linearity, accuracy, repeatability, detection and quantification limits (LOD and LOQ), and recovery. The obtained validation parameters met the ICH requirements for both proposed procedures. However, the limits of detection (LOD) were much better for HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS (0.07 ng mL-1 for trans-3'-hydroxcotinine; 0.02 ng mL-1 for cotinine; 0.04 ng mL-1 for nicotine) in comparison to the RP-HPLC-DAD enriched with chaotropic additives (1.47 ng mL-1 for trans-3'-hydroxcotinine; 1.59 ng mL-1 for cotinine; 1.50 ng mL-1 for nicotine). The extraction efficiency (%) was concentration-dependent and ranged between 96.66% and 99.39% for RP-HPLC-DAD and 76.8% to 96.4% for HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. The usefulness of the elaborated analytical methods was checked on the example of the analysis of a blood sample taken from a tobacco smoker. The nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine contents in the smoker's plasma quantified by the RP-HPLC-DAD method differed from the values measured by the HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. However, the relative errors of measurements were smaller than 10% (6.80%, 6.72%, 2.04% respectively).


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Cotinina/sangue , Nicotina/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(22): 32773-32787, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020139

RESUMO

Tobacco smoking is endocrine-disrupting and may interfere with vitamin D endocrine systems (VDES), but supporting evidence is limited and inconsistent. Also, there is a lack of evidence on whether the association between tobacco smoke exposure and VD levels exhibit temporal variation. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to evaluate the association between tobacco smoke exposure and VD levels among US general participants from 2001 to 2014. We examined the linear association between serum cotinine and 25(OH)D concentrations, as well as relationship between tobacco smoke exposure categories (active, passive, non-smoking) with VD status (deficiency, inadequacy, sufficiency, intoxication), and assessed whether specific gender, age (3-11, 12-19, 20-59, ≥ 60 years), ethnicity/race, or body mass index (BMI) groups were disproportionately impacted. During 2001-2004, a decrease in both serum cotinine and passive smoking prevalence was observed, with a stabilized active smoking rate. The estimates for the association between tobacco smoke exposure and suboptimal VD levels increased over the study period. Overall results indicated that serum cotinine was negatively associated with 25(OH)D in all participants. Tobacco smoke exposure, including both active and passive smoking exposure, was associated with increased risk of VD deficiency. Moreover, active smoking was additionally related to enhanced risk of VD inadequacy. These associations showed some age and gender differences, with consistent and stronger associations observed in female adults. In contrast, effects of tobacco smoke exposure on VD levels were mostly negative or non-significant among children and adolescents aged 3-19 years. The percentage of US general population with active smoking exposure stabilized over the 14-year period and was still high. Tobacco smoke exposure may disrupt vitamin D levels with an increasing temporal trend in the risk. Our results also provided initial evidence of smoking exposure on VD intoxication, which needs to be further verified. Convincing studies have linked tobacco use exposure, to dysfunctional VDES accompanied with declined serum levels of VD metabolites. However, evidence on the association between tobacco smoke exposure and VD status was rather limited and inconsistent, and there were no researches to date that estimated the temporal variation of the association as well as the effects of smoke exposure on VD intoxication. This study analyzed national survey data, to evaluate the temporal trends in effects of tobacco smoke exposure on VD levels over a decade, and to comprehensively assess the impacts of tobacco smoke exposure on VD levels across specific subgroups. The evidence suggests that the prevalence of active smoking exposure stabilized over the 14-year period and was still high. Moreover, tobacco smoke exposure may disrupt vitamin D levels among general population, with an increasing temporal trend and age-, gender-differences in risk.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Vitamina D , Vitaminas
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