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1.
Memorandum ; 40: [1-21], mar. 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442398

RESUMO

O estudo parte das pesquisas atuais sobre a etiologia do crime nos campos psi e dos diferentes instrumentos utilizados para esse fim. Argumenta-se que essas pesquisas apresentam ressonâncias da lógica determinista da Escola Positivista de Criminologia e da racionalidade eugenista da primeira metade do século XX.A narrativa histórica aqui proposta busca contribuir para as reflexões sobre a reificação do crime e uso dos dispositivos de avaliação do corpo e do psiquismo. O estudo pesquisou os discursos sobre criminalidade e anormalidade no Boletim de Eugenia (1929-1932), explorando a hipótese da reatualização do pensamento eugenista nas atuais investidas dos supostos saberes criminológicos. Conclui-se que as tentativas de captura da psicologia, enquanto dispositivo de poder, explicitam as vontades de normatização incorporadas na lógica preditiva do crime.


The study discusses current research on the etiology of crime in psychiatry and psychology and the different instruments used for this purpose. It is argued that these areas of research present resonances of the deterministic logic of the Positivist School of Criminology and of the eugenicist rationality of the first halfof the 20th century. The historical narrative proposed here seeks to contribute to a reflection on the reification of crime and the use of devices for evaluating the body and the psyche. The study investigated the discourses on criminality andabnormality in the Boletim de Eugenia (1929-1932), exploring the hypothesis of the reupdating of eugenicist thinking in the current on slaught of supposed criminological knowledge. The study concludes that the attempts to capture psychology, as a device of power, make explicit the desire for normalization incorporated in the predictive logic of crime.


Assuntos
Psicologia Criminal , Eugenia , Comportamento Criminoso
2.
Pap. psicol ; 43(3): 235-242, Sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212857

RESUMO

Antecedentes: La responsabilidad criminal de una persona con trastorno mental puede modificarse si las capacidades cognitivas y/o volitivas están alteradas. El objetivo es conocer la repercusión que los trastornos mentales tienen en la determinación de la imputabilidad en la jurisprudencia española actual. Método: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo mediante la revisión de 360 sentencias del Tribunal Supremo entre 2015 y 2019. Resultados: Se modificó la responsabilidad en un 37.9% de los casos: 5.1% eximentes completas, 13.3% eximentes incompletas y 81.3% atenuantes. Los trastornos del espectro de la esquizofrenia y trastornos psicóticos fueron los más frecuentes en la exención completa y los trastornos de personalidad en la incompleta. Los trastornos relacionados con sustancias y trastornos adictivos fueron los más representados en la atenuación de la responsabilidad. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de un mismo trastorno mental puede conllevar diferentes grados de imputabilidad. La adopción de medidas terapéuticas es excepcional.(AU)


Background: The criminal responsibility of a person with a mental disorder can be modified if their cognitive and/or volitional capacities are altered. The aim is to ascertain the repercussions that mental disorders have on the determination of imputability in current Spanish jurisprudence. Method: A retrospective descriptive study is presented through the review of 360 sentences of the Supreme Court from 2015 to 2019. Results: The results show that responsibility was modified in 37.9% of the cases: 5.1% complete exemptions, 13.3% incomplete exemptions, and 81.3% mitigating circumstances. The most represented disorders among the complete exemption cases were those on the schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders, and personality disorders were the most represented for incomplete exemption. Substance-related and addictive disorders were the ones most represented in responsibility attenuation. Conclusion: The diagnosis of the same mental disorder can lead to different degrees of imputability. The adoption of therapeutic measures is the exception, not the rule.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Decisões da Suprema Corte , Transtornos Mentais , Psicologia Criminal , Esquizofrenia , Transtornos Psicóticos , Imputabilidade , Psicologia Forense , Espanha , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia Social , Estudos Retrospectivos , Epidemiologia Descritiva
3.
Rev. psicol. (Fortaleza, Online) ; 13(1): 97-111, 01/01/2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1357842

RESUMO

Este texto apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que teve como objetivo compreender a atuação da(o) profissional psicóloga(o) no contexto carcerário brasileiro a partir da literatura produzida e publicada nas principais bases de dados vinculadas ao CNPq. Foi realizado um levantamento nas bases de dados no ano de 2020 e selecionados 7 trabalhos para análise. Identificou-se que a maioria das publicações é de 2015, possuindo concentração geográfica maior na região Sudeste. Predominam discussões sobre o papel que a(o) psicóloga(o) deve exercer nesse espaço e qual a sua real atuação. Constatou-se que as práticas mais exercidas por psicólogas(os) no sistema prisional são os atendimentos individuais, a avaliação psicológica e a elaboração de documentos. Considera-se a necessidade de maiores discussões e pesquisas sobre a atuação de psicólogas no contexto carcerário, bem como a realização destas discussões durante a formação em psicologia.


This text presents the results of a research that aimed to understand the role of professional psychologists in the Brazilian prison context, based on the literature produced and published in the main databases linked to the CNPq. A survey was carried out in the databases in the year 2020 and 7 works were selected for analysis. It was identified that most publications are from 2015, with a greater geographic concentration in the Southeast region. Discussions about the role that (o) psychologist (o) should play in this space and what is her real role prevail. It was found that the practices most exercised by psychologists in the prison system are individual care, psychological assessment and preparation of documents. There is a need for further discussions and research on the role of psychologists in the prison context, as well as these discussions during training in psychology.


Assuntos
Humanos , Prisões , Psicologia Criminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Brasil
4.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 39: e190178, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1375416

RESUMO

The psychological assessment of recidivism and dangerousness aims to provide subsidies to legal operators on the possibility of an individual to repeat criminal offenses. In the present study, a systematic review of Portuguese-language articles was carried out in the "SciELO", "Lilacs" and "Periódicos Capes" databases to identify available instruments to carry out this assessment in Brazilian populations and their predictive capacity. It was found that the Brazilian scientific production is too scarce, only nine empirical studies have been published on the subject and only one instrument with this objective is suitable for use in forensic practice. Six other instruments have been studied, but none are suitable for practical implementation. These results point to the need for scientific production on psychological assessment of recidivism and dangerousness to provide psychologists with the necessary instruments for their performance in Legal Psychology.


A avaliação psicológica de reincidência e periculosidade tem por objetivo fornecer subsídios aos operadores do Direito sobre a possibilidade de um indivíduo reincidir. No presente trabalho foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de artigos em português nas bases de dados "SciELO", "Lilacs" e "Periódicos Capes" para identificar instrumentos disponíveis para realizar esta avaliação em populações brasileiras e qual a sua capacidade preditiva. Descobriu-se que a produção científica brasileira é demasiado escassa, apenas nove trabalhos empíricos foram publicados no tema e somente um instrumento com este objetivo está apto para uso na prática profissional. Seis outros instrumentos foram estudados, mas nenhum está apto para utilização na prática. Estes resultados apontam a necessidade de produção científica sobre avaliação psicológica de reincidência e periculosidade para munir psicólogos com os instrumentos necessários para sua atuação nesta área da Psicologia Jurídica.


Assuntos
Psicologia Criminal , Reincidência , Psicologia Forense
5.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 30(3): 276-284, Dic 27, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213875

RESUMO

Mental lexicon extraction has important theoretical and practical significance in legal case judgment; however, mental lexicon cannot be extracted in time and effectively. Therefore, this paper puts forward the research on the extraction method of mental lexicon in legal cases of players based on text features. In terms of extraction factors of mental lexicon in legal cases of players, quantity and quality are the two most important factors, and form an important reference for mental lexicon recognition. Therefore, it should be combined with text features to identify and extract mental lexicon frequency, and the extraction process is described in detail in this paper by using pattern recognition theory. The psychological test is applied to test the biological reaction of the suspect to determine and judge the relationship between the suspect and the case to ensure the accuracy of the case.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Criminal , Vocabulário , Testes Psicológicos , Atletas , Psicologia do Esporte , Pesquisa
6.
Psicol. argum ; 39(104): 293-320, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: psi-72360

RESUMO

O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão sistemática das publicações que promovem um diálogo entre a Psicologia Forense e a Teoria das Representações Sociais. Para tanto seguiu-se o modelo da recomendação PRISMA utilizando-se como estratégia de busca as palavras-chave: “representações sociais” OR “representação social” OR “teoria das representações sociais” AND “psicologia forense” OR “psicologia jurídica” OR lei OR judiciário OR judicial e seus equivalentes em inglês e espanhol. O período pesquisado foi de 2008 a setembro de 2019, resultando em 127 artigos, dos quais 14 foram incluídos na presente revisão, obedecendo aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão previamente estabelecidos. Observou-se uma maior ênfase nos estudos no âmbito da proteção das crianças e adolescentes, da atuação profissional e da execução da pena. Assim, este estudo possibilitou perceber que a Teoria das Representações Sociais tem sido utilizada pela Psicologia Forense, porém de forma incipiente, havendo ainda um campo vasto para ser explorado de forma a contribuir cada vez mais na compreensão de como os pensamentos do senso comum são processados, organizados e compartilhados dentro da seara jurídica que é tão complexa e dinâmica.(AU)


The present study aimed to conduct a systematic review of publications that promote a dialogue between Forensic Psychology and Theory of Social Representations. To do so, the PRISMA recommendation model was followed using the keywords: “social representations” OR “social representation” OR “social representations theory” AND “forensic psychology” OR “legal psychology” OR law Judicial OR Judicial OR and its equivalents in English and Spanish. The researched period was from 2008 to September 2019, resulting in 127 articles, of which 14 were included in the present review, obeying the inclusion and exclusion criteria previously established. There was a greater emphasis on studies in the field of protection of children and adolescents, professional performance and the execution of the sentence. Thus, this study made it possible to perceive that the Theory of Social Representations has been used by Forensic Psychology, however in an incipient way, with still a vast field to be explored in order to contribute more and more in the understanding of how common sense thoughts are processed, organized and shared within the legal area that is so complex and dynamic.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento , Crime , Legislação como Assunto , Psicologia Criminal , Violência
7.
Rev. crim ; 63(1): 155-171, 20/04/2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251671

RESUMO

Resumen La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo indagar sobre el conocimiento, las características y la utilidad de la técnica de perfilación criminológica dentro de una muestra de actores judiciales en Colombia, quienes, por sus funciones profesionales en la investigación criminal, se encontraban en posibilidad de aplicar la técnica. La metodología incluyó la realización de entrevistas semiestructuradas a 155 funcionarios pertenecientes a las principales instituciones de administración de justicia colombiana (Fiscalía, Policía Nacional, Defensoría del Pueblo, Instituto Nacional Penitenciario y Carcelario, y miembros de la rama judicial). Entre los resultados se encuentra que los actores judiciales consideran útil la técnica por la noción de cientificidad que tienen sobre ella. Asimismo, aunque se percibe útil, es poco usada debido al desconocimiento general derivado del poco entrenamiento recibido para su ejecución. Estos resultados se discuten frente a la historia reciente del estudio en materia criminológica en el país, la formación de sus profesionales y las brechas entre la investigación académica y su uso en la práctica de investigación criminal. Se concluye que la técnica en el contexto colombiano está aún en desarrollo, actualmente cuenta con algunas guías y protocolos al interior de cada institución y requiere de mayores ejercicios de evaluación de impacto y análisis exhaustivos de su relevancia y cientificidad.


Abstract This research study's objective was to explore the knowledge, characteristics and usefulness of the criminal profiling technique within a sample of judicial actors in Colombia who, due to their professional functions in criminal investigations, could possibly apply the technique. The methodology included performing semi-structured interviews on 155 officials belonging to Colombia's main institutions for the administration of justice (Prosecutor's Office, National Police, Ombudsman's Office, National Penitentiary and Prison Institute, and members of the judicial branch). Among the results, it was observed that judicial actors consider the technique useful due to the scientific notion they have regarding it. Furthermore, although it is perceived as being useful, it is seldom used because of a general lack of knowledge derived from scant training for its execution. These results are discussed in light of the recent criminological study carried out in the country, its professionals' education and the gaps in academic research and its use in criminal investigations. It was concluded that the technique is still being developed in the Colombian context. It currently have some guides and protocols within each institution, and requires more impact assessments and comprehensive analyses regarding its relevance and scientific nature.


Resumo O objetivo desta pesquisa foi indagar sobre o conhecimento, as características e a utilidade da técnica de perfil criminológico dentro de uma amostra de atores judiciais na Colômbia que, devido às suas funções profissionais na investigação criminal, são capazes de aplicar a técnica. A metodologia incluiu a realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 155 funcionários pertencentes às principais instituições de administração de justiça colombiana (Procuradoria, Polícia Nacional, Defensoria do povo, Instituto Nacional Penitenciário e Carcerário, e membros do poder judiciário). Entre os resultados, encontra-se que os atores judiciais consideram a técnica útil devido à noção de cientificidade que possuem sobre ela. Da mesma forma, embora seja percebida como útil, é pouco utilizada por causa do desconhecimento geral derivado do pouco treinamento recebido para sua execução. Esses resultados são discutidos à luz da história recente do estudo da criminologia no país, da formação de seus profissionais e as brechas entre a pesquisa acadêmica e sua utilização na prática da investigação criminal. Conclui-se que a técnica, no contexto colombiano, ainda está em desenvolvimento. Atualmente possui alguns guias e protocolos dentro de cada instituição e requer maiores exercícios de avaliação de impacto e análise exaustiva de sua relevância e cientificidade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Criminal , Pesquisa , Elementos Químicos
8.
Memorandum ; 38: [1-20], jan.2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353137

RESUMO

A Seção de Hipnose Forense do Instituto de Criminalística teve como fundador o peritocriminal Rui Fernando Cruz Sampaio. Oficializada em 1998, contribuiu para a solução de mais de 800 casos. A hipnose é uma técnica utilizada por profissionais da saúde, na qual o sujeito é induzido a um estado de alteração de consciência; está regulamentada por meio de resoluções de diferentes conselhos profissionais. A aplicação é comum no campo de saúde, mas há também derivações na esfera criminal. A hipnose forense foi utilizada como recurso auxiliar em fase de inquirição pré-processual. Buscamos, mediante análise documental junto à instituição, o resultado do trabalho realizado pela Seção de Hipnose, apresentando alguns casos, o fluxo contido nos pedidos de aplicação da técnica e a estruturação do trabalho técnico final.


The Forensic Hypnosis Section of the Criminalistics Institute was founded by criminal expert Rui Fernando Cruz Sampaio. Established in 1998, it contributed to the solution of more than 800 cases. Hypnosis is a technique used by health professionals, in which the subject is induced into a state of altered consciousness. It is regulated by resolutions of different professional councils. The application of this technique is common in the health field, but there arealso derivations in the criminal sphere. Forensic hypnosis was used as an auxiliary resource in the pre-procedural inquiry phase. Through documental analysis atthe institution, we searched for the result of the work carried out by the Hypnosis Section, presenting some cases, the flow contained in the requests for application of the technique and the structuring of the final technical work.


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Criminal , Psicologia Forense/métodos , Hipnose
9.
Sex Abuse ; 33(1): 3-33, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478439

RESUMO

Although individuals with a history of sexual crime are often viewed as a lifelong risk, recent research has drawn attention to consistent declines in recidivism risk for those who remain offense free in the community. Because these declines are predictable, this article demonstrates how evaluators can use the amount of time individuals have remained offense free to (a) extrapolate to lifetime recidivism rates from rates observed for shorter time periods, (b) estimate the risk of sexual recidivism for individuals whose current offense is nonsexual but who have a history of sexual offending, and (c) calculate yearly reductions in risk for individuals who remain offense free in the community. In addition to their practical utility for case-specific decision making, these estimates also provide researchers an objective, empirical method of quantifying the extent to which individuals have desisted from sexual crime.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reincidência/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia Criminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reincidência/psicologia , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(2): 636-645, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227155

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine whether criminal thinking moderates the relationship between certainty of apprehension (50%, 10%, 1%) and likelihood of engaging in three antisocial hypothetical acts (cheating on a test, property damage, and driving drunk). Proactive criminal thinking (PCT), a manifestation of the planned, calculated, amoral, and instrumental features of antisocial cognition, and reactive criminal thinking (RCT), a reflection of the impulsive, irresponsible, reckless, and emotional aspects of antisocial cognition, served as between-subjects variables in this study. A repeated measures analysis of covariance performed on 67 (43 males, 24 females) day treatment program clients revealed that the likelihood of engaging in antisocial behavior was disproportionately elevated when participants were high in PCT and low in certainty. These results indicate that as the certainty of apprehension goes down, persons with elevated levels of proactive criminal thinking are disproportionately inclined to engage in antisocial and criminal behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Criminoso , Criminosos/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Adulto , Psicologia Criminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 20(3): 273-285, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-200322

RESUMO

Previous research on mock-jury trials has shown an explicit attractiveness bias in participant attributes of innocence. This study used the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) to measure attractiveness-bias in implicit evaluations of innocence or guilt with a sample of 46 college students. Alternate IRAP trial-blocks required participants to affirm relations consistent and inconsistent with attractiveness bias (attractive-innocent/unattractive guilty versus unattractive-innocent/ attractive-guilty). Faster responding across consistent trial-blocks was interpreted in terms of implicit stereotype. Participants' beliefs about the importance of their own appearances were examined using the Beliefs about Appearances Scale (BAAS) and explicit attractiveness ratings for the IRAP photographic stimuli were measured using Likert scales; analysis examined relationships between these beliefs and IRAP scores. Results revealed statistically significant attractiveness bias for both male and female participants; specifically, both a pro-attractiveness and anti-unattractive bias. Findings are discussed regarding research in implicit evaluations of innocence or guilt and effects of attractiveness bias


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Beleza , Culpa , Criminosos/psicologia , Julgamento/classificação , Psicologia Criminal , Influência dos Pares , Distribuição por Sexo , Privilégio Social
13.
Psicol. argum ; 38(101): 411-430, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: psi-72324

RESUMO

O presente estudo está inserido nas linhas de pesquisa que investigam a identificação do comportamento de mentir por meio da observação do comportamento verbal e não verbal. O objetivo principal foi a caracterização das pesquisas sobre a detecção de mentira por intermédio da observação, publicadas em âmbito nacional e internacional. A detecção da mentira por meio da observação das alterações do comportamento não verbal vem ganhando destaque atualmente e a bibliografia aponta que o número de informações obtidas com os métodos é maior, principalmente, quando se trata de interações em que podem ocorrer dissimulação de ideias, sentimentos e emoções. No sentido de elucidar questões pertinentes correspondentes às bibliografias no campo de pesquisa, o presente trabalho identificou, por meio de levantamento bibliográfico sistemático, estudos que abordaram a identificação da mentira por intermédio da observação do comportamento não verbal. As buscas bibliográficas sobre o tema foram realizadas nas seguintes bases de dados: Scielo, Web of Sciencee PsicARTICLE (APA). Devido à especificidade da temática, julgou-se necessário a expansão da busca para os periódicos Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) e Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA), bem como referências encontradas nos trabalhos obtidos e buscas na ferramenta de pesquisa Google Acadêmico. Foram incluídos na análise 46 artigos científicos empíricos. Observou-se um aumento no número de publicações entre os anos de 1999 e 2010, e, de acordo com a análise, resultados são variados e inconclusivos e a observação de comportamentos verbais e não verbais não podem servir como indicativos do comportamento de mentir. (AU)


This study is part of a research field that investigate the identification of lying behavior by verbal and nonverbal behavior observation. The study aimed at characterizing researches about lying detection by observation, nationally and internationally published. Lying detection by observation of modifications on nonverbal behavior is gaining attention and published studies point at the higher number of information accessed using this method, especially interactions when behaviors, feelings, and emotions can be disguised. In order to elucidate pertinent questions about researches, the present study identified, by systematic reviewing, studies that investigated the lying detection by observation of nonverbal behavior. Bibliographic search took place on Scielo, Web of Science and PsicARTICLE (APA). Due limitations of research field, we expanded the search on Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) and Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA), as well studies cited on recovered publications and Google Scholar. We analyzed 46 empirical researches. We found many publications between yeard 1999 and 2010, and results are varied and inconclusive, and observation of verbal and nonverbal behavior can not be used as significant instrument for lying detection.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento Verbal , Enganação , Detecção de Mentiras , Psicologia Criminal , Psicologia
14.
J Gambl Stud ; 36(2): 459-476, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446551

RESUMO

The links between gambling and criminal offenses have been frequently reported, but the pathways from gambling to a particular offense have not. Our study applied a pathways model to predict participants' income-generating, drug-related, and violent offenses stemming from their craving for gambling. The participants were 332 male inmates in a Japanese local prison. They answered questionnaires on gambling behavior, alcohol addiction, Internet addiction, impulsivity, and psychopathy. Their official records with information on their current offense, sentence length, number of imprisonments, and length of education were also analyzed. The results show that 38.55% (n = 128) of the participants had a probable gambling disorder, a rate of problem gambling at least four times higher than that among the general Japanese population. Furthermore, their craving for gambling predicted their income-generating offenses, but not their drug-related and violent offenses. Their craving for gambling can thus be linked to their financial issues, rather than their emotional and impulsive issues. The pathways model explained the path not only from addiction/psychopathy to gambling, but also from gambling to committing an income-generating offense.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Fissura , Criminosos/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adulto , Agressão , Alcoolismo , Psicologia Criminal , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sex Abuse ; 32(1): 55-78, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191769

RESUMO

Previous empirical inquiries into the etiology of juvenile sex offending have been largely atheoretical. Consequently, a call for studies conducted utilizing developmental and life-course (DLC) criminological theory has been made to better understand the onset, development, risk, and protective factors of juvenile sex offending. Therefore, this study contributes to the discussion by testing key predictions proposed by the DLC framework regarding the theoretical correlates of early onset offending, as applied to juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) and juvenile nonsex offenders (JNSOs). Drawing on a data set of more than 64,000 youth referred to the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, results indicate that although the number and severity of risk factors for early age of onset differ between the JSOs and JNSOs, the specific type of risk factors that emerged align with DLC theory predictions. The implications of these findings and contributions for DLC theory are also discussed.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade de Início , Ira , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Filho de Pais com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/psicologia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia Criminal , Empatia , Características da Família , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Humor Irritável , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Poder Familiar , Grupo Associado , Teoria Psicológica , Transtornos Psicóticos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
16.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 71-79, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183601

RESUMO

Priority given to investigating the onset and maintenance of criminal behavior in the past is currently giving way to a new focus on the process of criminal desistance. Early narratives of future desistance are the first step in this process and, although they do not assure withdrawal from crime, they are the beginning of the personal change that precedes a progressive desistance from criminal activity. This study analyzes early desistance narratives of offenders still in prison and whether these narratives differed depending on their personal, criminal, and social characteristics. Participants were 44 imprisoned male offenders, aged between 20 and 50 years old at different stages of their sentence and in three different prison regimes. They were interviewed using Cid and Martí's protocol and their accounts were accordingly coded in three categories: early narratives towards a non-criminal identity, perceived self-efficacy to desist from crime, and will to desist. The results show that participants' early desistance narratives vary depending on their personal, criminal, and social variables. Results on the periods of sentence completion and prison regimes are discussed in terms of how prisons could contribute to enhancing the narratives of desistance from crime


La prioridad otorgada en el pasado a la investigación sobre el inicio y mantenimiento de la conducta delictiva está dando paso actualmente al análisis del proceso de desistimiento delictivo. Las narrativas tempranas del desistimiento futuro son el primer paso en este proceso y, aunque no aseguran dicho desistimiento, son el comienzo del cambio personal que precede al abandono progresivo de la actividad delictiva. Este estudio analiza las narrativas tempranas de desistimiento de delincuentes aún en prisión y si estas narrativas difieren según sus características personales, delictivas y sociales. Los participantes fueron 44 varones encarcelados, con edades comprendidas entre los 20 y los 50 años, en diferentes fases de su sentencia y en tres grados penitenciarios distintos. Fueron entrevistados utilizando el protocolo de Cid y Martí y sus relatos fueron codificados en tres categorías: narrativas tempranas sobre una identidad no delictiva, autoeficacia percibida para desistir del delito y voluntad para desistir. Los resultados muestran que las narrativas tempranas de desistimiento de los participantes difieren según sus características personales, delictivas y sociales. Los resultados relativos a la fase de la sentencia y a los grados penitenciarios se discuten en términos de cómo las prisiones pueden contribuir a potenciar las narrativas de desistimiento delictivo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Criminoso , Criminosos/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Terapia Narrativa/métodos , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Psicologia Criminal/métodos
17.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 66: 101456, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706389

RESUMO

This paper examines how the symptomology of the small number of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) charged with online sexual offenses in Australia is established during legal arguments and conceived by the judiciary to impact legal liability and offending behavior. This study aims to provide empirical support for the proposition that judicial discourses regarding the connection between ASD and online sexual offending, including conduct related to child exploitation material (CEM), have little bearing on overall questions of criminal liability or the use of alternative penal dispositions. It does so by exploring a sample of nine recent Australian criminal cases, involving ten rulings, that examine how evidence of ASD is raised in legal arguments in ways that suggest a diagnosed condition may have contributed significantly to the alleged wrongdoing. We conclude by suggesting current Australian judicial practice requires more sensitivity to the impact of clinical factors associated with ASD in shaping alternative supervisory and non-custodial dispositions for individuals convicted of online sexual offenses.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/legislação & jurisprudência , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Austrália , Comportamento Criminoso , Psicologia Criminal/legislação & jurisprudência , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Psiquiatria Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Internet
18.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 66: 101471, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706405

RESUMO

Historically, research on violence risk assessments has primarily focused on male psychiatric patients and/or inmates, with minimal attention given to female patients and/or inmates-two populations likely to differ with regard to violence risk conceptualization. To date, there is no known measure of violence risk specifically tailored to predicting risk for this population that is accurate, brief, and cost-effective. As such, the current study exclusively focused on the predictive ability of the Iowa Violence and Victimization Instrument (IVVI) for female parolees over a 30-month follow-up period. Results indicated not only was the IVVI comparable across genders, its predictive power was comparable to more established measures (i.e., Violence Risk Appraisal Guide-Revised, HCR-20 V3). Results also found the IVVI may have greater usefulness with prediction of violent and felony property offenses, but limited usefulness for predicting misdemeanor property and drug offenses. Taken together, findings gathered from the current study suggest while women are reoffending at lower rates than men, yet there are fewer gender differences in risk factors for engaging in violence than expected.


Assuntos
Psicologia Criminal/instrumentação , Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reincidência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Iowa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224455, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterised by two underlying factors. Factor 1 (affective and interpersonal deficits) captures affective deficits, whilst Factor 2 (antisocial and impulsive/disorganised behaviours) captures life course persistent antisocial behaviours. Impaired processing of threat has been proposed as an aetiologically salient factor in the development of psychopathy, but the relationship of this impairment to the factorial structure of the disorder in adult male offenders is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether threat processing deficits are characteristic of psychopathy as a unitary construct or whether such deficits are specifically linked to higher scores on individual factors. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of the literature was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO. METHODS: Studies were included if they (1) reported physiological measures of threat response as the primary outcome measure (2) indexed psychopathy using a well-validated clinician rated instrument such as the PCL-R (3) investigated male offenders between 18 and 60 years of age (4) reported threat processing analyses using both Factor 1 and Factor 2 scores (5) provided sufficient data to calculate effect sizes and (6) were published in English-language peer-reviewed journals. We identified twelve studies with data on 1112 participants for the meta-analysis of the relationship with Factor 1 scores, and nine studies with data on 801 participants for the meta-analysis of the relationship with Factor 2 scores. We conducted the meta-analyses to calculate correlations using random-effects models. RESULTS: PCL-R/SV Factor 1 scores were significantly and negatively related to threat processing indices (r = -0.22, (95%CI [-0.28, -.017]). Neither PCL-R/SV Factor 2 scores (r = -0.005, 95%CI [-0.10, 0.09]), nor PCL-R total score (r = -0.05, (95%CI [-0.15, -0.04]) were related to threat processing indices. No significant heterogeneity was detected for the Factor score results. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analyses of the distinct psychopathy factors suggest that the threat processing deficits observed in male offenders with psychopathy are significantly associated with higher scores on Factor 1. A similar relationship does not exist with Factor 2 scores. Our findings highlight the importance of investigating the potentially discrete relationships between aetiological variables and the two factor constructs in the disorder.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Psicologia Criminal/métodos , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos
20.
Violence Vict ; 34(5): 770-785, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575814

RESUMO

Exposure to multiple forms of victimization has been shown to have increasingly negative outcomes, but their unique trajectory-setting effects have been largely unexplored. Using a life course approach, this article examines the life trajectories of child polyvictims. I use a nationwide sample including 3,652 respondents after cleaning and preparation. Seemingly unrelated regressions were used to predict depression and criminal behavior in childhood and adulthood. Results suggest that children who experience multiple forms of parental abuse tend to have life trajectories which grow increasingly worse through the life course. However, life trajectories of children experiencing violence outside the home have less persistent negative outcomes. Researchers and interventions should take differing life trajectories into account when attempting to aid different types of polyvictims.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Crime/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Psicologia Criminal , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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