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1.
J Hist Neurosci ; 31(4): 524-557, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412958

RESUMO

Whereas some of Gall's critics were quick to assail his organology as materialistic and fatalistic, others questioned his methods and scientific assumptions, especially his craniological tenets. The idea that the skull does not faithfully reflect the features of small, underlying brain areas was repeatedly brought up in the scientific debates. Critics pointed to the frontal sinuses above the eye orbits as evidence for the interior and exterior plates of the cranium not being in parallel-hence, for several or many phrenological organs being unknowable. This article traces the origins of the frontal sinus arguments and how Gall, Spurzheim, and later phrenologists responded to it. It reveals how the two sides fought and remained divided about the significance of the sinuses throughout the nineteenth century-that is, on whether the frontal sinus "problem" was an insurmountable obstacle or one that was merely an inconvenience.


Assuntos
Seio Frontal , Frenologia , Encéfalo , Craniologia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Crânio
2.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 304(9): 1918-1926, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The range of normal variation of growth and development of the craniofacial region is of direct clinical interest but incompletely understood. Here we develop a statistical model of craniofacial growth and development to compare craniofacial ontogeny between age groups and sexes and pilot an approach to modeling that is relatively straightforward to apply in the context of clinical research and assessment. METHODS: The sample comprises head surface meshes captured using a 3dMD five-camera system from 65 males and 47 females (range 3-20 years) from the Headspace project, Liverpool, UK. The surface meshes were parameterized using 16 anatomical landmarks and 59 semilandmarks on curves and surfaces. Modes and degrees of growth and development were assessed and compared among ages and sexes using Procrustes based geometric morphometric methods. RESULTS: Regression analyses indicate that 3-10 year olds undergo greater changes than 11-20 year olds and that craniofacial growth and development differs between these age groups. The analyses indicate that males extend growth allometrically into larger size ranges, contributing substantially to adult dimorphism. Comparisons of ontogenetic trajectories between sexes find no significant differences, yet when hypermorphosis is accounted for in the older age group there is a significant residual sexual dimorphism. CONCLUSIONS: The study adds to knowledge of how adult craniofacial form and sexual dimorphism develop. It was carried out using readily available software which facilitates replication of this work in diverse populations to underpin clinical assessment of deformity and the outcomes of corrective interventions.


Assuntos
Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Criança , Craniologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino
3.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 172(4): 528-544, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examine how dental sexual dimorphism develops in mandrills, an extremely sexually dimorphic primate. We aimed to (a) establish the chronology of dental development (odontochronology) in male and female mandrills, (b) understand interindividual and intersex variation in odontochronologies, and (c) determine how dental sexual dimorphism is achieved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prepared histological ground sections from the permanent teeth of four female and four male mandrills from the semi-free ranging colony at the Centre International de Recherches Médicales, Franceville, Gabon. We used the microscopic growth increments in the sections to create odontochronologies. We compared ages at crown initiation, crown formation times (CFT) and crown extension rates (CER) between individuals and sexes to assess interindividual and intersex variation. RESULTS: All mandrill teeth are sexually dimorphic in size. Dental sexual dimorphism in mandrills is achieved via sex differences in the duration of growth (bimaturism) and in growth rates. We also found interindividual and intersex variation in the ages at initiation and completion of crown formation. DISCUSSION: Our results show that the rate of ameloblast differentiation varies between individuals and that selection for both the age at tooth initiation and CER has occurred independently in males and females to ensure that the teeth develop at appropriate times relative to the growth of the sexually dimorphic jaws. They also show that canine dimorphism is achieved through differences in both CER and CFT, unlike extant great apes or Cantius. Given at least three mechanisms for achieving canine dimorphism, we need more information to trace the evolution of this trait in primates.


Assuntos
Mandrillus/anatomia & histologia , Mandrillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Craniologia , Dentição Permanente , Feminino , Masculino , Odontometria , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
4.
J Hist Neurosci ; 29(1): 101-118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791179

RESUMO

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910), the American humorist and author better known as Mark Twain, was skeptical about clairvoyance, supernatural entities, palm reading, and certain medical fads, including phrenology. During the early 1870s, he set forth to test phrenology-and, more specifically, its reliance on craniology-by undergoing two head examinations with Lorenzo Fowler, an American phrenologist with an institute in London. Twain hid his identity during his first visit, but not when he returned as a new customer three months later, only to receive a very different report about his humor, courage, and so on. He described his experiences in a short letter written in 1906 to a correspondent in London, in humorous detail in a chapter that appeared in a posthumous edition of his autobiography, and in The Secret History of Eddypus, the World Empire, a work of fiction involving time travel, which he began to write around 1901 but never completed. All three versions of Twain's phrenological ploy are presented here with commentary to put his descriptions in perspective.


Assuntos
Craniologia , Frenologia/história , Redação , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Literatura , Masculino
5.
J Hist Neurosci ; 29(1): 70-89, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747334

RESUMO

Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) proposal for a new theory about how to represent the mental faculties is well known. He replaced the traditional perception-judgement-memory triad of abstract faculties with a set of 27 highly specific faculties, many of which humans share with animals. In addition, he argued that these faculties are dependent on specific cortical areas, these being his organs of mind. After several years of presenting his new views in Vienna, he was banned from lecturing for what he considered absurd reasons. The edict enticed him to make a scientific journey through the German states, both to present his ideas to targeted audiences and to collect more cases. This trip, started in 1805, was extended to include stops in Denmark, Holland, and Switzerland before finally ending in Paris in 1807. For the most part, Gall was received with great enthusiasm in what is now Germany, but there were some individuals who strongly opposed his anatomical discoveries and skull-based doctrine. In this article, we examine the concerns and arguments raised by Johann Gotlieb Walter in Berlin, Henrik Steffens in Halle, Jakob Fidelis Ackermann in Heidelberg, and Samuel Thomas Soemmerring in Munich, as well as how Gall responded to them.


Assuntos
Craniologia/história , Dissidências e Disputas , Neuroanatomia/história , Frenologia/história , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino
6.
J Hist Neurosci ; 29(1): 17-28, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710574

RESUMO

The history of phrenology in France has a number of unique features. It was in that country that F. J. Gall sought refuge; and it was, above all, in France that phrenology would subsequently attempt to establish its credentials as a new physiological science of the mind. Up until the 1840s, phrenology expanded rapidly in the country, a growth that coincided with attempts to provide this new field with the trappings of respectable scientific endeavor-courses of lectures, learned societies, journals, and so on. This ambitious intellectual project, despite its controversial nature, made a major cultural impact in the nineteenth century, both through its influence on the written word-from learned journals to the novel-and via its striking visual imagery (sculpture, anatomical diagrams and models, engravings, caricatures, and so on). However, as the scientific impact of phrenology declined, allusions to it lost much of their cultural force. On the borderline between respectable science and mere quackery, phrenology in France represented an attempt to construct a whole new intellectual universe based on scientific principles, and as such had a profound impact on its period.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Craniologia , Neurobiologia , Frenologia/história , França , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos
7.
J Hist Neurosci ; 29(1): 29-47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710577

RESUMO

Most of what was known about Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) organology or Schädellehre prior to the 1820s came from secondary sources, including letters from correspondents, promotional materials, brief newspaper articles about his lecture-demonstrations, and editions and translations of some lengthier works of varying quality in German. Physician Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus (1776-1827) practiced in Vienna's General Hospital in 1797-1798; attended some of Gall's public lectures; and, in 1801-1802, became one of the first physicians to provide detailed reports on Gall's emerging organology in French and English, respectively. Although Bojanus considered the human mind to be indivisible and did not entirely agree with Gall's assumption that the brain consists of a number of independent organs responsible for various faculties, he provided valuable information and thoughtful commentary on Gall's views. Furthermore, he defended Gall against the charge that his sort of thinking would lead to materialism and cautiously predicted that the new system would be fruitful for developing and stimulating important new research about the brain and mind. Bojanus became a professor of zoology in 1806 and a professor of comparative anatomy in 1814 at Vilnius University, where, among other accomplishments, he established himself as a founder of modern veterinary medicine and a pioneer of pre-Darwinian and pre-Lamarckian evolutionism.


Assuntos
Anatomia Comparada , Craniologia/história , Frenologia/história , Zoologia , Encéfalo , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades
8.
Homo ; 68(5): 362-377, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987535

RESUMO

This paper addresses the history, composition and scientific value of one of the most comprehensive facemask collections in Africa, the Raymond A. Dart Collection of African Life and Death Masks. Housed within the School of Anatomical Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa), it comprises 1110 masks (397 life, 487 death, 226 unknown). Life masks represent populations throughout Africa; death masks predominately southern Africa. Males preponderate by 75%. Recorded ages are error prone, but suggest most life masks are those of <35 year-olds, death masks of 36+ year-olds. A total of 241 masks have associated skeletons, 209 presenting a complete skull. Life masks date between 1927 and c.1980s, death masks 1933 and 1963. This historical collection presents uncanny associations with outmoded typological and evolutionary theories. Once perceived an essential scientific resource, performed craniofacial superimpositions identify the nose as the only stable feature maintained, with the remaining face best preserved in young individuals with minimal body fat. The facemask collection is most viable for teaching and research within the history of science, specifically physical anthropology, and presents some value to craniofacial identification. Future research will have to be conducted with appropriate ethical considerations to science and medicine.


Assuntos
Craniologia/história , Face/anatomia & histologia , Máscaras/história , Cefalometria/história , Morte , História do Século XX , Humanos , África do Sul , Universidades/história
9.
J Anthropol Sci ; 95: 35-65, 2017 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28190005

RESUMO

Many aspects of human biology can be reconstructed from skeletal and fossil remains. The endocranial vasculature runs through cerebral, connective, and bone elements, where it is influenced by the functional and structural relationships among these different components of the endocranial system. The imprints and traces of these vessels can be used to analyze the craniovascular features of extinct species or historical samples. These traits can supply information about evolutionary adaptation, the mutual relationships between and within populations, and individual life history. In particular, bioarchaeology considers individual morphological variants as indicators of temporal and spatial relatedness and population structure, whereas paleoanthropology studies functional aspects to consider evolutionary changes and phylogenetic processes. Forensic science can investigate the cause of death associated with craniovascular pathologies by relying on morphological variations for individual identification. In this review, we consider the imprints of middle meningeal vessels, dural venous sinuses, emissary veins, and diploic veins. We summarize the most relevant morphological and functional information about craniovascular features and their applications in retrospective anthropological and medical fields, as well as describing the methodological issues associated with the sampling and quantitative evaluation of these elusive vascular remnants imprinted in the cranial bones.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Craniologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Criança , Fósseis , Humanos
10.
Cortex ; 86: 123-131, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27939397

RESUMO

Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) introduced a new theory of mind and brain at the end of the eighteenth century, which he referred to as organology, dealing with mental functions and their cortical localizations. Gall wrote that observations regarding the verbal learning capacities of his schoolmates brought about his new way of thinking. This widely accepted view, however, requires qualification. Although Gall's experiences and observations as a schoolboy were relevant, especially for his craniology, these childhood memories might have been recalled and reinterpreted after he had started to think about the faculties of mind-specifically after he had met Bianchi, a 5-year-old girl with a special talent for music.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/história , Craniologia/história , Psicofisiologia/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Música
11.
12.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 158(4): 607-23, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26301877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nineteenth and twentieth century documents testify that four ethnic groups, generally classified as terrestrial hunters or canoe nomads, inhabited Fuego-Patagonia. Archaeologically, however, their presence and temporal depth remains unknown. This study analyzes the antiquity and geographic distribution of cranial modification, a highly visible symbol of social identity, in Fuego-Patagonia, Chile, to assess whether it expressed ethnic affiliation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult skulls from Southern Patagonia (n = 32; 53.3%) and Tierra del Fuego (n = 28; 46.7%) were examined for age-at-death, sex and cranial modification with standard methods. Individuals were further categorized as terrestrial (n = 26; 43.3%), marine (n = 21; 35%) or indetermined hunter-gatherers (n = 13; 21.7%) based on the archaeological site's characteristics, geographic location, and isotopic information. RESULTS: Thirty percent (n = 18) of the skulls in this study were modified, and most of the modified skulls (n = 15) presented a tabular-erect shape. No statistically significant differences were identified between Fuegians and Patagonians, males or females, or between the different types of adaptation and geographic locations. DISCUSSION: Thus, this Late Holocene, widely distributed practice, was not a reflection of ethnicity, but a material expression of information circulation and the complex social relations that these small-size groups had with one another. These results suggest that the emergence of modern ethnic identities in the region is a historic process that resulted from the interaction of local groups with European and Criollos.


Assuntos
Modificação Corporal não Terapêutica/história , Crânio/patologia , Adulto , Chile , Craniologia , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(9): 2682-7, 2015 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25730861

RESUMO

Kenya National Museums Lukenya Hill Hominid 1 (KNM-LH 1) is a Homo sapiens partial calvaria from site GvJm-22 at Lukenya Hill, Kenya, associated with Later Stone Age (LSA) archaeological deposits. KNM-LH 1 is securely dated to the Late Pleistocene, and samples a time and region important for understanding the origins of modern human diversity. A revised chronology based on 26 accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates on ostrich eggshells indicates an age range of 23,576-22,887 y B.P. for KNM-LH 1, confirming prior attribution to the Last Glacial Maximum. Additional dates extend the maximum age for archaeological deposits at GvJm-22 to >46,000 y B.P. (>46 kya). These dates are consistent with new analyses identifying both Middle Stone Age and LSA lithic technologies at the site, making GvJm-22 a rare eastern African record of major human behavioral shifts during the Late Pleistocene. Comparative morphometric analyses of the KNM-LH 1 cranium document the temporal and spatial complexity of early modern human morphological variability. Features of cranial shape distinguish KNM-LH 1 and other Middle and Late Pleistocene African fossils from crania of recent Africans and samples from Holocene LSA and European Upper Paleolithic sites.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Crânio , Craniologia , Humanos , Quênia , Espectrometria de Massas
14.
J Neurosurg ; 115(6): 1126-30, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21905801

RESUMO

OBJECT: Communicating hydrocephalus is an uncommon complication in patients treated for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Its pathogenesis remains unclear. The authors evaluated the clinical and radiological factors associated with the onset of communicating hydrocephalus and the impact of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery on the outcome of these patients. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four patients harboring GBM, who had undergone craniotomy for tumor resection and adjuvant radiochemotherapy, were retrospectively assessed. Seven of them developed communicating hydrocephalus and were treated with VP shunt surgery. Clinical and radiological estimates included Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, previous surgery, overall survival (OS), CSF pressure and components, tumor location, and leptomeningeal dissemination. RESULTS: All 7 patients who developed communicating hydrocephalus had undergone at least 2 craniotomies for tumor resection before the onset of hydrocephalus (p = 0.0006; Fisher exact test). Six cases showed high levels of CSF proteins. There was a highly significant relationship between ventricular opening at surgery for tumor recurrence and onset of hydrocephalus (p = 0.0002; Fisher exact test). In these patients, VP shunt surgery was followed by a significant improvement of KPS score (p = 0.0180; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The median OS after VP shunt insertion was 5 ± 2.9 months. CONCLUSIONS: Ventricular opening after radiochemotherapy and high CSF protein levels are significant predictors of communicating hydrocephalus in patients with GBM. The VP shunt surgery improves quality of life in these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Glioblastoma , Hidrocefalia/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Derivações do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/mortalidade , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Craniologia , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temozolomida
16.
Przegl Lek ; 67(3): 231-5, 2010.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20687392

RESUMO

In June 1963 the Bishop of Cracow Karol Wojtyla approached Professor Jan Olbrycht (Chair of the Department of Forensic Medicine, Cracow Medical Academy) with the request to examine the reliquary and skull of St. Stanislaus. The examination was carried out by J. Olbrycht and M. Kusiak and the results published. Included in this article are the interpretations of these opinions by a criminologist and two forensic physicians. One of the forensic physicians (Z. Marek) acknowledged that there was a case of unauthorized misinterpretation of Professor Olbrycht's statement.


Assuntos
Craniologia/história , Antropologia Forense , Causas de Morte , História Medieval , Humanos , Polônia , Religião e Medicina
17.
J Hum Evol ; 59(2): 168-87, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20633924

RESUMO

There has been a protracted debate over the evidence for intentional cranial modification in the terminal Pleistocene Australian crania from Kow Swamp and Coobool Creek. Resolution of this debate is crucial to interpretations of the significance of morphological variation within terminal Pleistocene-early Holocene Australian skeletal materials and claims of a regional evolutionary sequence linking Javan Homo erectus and Australian Homo sapiens. However, morphological comparisons of terminal Pleistocene and recent Australian crania are complicated by the significantly greater average body mass in the former. Raw and size-adjusted metric comparisons of the terminal Pleistocene skeleton from Nacurrie, south-eastern Australia, with modified and unmodified H. sapiens and H. erectus, identified a suite of traits in the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones associated with intentional modification of a neonate's skull. These traits are also present in some of the crania from Kow Swamp and Coobool Creek, which are in close geographic proximity to Nacurrie, but not in unmodified H. sapiens or Javan H. erectus. Frontal bone morphology in H. erectus was distinct from all of the Australian H. sapiens samples. During the first six months of life, Nacurrie's vault may have been shaped by his mother's hands, rather than though the application of fixed bandages. Whether this behaviour persisted only for several generations, or hundreds of years, remains unknown. The reasons behind the shaping of Nacurrie's head, aesthetics or otherwise, and why this cultural practice was adopted and subsequently discontinued, will always remain a matter of speculation.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Craniologia/história , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Austrália , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , Humanos , Indonésia , Radiografia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
J Evol Biol ; 23(2): 237-48, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20002248

RESUMO

Understanding the importance of environmental dimensions behind the morphological variation among populations has long been a central goal of evolutionary biology. The main objective of this study was to review the spatial regression techniques employed to test the association between morphological and environmental variables. In addition, we show empirically how spatial regression techniques can be used to test the association of cranial form variation among worldwide human populations with a set of ecological variables, taking into account the spatial autocorrelation in data. We suggest that spatial autocorrelation must be studied to explore the spatial structure underlying morphological variation and incorporated in regression models to provide more accurate statistical estimates of the relationships between morphological and ecological variables. Finally, we discuss the statistical properties of these techniques and the underlying reasons for using the spatial approach in population studies.


Assuntos
Altitude , Evolução Biológica , Análise de Regressão , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Craniologia , Humanos , Grupos Raciais
19.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 141(4): 526-49, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19927280

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanical features of cortical bone and their changes with growth and adaptation to function plays an important role in our ability to interpret the morphology and evolution of craniofacial skeletons. We assessed the elastic properties of cortical bone of juvenile and adult baboon mandibles using ultrasonic techniques. Results showed that, overall, cortical bone from baboon mandibles could be modeled as an orthotropic elastic solid. There were significant differences in the directions of maximum stiffness, thickness, density, and elastic stiffness among different functional areas, indicating regional adaptations. After maturity, the cortical bone becomes thicker, denser, and stiffer, but less anisotropic. There were differences in elastic properties of the corpus and ramus between male and female mandibles which are not observed in human mandibles. There were correlations between cortical thicknesses and densities, between bone elastic properties and microstructural configuration, and between the directions of maximum stiffness and bone anatomical axes in some areas. The relationships between bone extrinsic and intrinsic properties bring us insights into the integration of form and function in craniofacial skeletons and suggest that we need to consider both macroscopic form, microstructural variation, and the material properties of bone matrix when studying the functional properties and adaptive nature of the craniofacial skeleton in primates. The differences between baboon and human mandibles is at variance to the pattern of differences in crania, suggesting differences in bone adaption to varying skeletal geometries and loading regimes at both phylogenetic and ontogenetic levels.


Assuntos
Mandíbula/fisiologia , Papio/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anatomia Comparada , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Craniologia , Elasticidade/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Caracteres Sexuais
20.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 33(1): 49-51, 2010. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-737807

RESUMO

aso de craneoplastia con costilla en un paciente con un síndrome de colgajo hundido, hacemos énfasis en la posibilidad de utilizar un injerto autológo, en este caso costilla en lugar de aloinjertos, siempre que sea posible. Las causas del problema fueron un defecto de la bóveda craneal secundaria a una craneotomía por edema cerebral pos-traumático y la colocación de una derivación ventrículo peritoneal. Los resultados obtenidos tanto desde el punto de vista neurofuncional como estético fueron excelentes.


A case of the syndrome of sinking skin flap and his treatment by performing slip rip autograph cranioplasty, the reasons for cranial reconstruction were calvaría defect from previous craniotomy a VP shunt. We emphasize on the convenience of the use of rib auto graft cranioplasty. Results were excellent.


Assuntos
Craniologia
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