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1.
Zootaxa ; 5067(1): 129-134, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810755

RESUMO

In this study, the systematic status of Messageria Bavay Dautzenberg, 1904 is discussed. It is recognized as an alycaeid genus, rather than as a subgenus or a junior synonym of Helicomorpha Mllendorff, 1890 (Diplommatinidae) as previously thought. Additionally, a new species, Messageria sinica n. sp. from Guizhou, and a new subspecies, Messageria scalarioides donghiana n. ssp. from Guangxi are described. Messageria scalarioides donghiana n. ssp. is morphologically different from the nominate subspecies by the larger shell and wider lower whorls and umbilicus. Messageria sinica n. sp. is morphologically different from the type species by having larger shell and distinct intermediate ribs.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae , Gastrópodes , Animais , China , Umbigo
2.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299613

RESUMO

Aeonium is a genus of succulents belonging to the Crassulaceae family. Their importance in traditional medicine has stimulated both pharmacological and chemical research. In this study, we optimized extraction, separation, and analytical conditions using a high performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry by the negative mode (HPLC-ESI-MS) in order to, for the first time, determine thirty-four compounds from Aeonium arboreum leaves. Twenty-one of them are assigned among which are sixteen flavonoids and five phenolic acids. FRAP, TAC, DPPH, and ABTS•+ radical scavenging were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The obtained IC50 values ranged from 0.031 to 0.043 mg.mL-1 for DPPH and between 0.048 and 0.09 mg·mL-1 for ABTS•+. Antimicrobial activity was also assessed. The obtained minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these extracts ranged from 12.5 to 50 µg·mL-1 against Micrococcus luteus, Listeria ivanovii, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum, and from 25 to 50 µg·mL-1 against Candida albicans. Therefore, these extracts can be considered as a potential source of biological active compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Crassulaceae/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
J Med Food ; 24(5): 464-478, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009023

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a threaten human health problem, and accompanied by hyperglycemia and disorder of insulin secretion, is a major cause of abnormalities in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. Also, low-grade inflammation, as well as insulin resistance (IR), is a common feature in patients with T2D. Numerous causes of the outbreak of T2D have been suggested by researchers, who indicate that genetic background and epigenetic predisposition, such as overnutrition and deficient physical activity, hasten the promotion of T2D milieu. Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (O. japonicus) is a herbal and remedial plant whose various activities include hemostatic, antidotal, febrile, and anti-inflammatory. Hence, we designed to evaluate the antidiabetic efficacy of ethanol extracts of O. japonicus (OJE). Six-week-old C57BL/Ksj-db/db (db/db) mice were used. The results showed that mice given various concentrations of OJE (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg per day) for 8 weeks showed significantly reduced hyperglycemia, IR, and liver injury, confirmed by measuring diabetic parameters, serum, and hepatic biochemicals. Furthermore, the treatment of OJE markedly decreased the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, lipid accumulation, and gluconeogenesis-related genes. Consistently, western blot analysis indicated that mice treated with OJE showed increased levels of phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase, phospho-Akt, glucose transporters 2 and 4 (GLUT2 and GLUT4) in T2D mice. Likewise, much the same results were obtained in in vitro experiments. Taken together, OJE had hopeful advantage in sustaining the glucose homeostasis and diminishing IR, and could be a safe alternative remedy for treating T2D.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Etanol , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
J Evol Biol ; 34(5): 830-844, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714223

RESUMO

Ecogeographical displacement of homoploid hybrid lineages from their parents is well documented and considered an important mechanism to achieve reproductive isolation. In this study, we investigated the origin of the flowering plant species Sempervivum tectorum in the Massif Central (France) through homoploid hybridization between lineages of the species from the Rhine Gorge area (Germany) and the Pyrenees (France). We used genotyping-by-sequencing genetic data as evidence for the hybrid origin of the Massif Central lineage, and WorldClim climatic data and soil pH and soil temperature data collected by us for ecological niche and species distribution modelling. We could show that the Massif Central lineage shows hybrid admixture and that the niche of this lineage is significantly different from those of the parental lineages. In comparison with the parental niches, different variables of the niche of the hybrid lineage are intermediate, parental-combined or extreme. The different niche of the Massif Central populations thus can plausibly be interpreted as hybridization-derived. Our species distribution modelling for the Last Glacial Maximum and Mid-Holocene showed that the potential distribution of the hybrid lineage at the likely time of its origin in the Quaternary possibly was parapatric in relation to the largely sympatric distributions of the parental lineages. We hypothesize that reproductive isolation of the hybrid lineage from the parental lineages resulted from the segregation of distribution ranges by a differential response of the three lineages to a warming climate.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Crassulaceae/genética , Hibridização Genética , Modelos Biológicos , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Adaptação Biológica , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Filogeografia , Ploidias
5.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567572

RESUMO

Tumors are one of the most life-threatening diseases, and a variety of cancer treatment options have been continuously introduced in order to overcome cancer and improve conventional therapy. Orostachys japonica (O. japonica), which is a perennial plant belonging to the genus Orostachys of the Crassulaceae family, has been revealed to exhibit pharmacological properties against various tumors in numerous studies. The present review aimed to discuss the biological actions and underlying molecular mechanisms of O. japonica and its representative compounds-kaempferol and quercetin-against tumors. O. japonica reportedly has antiproliferative, anti-angiogenic, and antimetastatic activities against various types of malignant tumors through the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, a blockade of downstream vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-VEGFR2 pathways, and the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In addition, emerging studies have highlighted the antitumor efficacy of kaempferol and quercetin. Interestingly, it was found that alterations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades are involved in the pivotal mechanisms of the antitumor effects of O. japonica and its two compounds against cancer cell overgrowth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In summary, O. japonica could be considered a preventive and therapeutic medicinal plant which exhibits antitumor actions by reversing altered patterns of MAPK cascades, and kaempferol and quercetin might be potential components that can contribute to the efficacy and underlying mechanism of O. japonica.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Crassulaceae , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Humanos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Quercetina/farmacologia , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
J Med Food ; 24(7): 732-740, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179996

RESUMO

Diabetes Mellitus is associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which may play a central role in the development of diabetic complications. In this study, combined preparations of Kalanchoe pinnata and metformin were investigated to determine the effects on inflammatory activity in human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMMs) and human diabetic skeletal muscle myoblasts (DHSMMs). Results showed that combinatorial preparations sustained cell viability for 3 days in both HSMM and DHSMM cells. However, a significant decrease in cellular viability occurred for both cell lines on day 5. Results also indicate that combinatorial preparations of K. pinnata may modulate immune responses by significantly upregulating proinflammatory markers, interleukin (IL) 2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and upregulating the anti-inflammatory marker, IL-10, in HSMM and DHSMM cells. The combined preparations significantly downregulated the anti-inflammatory glycoprotein IL-6 in both diabetic and nondiabetic human skeletal muscle cells. The findings suggest that combined preparations of K. pinnata and metformin might be a potential immune-modulating agent that may promote inflammation and adversely affect the outcome of diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Metformina , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Crassulaceae/química , Humanos , Metformina/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113392, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946962

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (O. japonicus), referred to as Wa-song in Korea is a traditional and herbal medicine. Even though it has been traditionally used to treat inflammation- and toxicity-related diseases, the effects of ethanol extract of O. japonicus (OJE) on acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) overdose-induced hepatotoxicity have not been determined yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of OJE against APAP-induced acute liver injury (ALI) and explore the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were treated orally with OJE (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) for seven days before APAP (300 mg/kg) injection. After 12 h of APAP treatment, serum and liver tissues were collected. An in vitro system using primary hepatocytes was also applied in this study. RESULTS: Pretreatment with OJE, especially at a dose of 200 mg/kg, reduced APAP overdose-induced ALI in mice, as evidenced by decreased serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase levels, histopathological damage, and inflammation. Consistently, OJE pretreatment reduced the gene transcription of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A11 and CYP1A2 in livers of mice injected with or without APAP, at least in part, via inactivation of nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Furthermore, the role of PXR in mediating the OJE regulation of CYPs was confirmed in primary hepatocytes, which showed that OJE pretreatment inhibited PXR activity and APAP hepatotoxicity enhanced by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile, a mouse agonist of PXR. Besides, the antioxidative activity provided by OJE, involving increases in hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and decreases in malondialdehyde levels, has been shown to exert hepatoprotective effects in normal and injured livers. Moreover, APAP-activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mice liver were indirectly inhibited by pretreatment with OJE. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings showed that OJE attenuated APAP-induced ALI by decreasing APAP-metabolizing enzymes via inactivation of PXR and the restoration of hepatic GSH content. Therefore, OJE could be a promising hepatoprotective agent.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/envenenamento , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Crassulaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetaminofen/farmacocinética , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Overdose de Drogas/complicações , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Pregnano X/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor de Pregnano X/metabolismo
8.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(24): 127665, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152378

RESUMO

In light of the adequate sources for Hylotelephium erythrostictum, its active components have aroused research interest. 2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-4,6-dihydroxy-2-(methoxy)- 3-benzofuranone(1), apigenin(2), diosmetin(3), kaempferol(4), kaempferide(5), rhamnocitrin(6), quercetin(7), and gallic acid(8) were isolated from H. erythrostictum. Rarely occurring naturally, 1 is 2-methoxybenzofuranone type compound against α-glucosidase and exhibits a potential inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase(IC50 = 1.8 µM), with a Ki value of 709 nM. In silico molecular docking was performed for the investigation of the inhibition mechanism. H. erythrostictum is a potential source of antidiabetic agent. This information is useful in finding more potent antidiabetic candidates from medicinal plants for the clinical development of therapeutics.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/química
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239734, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986762

RESUMO

Phedimus takesimensis (Ulleungdo flat-leaved stonecrop) is endemic to Ulleung and Dokdo Islands off the east coast of the Korean Peninsula. It was suggested that P. takesimensis originated via anagenetic speciation from the continental progenitor species P. kamtchaticus or P. aizoon. However, little is known of the phylogenetic relationships and population genetic structure among species of Phedimus in the Korean Peninsula and Ulleung/Dokdo Islands. We inferred the phylogenetic relationships among congeneric species in Korea based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast noncoding regions. We also sampled extensively for P. takesimensis on Ulleung Island and the continental species, P. kamtschaticus and P. aizoon, to assess the genetic consequences of anagenetic speciation. We found (1) the monophyly of P. takesimensis, (2) no apparent reduction in genetic diversity in anagenetically derived P. takesimensis compared to the continental progenitor species, (3) apparent population genetic structuring of P. takesimensis, and (4) two separate colonization events for the origin of the Dokdo Island population. This study contributes to our understanding of the genetic consequences of anagenetic speciation on Ulleung Island.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Cloroplastos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Ilhas , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 246: 116559, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747239

RESUMO

Water-soluble chitosan (WSC) was used to enhance cadmium (Cd) phytoextraction by Hylotelephium spectabile, a promising accumulator. The effect of WSC on Cd forms and functional groups in contaminated soils was determined to clarify the internal mechanism of WSC affecting phytoremediation. Results showed that WSC significantly increased the water-soluble and acid-extractable Cd in contaminated soils by 20.3 %-143.5 % and 2.4 %-39.5 %, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis showed that amino and hydroxyl groups in soils were significantly increased in the presence of WSC. The coordination of Cd with increased amino and hydroxyl groups may play important roles in formation of Cd complexes and mobilizing Cd in soils. WSC significantly increased the Cd phytoextraction of H. spectabile by 56.1 %-115.7 % without obvious growth inhibition, which was further confirmed under field trial conditions. Therefore, it is feasible to apply WSC as a soil amendment to Cd-contaminated soils during remediation with H. spectabile.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Crassulaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Água/química , Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/metabolismo , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura
11.
Microsc Microanal ; 26(5): 1061-1068, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811591

RESUMO

Kalanchoe delagoensis is adapted to intense solar irradiation, drought, and heat, partially due to the presence of phenols, important photo-protective compounds and antioxidants. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of flavonoids and phenolic acid derivatives throughout the erect-tubular leaves of K. delagoensis. Specimens grown under sunny conditions were used for histochemical and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (liquid HPLC-DAD) analysis. The NP (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate) test suggested the presence of phenolic acids throughout the leaf blade below the epidermis and in chloroplasts, mainly in the leaf base. Flavonoids were detected specifically in chloroplasts, on the adaxial side of the middle third and at the leaf apex, near the meristematic cells. There was a tendency of flavonoid accumulation from the middle third to the apex, especially surrounding the gem, while phenolic acids were observed mainly in the base. This can be explained by the more exposed leaf apex and to the presence of apical buds (high production and regulation sites of ROS). The HPLC-DAD analysis showed different classes of flavonoids and phenolic acid derivatives in the leaf extracts, agreeing with the NP test results. This is the first time that the substitution of phenolic acids by flavonoids from the leaf base to the apex has been described.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Kalanchoe/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Crassulaceae/efeitos da radiação , Flavonoides/análise , Kalanchoe/citologia , Kalanchoe/efeitos da radiação , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/citologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10890, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616865

RESUMO

Subcritical-water extraction is an ecofriendly method for extracting antioxidant compounds only using water. The Subcritical-water extraction was employed for the extraction of bioactive compounds from Orostachys japonicus known as rock pine by investigating the use of various temperatures (110-260 °C) and extraction times (5-20 min). The Subcritical-water extraction condition at 220 °C for 15 min; the total phenolics content (39.9 ± 4.1 mg/g), flavonoids content (11.4 ± 0.6 mg/g), and antioxidant activities (90.3 ± 2.2%, 96.0 ± 2.9%, and 662.4 ± 17.2 mg/g) of Subcritical-water extract were higher under this condition than for extraction with either methanol or ethanol. Triterpene saponins were observed only in subcritical-water extraction condition at 220 °C for 15 min. Further, some of its phenolic constituents; gallic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Subcritical-water extraction is an effective method for extracting valuable bioactive compounds from Orostachys japonicus.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Crassulaceae/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Benzotiazóis , Compostos de Bifenilo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Etanol , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Metanol , Picratos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Solventes , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Água
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21364-21375, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277416

RESUMO

The interactions between Cd and Zn in their effects on plants are inconsistent and difficult to predict. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Cd and Zn and their interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in two populations of Hylotelephium spectabile (Boreau) H. Ohba (Crassulaceae, HB1 and HB2). Both populations showed relative tolerance to high levels of Cd and Zn, except that the leaf biomass of HB1 significantly decreased by 44.6% with 5-mg/L Cd plus 10-mg/L Zn. Root growth was inhibited in both populations by addition of 20-mg/L Zn under Cd stress, while 10-mg/L Zn showed little impact on the root growth inhibition of HB2. Roots with diameter 0.1-0.4 mm contributed most of the total root length (RL) and root surface area (RSA) of H. spectabile. In both populations, these root parameters showed greater suppression with the combined stress of Cd plus Zn than under Cd or Zn single stress, except by adding 10-mg/L Zn under Cd stress. Moreover, HB2 maintained relatively higher RL and RSA than HB1 under the different treatments, which implied that HB2 might possess a more effective mechanism than HB1 for coping in response to Cd and Zn stress. The addition of Zn not only affected the absorption of Cd but also significantly affected the distribution of Cd in different tissues of H. spectabile. A low level of Zn led to increased Cd in the stem of HB2, but an increase in Cd in the leaf and root of HB1. Addition of 10-mg/L Zn led to a significant increase by 188% and 170% in Cd accumulation in aboveground part of HB2 under 2- and 5-mg/L Cd stress, whereas the addition of Zn had little effect on Cd accumulation in HB1. Thus, strong positive interactions of Cd and Zn occurred in HB2, which showed great potential for application in phytoremediation of soil contaminated with both Cd and Zn, warranting further investigation under field condition.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Raízes de Plantas , Zinco
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 256: 112664, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045685

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (O. japonicus), so-called Wa-song in Korea, a traditional food and medicine that grows on mountain rocks and roof tiles. Wa-song containing various phenolic compounds have been reported as a medicinal plant for prevention of fibrosis, cancer, inflammation, and oxidative damage. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was designed to examine the anti-angiogenic effects of cultivated Orostachys japonicus 70% ethanol extract (CE) in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CE was prepared with 70% ethanol. HUVECs, rat aortic rings, and matrigel plug in mice were treated with CE (10-20 µg/mL) and VEGF (20-50 ng/mL), and the anti-angiogenic activities of CE were analyzed by SRB, wound healing, trans-well invasion, capillary-like tubule formation, rat aortas, Western blot, and matrigel plug assay. Phenolic compounds in CE were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-PDA system. RESULTS: Treatment of CE (10-20 µg/mL) markedly suppressed proliferation of HUVECs in the presence (from 136.5% to 112.2%) or absence of VEGF (from 100.0% to 92.1%). The proliferation inhibitory effect of CE was caused by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, and the decrease of CDK-2, CDK-4, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E1. Furthermore, CE treatment showed significant angiogenesis inhibitory effects on motility, invasion and micro-vessel formation of HUVECs, rat aortic rings and subcutaneous matrigels under VEGF-stimulation condition. In HUVECs, CE-induced anti-angiogenic effect was regulated by inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR, MAPK/p38, MAPK/ERK, FAK-Src, and VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that CE might be used as a potential natural substance, multi-targeted angiogenesis inhibitor, functional food material.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Crassulaceae/química , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Laminina/efeitos dos fármacos , Laminina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fase de Repouso do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112321, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655146

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: In traditional Mexican medicine, Echeveria gibbiflora DC has been used as a vaginal post-coital rinse to prevent pregnancy. The aqueous crude extract (OBACE) induces sperm immobilization/agglutination and a hypotonic-like effect, likely attributed to the high concentration of calcium bis-(hydrogen-1-malate) hexahydrate [Ca2+ (C4H5O5)2•6H2O]. Likewise, OBACE impedes the increase of [Ca2+]i during capacitation. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluate the effect of OBACE on sperm energy metabolism and the underlying mechanism of action on sperm-specific channel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In vitro, we quantified the mouse sperm immobilization effect and the antifertility potential of OBACE. The energetic metabolism status was also evaluated by assessing the ATP levels, general mitochondrial activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and enzymatic activity of three key enzymes of energy metabolism. Furthermore, the effect of the ion efflux of Cl- and K+, as well as the pHi, were investigated in order to elucidate which channel is suitable to perform an in silico study. RESULTS: Total and progressive motility notably decreased, as did fertility rates. ATP levels, mitochondrial activity and membrane potential were reduced. Furthermore, the activities of the three enzymes decreased. Neither Cl- or K+ channels activities were affected at low concentrations of OBACE; nevertheless, pHi did not alkalinize. Finally, an in silico analysis was performed between the Catsper channel and calcium bis-(hydrogen-1-malate) hexahydrate, which showed a possible blockade of this sperm cation channel. CONCLUSION: The results were useful to elucidate the effect of OBACE and to propose it as a future male contraceptive.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticoncepcionais Masculinos/farmacologia , Crassulaceae , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/química , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/isolamento & purificação , Canais de Cálcio/química , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Anticoncepcionais Masculinos/química , Anticoncepcionais Masculinos/isolamento & purificação , Crassulaceae/química , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Conformação Proteica , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 144: 106713, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863901

RESUMO

The amount of plastome sequence data available has soared in the last decade, but the nature of plastome evolution during rapid radiations is largely unknown. Moreover, although there is increasing evidence showing that plastomes may have undergone adaptive evolution in order to allow adaptation to various environments, few studies have systematically investigated the role of the plastome in alpine adaptation. To address these questions, we sequenced and analyzed 12 representative species of Rhodiola, a genus which includes ca. 70 perennial herbs mainly growing in alpine habitats in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Hengduan Mountains. Rapid radiation in this genus was triggered by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We also included nine species of Crassulaceae as the outgroups. All plastomes were conserved with respect to size, structure, and gene content and order, with few variations: each contained 134 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNAs, 8 rRNAs, and 4 potential pseudogenes. Four types of repeat sequence were detected. Slight contraction and expansion of the inverted repeats were also revealed. Both the genome-wide alignment and sequence polymorphism analyses showed that the inverted repeats and coding regions were more conserved than the single-copy regions and the non-coding regions. Positive selection analyses identified three genes containing sites of positive selection (rpl16, ndhA, ndhH), and one gene with a faster than average rate of evolution (psaA). The products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Rhodiola to alpine environments such as low CO2 concentration and high-intensity light.


Assuntos
Sequência Conservada/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Rhodiola/classificação , Rhodiola/genética , Sequência de Bases , Crassulaceae/classificação , Crassulaceae/genética , Ecossistema , Variação Genética/fisiologia , Genoma de Planta/fisiologia , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Tibet
17.
J Plant Physiol ; 244: 153086, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812905

RESUMO

We present changes in Tacitus bellus antioxidative system that specifically correspond to subsequent phases of hemibiotroph Fusarium verticillioides infection revealed by histological analysis. T. bellus response to spore germination 6 h post inoculation (hpi), manifested as first oxidative burst, was characterized by transient decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, transient increase in catalase (CAT), low level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity, as well as with transient decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenol content (TPC) and phenylalanine ammonium lyase activity (PAL), and no changes in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, or phenolic profile. During the biotrophic phase of F. verticillioides infection, characterized by hyphae spread intercellularly in epidermal and mesophyll tissue, the host antioxidative system was suppressed. The transition to necrotrophic phase of F. verticillioides infection (inter- and intracellular colonization and sporulation), occurred 3-4 days post inoculation (dpi). During the necrotrophic phase, 5-7 dpi, slowed progression of colonization of T. bellus mesophyll cells occurred and it coincided with sharp increase in MDA content and CAT, SOD and POD activities, but the drop in TAC, TPC content, and PPO activity, as well as the production of phytotoxin fusaric acid. Presented results add to the knowledge of events and mechanisms related to the transition from biotrophy to necrotrophy in F. verticillioides.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Crassulaceae/química , Fusarium/fisiologia , Umidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Crassulaceae/microbiologia , Hifas/fisiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19301, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848379

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and also one of the leading causes of death worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and currently there is no drug treatment that can prevent or cure AD. Here, we have applied the advantages of using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons (iNs) from AD patients, which are able to offer human-specific drug responsiveness, in order to evaluate therapeutic candidates for AD. Using approach involving an inducible neurogenin-2 transgene, we have established a robust and reproducible protocol for differentiating human iPSCs into glutamatergic neurons. The AD-iN cultures that result have mature phenotypic and physiological properties, together with AD-like biochemical features that include extracellular ß-amyloid (Aß) accumulation and Tau protein phosphorylation. By screening using a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) approach, Graptopetalum paraguayense (GP) has been identified as a potential therapeutic agent for AD from among a range of Chinese herbal medicines. We found that administration of a GP extract caused a significantly reduction in the AD-associated phenotypes of the iNs, including decreased levels of extracellular Aß40 and Aß42, as well as reduced Tau protein phosphorylation at positions Ser214 and Ser396. Additionally, the effect of GP was more prominent in AD-iNs compared to non-diseased controls. These findings provide valuable information that suggests moving extracts of GP toward drug development, either for treating AD or as a health supplement to prevent AD. Furthermore, our human iN-based platform promises to be a useful strategy when it is used for AD drug discovery.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Crassulaceae/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas tau/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18317, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797954

RESUMO

Soil salinization is one of the main stress factors that affect both growth and development of plants. Hylotelephium erythrostictum exhibits strong resistance to salt, but the underlying genetic mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, hydroponically cultured seedlings of H. erythrostictum were exposed to 200 mM NaCl. RNA-Seq was used to determine root transcriptomes at 0, 5, and 10 days, and potential candidate genes with differential expression were analyzed. Transcriptome sequencing generated 89.413 Gb of raw data, which were assembled into 111,341 unigenes, 82,081 of which were annotated. Differentially expressed genes associated to Na+ and K+ transport, Ca2+ channel, calcium binding protein, and nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis had high expression levels in response to salt stress. An increased fluorescence intensity of NO indicated that it played an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic K+/Na+ balance in response to salt stress. Exogenous NO donor and NO biosynthesis inhibitors significantly increased and decreased the Na+ efflux, respectively, thus causing the opposite effect for K+ efflux. Moreover, under salt stress, exogenous NO donors and NO biosynthesis inhibitors enhanced and reduced Ca2+ influx, respectively. Combined with Ca2+ reagent regulation of Na+ and K+ fluxes, this study identifies how NaCl-induced NO may function as a signaling messenger that modulates the K+/Na+ balance in the cytoplasm via the Ca2+ signaling pathway. This enhances the salt resistance in H. erythrostictum roots.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Transcriptoma , Cálcio/metabolismo , Crassulaceae/genética , Crassulaceae/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo
20.
J Food Biochem ; 43(8): e12939, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368568

RESUMO

In this study, Orostachys japonicus was extracted with ethyl alcohol and fractionated by a serial of organic solvents. The ethyl acetate fraction was found to be the most effective among the tested five fractions. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction presented epicatechin gallate, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. Treatment with O. japonicus inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid accumulation during adipogenesis. The gene expression of enzymes involved in the antioxidant system increased in O. japonicus-treated cells. messeanger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of the pro-oxidant enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen oxidase4 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase suppressed in O. japonicus-treated cells. O. japonicus also inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of adipogenic transcription factors (including proliferator activated receptor-γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α) and their target gene (adipocyte protein 2). These results suggest that O. japonicus inhibits adipogenesis by controlling pro-/anti-oxidant enzyme responses and adipogenic transcription factors. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: ROS generation is markedly related to the pathogenesis and development of metabolic disorders. Treatment with O. japonicus inhibited ROS generation and lipid accumulation during adipogenesis. This result indicates that O. japonicus inhibit adipogenesis by controlling pro-/anti-oxidant enzyme responses and adipogenic mediators.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Acetatos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Capacidade de Absorbância de Radicais de Oxigênio , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
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