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3.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 77(1): 24-47, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897467

RESUMO

The Japanese Imperial Army Unit 731's Biological Warfare (BW) research program committed atrocious crimes against humanity in their pursuit of biological weapons development during the Second World War. Due to an American cover-up, the details behind Unit 731's human experimentation were slow to be revealed. The recent literature discloses the gruesome details of the experiments but characterizes the human trials as crude in nature. Further, there is a lack of clarity as to how human trial results were extrapolated for use in real world missions. Through an examination of testimony from the Soviet Union's Khabarovsk War Crime Trials, this paper argues that Unit 731's inoculation and airborne warfare experiments on prisoners of war were scientifically rigorous. The scientific method is used as the basis against which the scientific rigor of the experiments is tested. The paper reveals that the successes and failures of the human trials were extrapolated to BW missions during the Sino-Japanese war. American researchers' expectations of BW data were fulfilled, thus paving the way for an immunity deal. Ethical standards in medicine before WWII were not well established, but wartime medical practices and experimentation reveal the context in which the pursuit of scientific knowledge has no boundaries.


Assuntos
Guerra Biológica , Crimes de Guerra , Experimentação Humana , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Guerra , II Guerra Mundial
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(34): e220, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463063

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics related to high resilience among older people exposed to the Jeju 4·3 incident. A total of 1,121 aged adults were assigned to low, medium, and high resilience groups, and factors associated with low and high resilience were investigated. High resilience was significantly associated with a low prevalence of depression and high levels of life satisfaction and psychosocial support, as well as with younger age, being a man, higher education level, and current employment. The results deepen our understanding of resilience in the aged people who experienced the early life trauma.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Crimes de Guerra/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
5.
J Trauma Stress ; 34(2): 357-366, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301629

RESUMO

Although previous studies have identified behavioral health risks associated with combat exposure, it is unclear which types of combat events are associated with these risks, particularly regarding contrasts among the risks associated with life-threatening experiences, killing combatants, and exposure to unjust war events, such as killing a noncombatant or being unable to help civilian women and children. In the present study, we examined surveys from 402 soldiers following deployment (i.e., baseline) and again 13 months later (i.e., Year 1). Regression analyses were conducted across a range of behavioral health (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide ideation, anxiety, somatic, insomnia, aggression) and benefit-finding measures, each controlling for two combat event categories while assessing the predictive utility of a third. The results suggested that life-threatening events were associated with poor behavioral health at baseline, relative risk (RR) = 10.00, but not at Year 1, RR = 2.67. At both baseline and Year 1, killing enemy combatants was not associated with behavioral health, RRs = 1.67-3.33, but was positively associated with benefit-finding, RRs = 26.67-40.00. Exposure to unjust war events was associated with a transdiagnostic pattern of behavioral health symptoms at baseline, RR = 40.00, and Year 1, RR = 23.33. Overall, the results suggest unjust war event exposure is particularly injurious, above and beyond exposure to other combat-related events. Future research can build on these findings to develop clearer descriptions of the combat events that might place service members at risk for moral injury and inform the development of assessment and treatment options.


Assuntos
Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Exposição à Guerra/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Distúrbios de Guerra , Feminino , Humanos , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Julgamento Moral Retrospectivo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Crimes de Guerra/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Endeavour ; 44(1-2): 100710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727655

RESUMO

Studies on the complicity of the medical profession in the crimes of the Third Reich are on the rise. This also applies to the question of the extent to which doctors were brought to justice in international trials after World War II. This topic, however, has hardly been considered-let alone systematically investigated-with respect to German dentists. It is precisely this gap that this article will address. First, we quantitatively identify all dentists who were brought to justice in the post-war period. Second, we give a profile of this group. We focus on the following questions: Who among the group was brought to trial, and when? What crimes were they accused of, which sentences were handed down, and how did these sentences affect their future lives? Our study is based primarily on archival sources, which we analyzed with respect to the relevant secondary literature. Contrary to the widely-held assumption that dentists had almost never had been made to stand trial after the end of the war, we identified 48 dentists who were accused in court. The prototypical accused dentist was male, lived in a traditional family model, belonged to the National Socialist Workers' Party (NSDAP) and the Waffen-SS (Schutzstaffel), and was part of the so-called Kriegsjugendgeneration. The most frequent allegations made against these men were the theft of dental gold of murdered Nazi victims, an accusation unique to dentists; (accessory to) murder or manslaughter; and involvement in the deadly selections made in the concentration camps. In total, eight dentists were executed. Generally speaking, the earlier these proceedings and the sentencing took place, the harsher the sentence was. Many of those who received prison sentences subsequently found their way back into the dental profession.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/história , Odontólogos/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Crimes de Guerra/história , II Guerra Mundial , Ética Odontológica/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Experimentação Humana/história , Humanos
7.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(5): 554-565, mayo 2020. ilus, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194128

RESUMO

Al inicio de 1945 el terror se apoderó del Tercer Reich cuando el Ejército Rojo comenzó a invadir los territorios orientales de Prusia, Polonia, Curlandia y Memel. Los mandos de la Marina de Guerra alemana (Kriegsmarine) eran conscientes de que la guerra estaba perdida y de que los civiles serían masacrados por las tropas soviéticas y los nativos eslavos en búsqueda de venganza. De ese modo, decidieron destinar todos sus buques disponibles al Mar Báltico para evacuar a más de 2 millones de soldados, heridos, mujeres, niños, ancianos, colaboracionistas y prisioneros en un heroico episodio que sería conocido con el nombre de Operación Hannibal. El buque KdF Wilhelm Gustloff fue trágico testigo de lo que allí sucedía


At the beginning of 1945, terror invaded the Third Reich when the Red Army began to invade the eastern territories of Prussia, Poland, Courland and Memel. The high command of the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) were aware that the war was lost and that civilians would be slaughtered by Soviet troops and Slavic natives in search of revenge. Thus, they decided to allocate all their available ships to the Baltic Sea to evacuate more than 2 million soldiers, wounded, women, children, elderly, collaborators and prisoners in a heroic episode that would be known as "Operation Hannibal." The ship KdF Wilhelm Gustloff was a tragic witness to what was happening there


Assuntos
Humanos , Navios/história , Guerra/história , Crimes de Guerra/história , Ferido de Guerra , Distúrbios de Guerra/história , II Guerra Mundial , Salvamento Aquático
8.
Early Hum Dev ; 145: 105016, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192805

RESUMO

Adolf Eichmann and Josef Mengele were high-ranking Nazis, two among many who were tasked with implementing the Final Solution. Eichmann's eventual trial evidenced a dull ordinariness that was famously defined as the banality of evil by the political theorist Hannah Arendt who covered the proceedings. Star Trek's Deep Space 9 commences with the Cardassian relinquishment of Bajor. One particular episode ("Duet") focuses on a presumed high-ranking Cardassian labour camp commander who turns out to have been a filing clerk seeking atonement and closure for the deeds he witnessed, on behalf of his race. Yet another episode ("Nothing Human") in Star Trek Voyager highlights the ethical dilemmas that arise when accessing trials and treatments that were obtained immorally by unethical medical experimentation, and this is reminiscent of callous experimentation by Josef Mengele in the Auschwitz death camp. This paper will explore these subjects and will compare the fictional concentration camp commander and the fictional doctor with Adolf Eichmann and Josef Mengele respectively. Both episodes serve as reminders, cautionary tales lest we allow history to repeat itself and such atrocities to be relived.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Pessoas Famosas , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Princípios Morais , Filmes Cinematográficos/ética , Ética Médica , Humanos , Crimes de Guerra/psicologia
9.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(1): 104-120, ene. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194003

RESUMO

El 12 de septiembre de 1942 el barco británico Laconia fue hundido en la costa de África occidental por el submarino U Boat 156 al mando del Korvettenkapitän Werner Hartenstein. El Laconia transportaba 1.800 prisioneros de guerra italianos, 80 civiles y 428 soldados británicos y polacos. Tras el desastre, viendo la situación, Hartenstein inició su trabajo cumpliendo con el deber de socorro y desplegando una bandera de la Cruz Roja. A pesar de ello, un bombardero americano B-24 atacó ampliando el desastre. La propaganda británica desplegó la idea de que los submarinos alemanes atacaban sin contemplaciones. La "Orden Laconia" tampoco se cumplió del todo pues los alemanes siguieron socorriendo a pesar de la "letra" de dicha orden. El Jefe de Submarinos, Karl Dönitz, fue procesado en Nüremberg, el testimonio del Almirante Nimitz aclaró muchas cosas. Los muertos quedaron en el Atlántico. Descansen en paz


On September 12, 1942, the British ship Laconia was sunk off the coast of West Africa by the submarine U Boat 156 commanded by Korvettenkapitän Werner Hartenstein. The Laconia carried 1,800 Italian war prisoners, 80 civilians and 428 British and Polish soldiers. After the disaster, seeing the situation, Hartenstein began his work fulfilling the duty of relief and displaying a Red Cross flag. Despite this, an American B-24 bomber attacked thus expanding the disaster. British propaganda displayed the idea that German submarines mercilessly attacked convoys. The "Laconia Order" was not completely fulfilled because the Germans continued their help despite the "letter" of that order. The U-Boat Commander, Karl Dönitz, was prosecuted in Nuremberg, and the testimony of Admiral Nimitz clarified many things. Those who died remain in the Atlantic Ocean. Rest in peace


Assuntos
Humanos , Conflitos Armados/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição à Guerra/legislação & jurisprudência , Crimes de Guerra/história , Direito Humanitário Internacional , Prisioneiros de Guerra/história , Salvamento Aquático , Atos Internacionais/história
10.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 69: 101852, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733462

RESUMO

In the light of the recent judgments issued by the International Criminal Court (ICC), including two acquittals and one very recent condemnation of the accused on all charges, analysing and assessing evidentiary practice before the Court is all the more pressing. This article focuses on one particular type of evidence used by the Prosecution, namely, forensic evidence, to critically review how it has been used so far at the ICC and consider whether the prosecutorial strategy of focusing on a certain sample of crimes is finally paying off.


Assuntos
Ciências Forenses/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Crimes de Guerra/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos
11.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 79: 101190, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761729

RESUMO

In the months before and after the final surrender of Nazi Germany on 8 May 1945, British aviation medicine specialists were sent to the European continent to learn the progress that German aviation medicine had made since September 1939. For the medical officers at the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine at Farnborough in Hampshire, the dilemma over whether the medical data from the Nazi aviation medicine experiments at Dachau concentration camp should be exploited presented profound moral and ethical problems. Their deliberations paralleled those of the 1945-46 Nuremberg Trial, which revealed the crimes that were committed under the Nazi regime. At the same time, the British medical establishment debated the morality of publishing the Nazi medical research to serve humanity. This article shows that on the basis of British wartime and post-war research, and determinations that were made by the British Advisory Committee for the Investigation of German Medical War Crimes, by 1948 the RAF IAM had essentially rejected the results of the Nazi aviation medicine experiments on scientific and ethical grounds.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Princípios Morais , Medicina Aeroespacial/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Militares , Socialismo Nacional , Reino Unido , Crimes de Guerra , II Guerra Mundial
13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(4): 440-447, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined testimonies of women who were sexually assaulted multiple times by multiple unknown offenders. In these testimonial narratives, it is possible to detect specific modalities of traumatic event expression. This expression lacks any spatial, temporal, auditory or emotional determinants of the event. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: These fourteen women (out of 17) were imprisoned and forcefully isolated in detention camps or private houses in the occupied territories of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the war. At the same time, some of these women were raped by the offenders that were previously known to them. The average length of detention was 141 days among the seventeen victims (range of 7 to 395 days), while the average time from the first day of imprisonment to the first day of testimony was 311 days (range of 30 to 889 days). RESULTS: Based on the narrative descriptions of the events acquired from these testimonies, our analysis showed that these expressions differed when the offender was known to the victim, contrasted to the situation when the offender was completely unknown. This finding has a significant implication in victim's testimony at judicial hearings. Specifically, women that were raped by unknown perpetrator(s) were often unable to provide persuasive testimony and their recollection of the events was deemed insufficient for the further prosecution. Testimonies in these cases substantially lacked in vividness and were devoid of visuospatial determinants of the rape event. Consequently, this often resulted in the case's dismissal. CONCLUSION: The unusual and problematic expression of these traumatic memories might indicate that these events were not properly stored in the conceptual form of memory. Ultimately, victims could not make any coherent recollection or reconstruct the cascade of events by using perceptual information. We argue that this could be due to an aberrant mechanism of memory storage and difficulties that emerge on the level of sensory input. This problem needs to be further examined and correspondingly accounted for since it can exert significant influence on judicial outcomes in the domain of sexual assault cases worldwide.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Estupro/psicologia , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Crimes de Guerra/psicologia , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Croácia , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Episódica
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 304: 109945, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563009

RESUMO

Clothing articles are important pieces of evidence in criminal, search and rescue, and search and recovery investigations. Hyperspectral remote sensing of clothing will be an important tool for supporting such investigations in the near future. This study investigated over 300 items of clothing that varied in fabric type, texture, color, and pattern. Clothing items were analyzed using an ASD FieldSpec 4 High Resolution spectroradiometer with a contact probe attachment. Of the clothing items analyzed, there were 141 having endmember fabrics (100% single fabric type composition): 89 were cotton, 39 were polyester, 5 were wool, 1 was cashmere, 3 were acrylic, 1 was leather, and 3 were rayon. The remaining 164 clothing items were various fabric blends. Spectral features relating to different fabric types exhibit sufficient differences that allow them to be discriminated from the surrounding environment, as well as from one another in many, but not all, cases. Cotton and polyester, in particular, two of the most widely-used fabrics, exhibit numerous features in the near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) that would allow them to easily be distinguished from geologic materials in the environment such as rocks and soil. Plant based fibers, especially cotton, possess similar reflectance features to vegetation owing to their cellulose content. Outdoor aging experiments were conducted for 19 weeks on selected fabrics. Although significant changes were observed in aged garments, the variability observed in the reflectance of the aged garments does not support the derivation of a metric for aging, at least over the relatively short time scale of this effort. Results from this study should support numerous forensic efforts globally for non-destructive investigation of clothing items in the field and in lab settings with a spectroradiometer, enhance the potential for remote sensing searches, and in the future, potentially documenting crime scenes with hyperspectral imaging.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Análise Espectral/métodos , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Trabalho de Resgate , Crimes de Guerra , Tempo (Meteorologia)
15.
Torture ; 29(1): 110-124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264820

RESUMO

The frequency and extreme nature of sexual violence committed in Iraq, primarily by the self-declared Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) from 2014 onwards, has shocked the international community. Now, four years later, victory over ISIL has been proclaimed but addressing past atrocities and their consequences has barely begun. There is a wide discrepancy between Iraq's human rights obligations, stressed by the United Nations (UN), and the reality on the ground, shaped by the Iraqi authorities. The present paper aims to highlight this discrepancy by providing an overview of the crimes committed, their qualification under international law, and the efforts of Iraqi authorities to punish those responsible. It will also discuss legal frameworks and the role of the UN, before positing some possible solutions. Object of the inquiry. The primary object of this inquiry is the conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) that has taken place in Iraq since 2014. The term CRSV is used in the international discourse to designate sexual violence occurring during or following armed conflict. UN bodies have set a gravity threshold for defining CRSV-incidents or patterns of acts of sexual violence such as "rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity" (UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict, 2011, p. 3).


Assuntos
Compensação e Reparação , Vítimas de Crime , Função Jurisdicional , Delitos Sexuais , Tortura , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque , Nações Unidas , Crimes de Guerra
16.
Ann Anat ; 226: 84-95, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946885

RESUMO

Since Vienna University's 1997/98 inquiry into the background of Eduard Pernkopf's anatomical atlas, German and Austrian anatomical institutes have been forced to confront their past, particularly the widespread procurement of bodies of victims of National Socialism. This paper focuses on the Anatomical Institute in Innsbruck, which received bodies from an unusually broad array of sources: from prisoners executed at Stadelheim Prison in Munich, prisoners of war from three different camps, military personnel sentenced to death by martial courts, patients from a psychiatric hospital, and several bodies of Jewish Holocaust victims. As in other comparable cases, these bodies were used for scientific publications and medical teaching until long after the war. The Anatomical Institute's collection is currently undergoing a detailed analysis in order to identify any human remains dating from the Nazi period. At the Institute of Histology and Embryology, recent research has led to the discovery of approximately 200 histological slides pertaining to at least five individuals who had been executed under the Nazi regime. In a number of cases, the specimens had been provided by Prof. Max Clara, head of the Leipzig Institute of Anatomy. This study is based on an analysis of the Innsbruck Anatomical Institute's unusually detailed records and numerous documents from various archives, including files pertaining to an inquiry into the institute held after the war by the French occupation authorities.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/história , Anatomia/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Áustria , Cadáver , Dissecação , História do Século XX , Holocausto/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Judeus , Prisioneiros/história , Prisioneiros de Guerra/história , Crimes de Guerra
17.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 38: 236-244, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469017

RESUMO

The International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) is a treaty-based international organization with a global mandate to address the issue of missing persons. It works with governments, civil society organizations, and others, and utilizes data systems and technical assistance in forensic science. ICMP's initial work focused on the ∼40,000 people missing in the Western Balkans from the conflicts of the 1990s. A "DNA-led" approach to large-scale DNA identification of the missing was developed, based on high-throughput autosomal STR testing of skeletal remains from mass graves and other sites, and the establishment of a regional database of DNA profiles from family members of the missing. Database pairwise and pedigree kinship searching is conducted using in-house DNA matching software, the Identification Data Management System (iDMS), providing high-certainty DNA matches that are integrated in a multi-disciplinary identification process. Anthropological guidelines for sampling skeletal remains for DNA testing are based on tens of thousands of tests from a wide range of skeletal elements, allowing for prioritization based on DNA preservation. Large-scale collection of family reference samples has been conducted, resulting in a database of more than 100,000 family reference DNA profiles across all projects and delivering family DNA match reports for more than 20,000 individuals. From the 1995 Srebrenica event, ICMP provided DNA matches for 6887 of the ∼8000 missing from that event. In assistance to justice, ICMP has provided extensive evidence and expert testimony in multiple war crimes trials, including those conducted at the ICTY. This article provides an overview of ICMP's technical involvement over the last 17 years in areas of DNA testing and database matching, and training and capacity building projects with partners. It also touches on the development of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) strategies specifically tailored to missing persons applications.


Assuntos
Impressões Digitais de DNA , Genética Forense/organização & administração , Agências Internacionais , Degradação Necrótica do DNA , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Repetições de Microssatélites , Linhagem , Crimes de Guerra
19.
Rev. Costarric. psicol ; 37(2): 107-129, jul.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1091946

RESUMO

Resumen El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la relación entre la red de soporte social y el apoyo comunitario en los miembros de una organización de personas desplazadas por violencia política. Para tal fin, el estudio descriptivo-correlacional incluyó a 80 participantes (49 mujeres y 31 hombres) con una edad promedio de 45.79 años (DE = 11.41), quienes residían en una provincia de Lima y provenían, en su mayoría, del departamento de Ayacucho. Se les administró el Cuestionario de Red Social (SNQ) y el Cuestionario de Apoyo Comunitario Percibido (PCSQ). Entre los principales resultados, se encontró que el componente Integración y Participación Comunitaria del PCSQ correlaciona con dos funciones y dos categorías del SNQ. Se presenta asociación positiva estadísticamente significativa con la función guía cognitiva (r s = .32), la función socialización (r s = .24) y la categoría satisfacción (r s = .24) y asociación negativa y estadísticamente significativa con la categoría heterogeneidad (r s = -.23). Se discuten las implicancias de los presentes hallazgos.


Abstract: The present study's aim was to determine the relationship between the social support network and community support among members of an organization of persons displaced by political violence. The correlational-descriptive research included 80 individuals (49 females and 31 males) with a mean age of 45.79 years old (SD = 11.41),who reside in a province of Lima and came, mostly, from the department of Ayacucho. Participants completed the Social Network Questionnaire (SNQ), as well as the Perceived Community Support Questionnaire (PCSQ). Among the main findings, we found that the Integration component and Community Participation from the PCSQ correlate with two functions and two categories from the SNQ. Specifically there is a statistically significant positive association with the Cognitive Guide function (r s = .32), the Socialization function (r s = .24) and the Satisfaction category (r s = .24); and a statistically significant negative association with the Heterogeneity category (r s = -.23).Implications of the results obtained will be discussed in the present paper.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Refugiados/psicologia , Apoio Social , Violência , Crimes de Guerra/psicologia , Redes Comunitárias , Peru
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