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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278194, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656817

RESUMO

The contribution of mental illness, substance use, and appetitive aggression to recidivism has significant policy and practice implications. Offenders with untreated mental illness have a higher recidivism rate and a greater number of criminogenic risk factors than those without mental illness. Previous research has demonstrated that the likelihood of appetitive aggression increases in violent contexts where individuals perpetrate aggressive acts. Using the Ecological Systems Theory, this study investigated the association between mental health disorders and recidivism among incarcerated adult offenders in South Africa, and the intervening role of appetitive aggression and substance use. Using a cross-sectional quantitative research design, a sample of 280 incarcerated male and female adult offenders aged 18-35 with no known psychiatric disorders were sampled at a correctional facility in South Africa. The re-incarceration rate, mental health disorders, substance use, and appetitive aggression symptomology were assessed using the Hopkins symptoms checklist, the CRAFFT measure of substance use, and the appetitive aggression scale. Findings indicate a 32.4% recidivism rate (n = 82). Cluster analysis indicated that the combination of anxiety, depression, substance use, and appetitive aggression increased the likelihood of recidivism. Appetitive aggression median differences between clusters 2 and 3 played a key role in distinguishing recidivism risk among recidivist and non-recidivist participants. Chi-square analysis highlighted group differences in education levels among the established clusters [x2 (3, n = 217) = 12.832, p = .005, which is < .05] as well as group differences in the type of criminal offence [x2 (3, n = 187) = 24.362, p = .000, which is < .05] and cluster membership. Combined factors that increase the likelihood of recidivism provide a typology for classifying offenders based on particular recidivism risk determinants, which offers insights for developing tailored interventions that address a combination of factors.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Reincidência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Criminosos/psicologia , Saúde Mental , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Crime/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Análise por Conglomerados
2.
Psychiatr Serv ; 74(1): 1, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587279
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 13(1): 11, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653356

RESUMO

Idiopathic and acquired pedophilia are two different disorders with two different etiologies. However, the differential diagnosis is still very difficult, as the behavioral indicators used to discriminate the two forms of pedophilia are underexplored, and clinicians are still devoid of clear guidelines describing the clinical and neuroscientific investigations suggested to help them with this difficult task. Furthermore, the consequences of misdiagnosis are not known, and a consensus regarding the legal consequences for the two kinds of offenders is still lacking. The present study used the Delphi method to reach a global consensus on the following six topics: behavioral indicators/red flags helpful for differential diagnosis; neurological conditions potentially leading to acquired pedophilia; neuroscientific investigations important for a correct understanding of the case; consequences of misdiagnosis; legal consequences; and issues and future perspectives. An international and multidisciplinary board of scientists and clinicians took part in the consensus statements as Delphi members. The Delphi panel comprised 52 raters with interdisciplinary competencies, including neurologists, psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, forensic psychologists, expert in ethics, etc. The final recommendations consisted of 63 statements covering the six different topics. The current study is the first expert consensus on a delicate topic such as pedophilia. Important exploitable consensual recommendations that can ultimately be of immediate use by clinicians to help with differential diagnosis and plan and guide therapeutic interventions are described, as well as future perspectives for researchers.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Pedofilia , Médicos , Humanos , Pedofilia/diagnóstico , Pedofilia/terapia , Técnica Delfos , Consenso
4.
Sci Justice ; 63(1): 54-60, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631181

RESUMO

Footwear-to-feet examination and analysis refers to the process of examining and analyzing footwear in regard to criminal matters. This examination and analysis has been done to include or exclude an individual as the wearer of the footwear in question and to help associate or disassociate human remains to footwear. This review of the subject describes its investigative applications, the research that underpins the process, and considers its legal admissibility. The process of footwear-to-feet examination and analysis is scientifically valid and has been widely accepted. As a result, law enforcement and forensic scientists should be aware of the use of this process to assist in criminal investigations.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Criminosos , Humanos , Sapatos , Medicina Legal
5.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 165(1): 33, 2023 01.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648665

Assuntos
Criminosos , Humanos
6.
Addict Behav ; 139: 107574, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying people at risk of poor outcomes following treatment for substance use disorders is important for developing tailored services. The aim of this study was to test whether a brief measure of internalizing and externalizing behavior could identify young adults at high risk of psychiatric care episodes and criminal offending up to four years after enrolment in treatment for substance use disorder. METHODS: Clients aged 15-25 years from a randomized multicenter study were included (N = 457). At baseline, all completed the YouthMap12 screener, a measure of internalizing symptoms (IP6) and externalizing problems (EP6). We used accelerated failure time regression to assess time to psychiatric care and criminal offending, adjusting for baseline occurrence, gender, age, treatment group, and uptake area. Youden's J was used to assess optimal cut-points for risk of events. RESULTS: The IP6 was associated with shorter time to psychiatric care following treatment enrolment (beta = -0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.94 to -0.48; adjusted beta = -0.45, 95% CI = -0.66 to -0.25). The EP6 was associated with shorter time to criminal offending, coefficient = -0.32, 95% CI = -0.44 to -0.19; adjusted coefficient = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.30 to -0.06). Optimal cut-points were two or more for the IP6 and three or more for the EP6. CONCLUSIONS: The IP6 and the EP6, two simple and easily administered instruments, can identify young adults who are at an increased risk of future criminal offending or in need of psychiatric care. The findings lend support to using the 12-item YouthMap, as it identifies relevant risks, is compatible with local service delivery needs, and is theoretically and empirically supported.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
7.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 86: 101854, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, police departments usually initiate assessment of criminal responsibility after patients with mental disorders commit crimes. However, the specific conditions demanding assessment are not clearly stipulated by law. Few studies have been conducted on the epidemiological characteristics and assessment of criminal responsibility in patients with mental disorders. This study aimed to analyze the features and identify influencing factors for assessment of criminal responsibility for patients with mental disorders in a single-center cohort. METHODS: Cases undergoing criminal responsibility assessment at the Center of Forensic Science, East China University of Political Science and Law in Shanghai (CFS, ECUPL) between 2010 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Criminal responsibility was categorized as criminal irresponsibility, diminished criminal responsibility, and full criminal responsibility. Differences among the groups were then statistically analyzed. RESULTS: In the study period, 437 patients including 361 males (82.61%) were referred for criminal responsibility assessment. Their ages ranged from 15 years to 91 years. After assessment, the number of cases with criminal irresponsibility, diminished criminal responsibility, and full criminal responsibility were 196 (44.85%), 181 (41.42%), and 60 (13.73%), respectively. The Chi-square test and nominal regression analysis showed that influencing factors for assessment of criminal responsibility comprised crime in public places (OR = 14.734; 95% CI: 1.463-148.424), crime in victim's residence (OR = 10.852; 95% CI: 1.068-110.214), crime in suspect's residence (OR = 9.542; 95% CI: 1.046-87.092), forensic psychiatric diagnosis of F1X (OR = 0.014,0.011; 95%CI:0.001-0.261,0-0.5), F2X (OR = 5.75; 95%CI:1.315-23.145), F4X (OR = 0.077; 95%CI:0.016-0.38,) and F6X (OR = 0.112,0.075; 95% CI: 0.022-0.558,0.006-0.959), criminal object of property (OR = 9.989; 95% CI: 1.305-76.455), cases of theft (OR = 0.09, 0.087; 95% CI: 0.013-0.648,0.012-0.654), and cases of endangering public security (OR = 0.152, 0.205; 95% CI: 0.034-0.678, 0.045-0.931). CONCLUSION: Crime in public places, suspect's residence and victim's residence, forensic psychiatric diagnosis of F1X, F2X, F4X and F6X, criminal object of property, case types of theft and endangering public security were influencing factors in assessment of criminal responsibility. Therefore, special attention should be paid to patients with mental disorders under such circumstances in order to avoid bias on assessment of criminal responsibility.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Psiquiatria Legal , Estudos Retrospectivos , China/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
8.
Child Abuse Negl ; 135: 105988, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for eating disorder symptoms. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that childhood abuse may lead to identification with the aggressor, an automatic defensive process, to survive the abuse. Although it has been clinically implied, the role of identification with the aggressor as a potential mechanism underlying the relation between childhood abuse and eating disorder symptoms has not yet been empirically explored. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the role of identification with the aggressor as mediator in the association between history of childhood abuse and eating disorder symptoms among adults. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 198 participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing history of childhood abuse, eating disorder symptoms, and the various facets of identification with the aggressor. RESULTS: Severity of childhood abuse was significantly associated with shape and weight overevaluation, body dissatisfaction, and binge eating, as well as with all components of identification with the aggressor. In addition, almost all components of identification with the aggressor were significantly associated with eating disorder symptoms. Finally, identifying with the perpetrator's aggression mediated the association between childhood abuse and eating disorder symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The findings may contribute to future clinical interventions by illuminating identification with the aggressor as an important aspect in treating eating disorders. Understanding the pervasive effects of identification with the aggressor on survivors' self and their interactions with others may point to the significance of the therapeutic relationship, through which survivors can reprocess and weaken its detrimental effects.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criminosos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adulto , Humanos , Agressão , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Relig Health ; 61(4): 3028-3054, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545455

RESUMO

While there are no official data and published studies on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse (CPSA) from Ghana, local media reports continue to show worrying trends of the phenomenon. We drew on 73 media reports from January 2000 to March 2019, to describe the offence characteristics and profiles of the perpetrators and survivors of CPSA in Ghana. The findings showed females aged 10-19 as predominant survivors. The perpetrators were all males found guilty of lone rape, incest, defilement, indecent assault, sodomy, attempted rape, or gang rape. A preventive measure could involve streamlining the recruitment, training, and leadership structures of the church.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Criança , Clero , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sobreviventes
10.
Rev Mal Respir ; 39(10): 873-877, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471525

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mucorales are fungi that cause opportunistic infections. Its incidence increases. CASE REPORT: We report case of a 68-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome responsible for prolonged neutropenia, hospitalized for pneumonia and sinusitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. But, despite antibiotic therapy, the patient's health deteriorated with discovery of systemic emboli on CT-scan and died. Sinus biopsies performed before her death diagnosed invasive fungal infection (Mucorales). CONCLUSION: Mucorales co-infections are rare but have already been described. Any invasive fungal infection should be searched on the event of any clinical suspicion: ground (neutropenia), lack of response to well-conducted antibiotic therapy, rapidly unfavorable outcome. The presence of other microbiological documentation do not must stop the search of invasive fungal infection, because it could have short-term life-threatening impact.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Criminosos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Mucormicose , Micoses , Neutropenia , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Micoses/complicações , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Mucormicose/complicações , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Bactérias , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/complicações , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico
11.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 32(6): 404-413, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been evidenced as common among adolescents with delinquent behaviour. Less is known, however, about the relationship between these disorders and type of alleged offence, when the adolescent is involved with the criminal justice system. AIM: Our aim was to investigate whether the type of alleged index offences among 12-17-year-olds differ between those diagnosed with ASD, ADHD or ASD + ADHD. METHOD: The sample was selected for ASD and/or ADHD diagnoses from a database of all pre-trial forensic psychiatric and psychological assessments of male adolescents of 12-17 years old in the Netherlands for the years 2013 and 2014. For each record, independent researchers scored a 76-item checklist encompassing health and offending characteristics. Sixty-nine of the 1799 pre-trial assessments of these male adolescents had a diagnosis of ASD, 90 of ADHD and 29 had been diagnosed with both; these 188 cases formed our sample. RESULTS: The rate of sex offences was significantly higher among those with ASD (N = 20, 29%) than those with ADHD (N = 10, 11%) or both (N = 4, 14%; Fisher's exact test = 8.54; p = 0.014). By contrast, the rate of property offences without violence was significantly higher among those with ADHD (N = 22, 24%) than those with ASD (N = 4, 6%) or both (N = 5, 17%; Fisher's exact test = 10.50, p = 0.004), whereas violent offending rates did not differ between the three groups. CONCLUSION: Specific offence types were not equally distributed among male adolescents with different psychiatric diagnoses. In our sample of male adolescents suspected of an offence nearly one-third of those diagnosed with ASD were convicted of a sex offence, suggesting highly specialised needs for further assessment and intervention. Among those diagnosed with ADHD, significantly more adolescents were charged with non-violent property offences. Such unequal distribution of alleged offence types among adolescents with different psychiatric diagnoses justifies tailor-made attention for offending adolescents with different psychiatric diagnoses.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criminosos , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Lista de Checagem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497696

RESUMO

Juveniles with problematic sexual behaviors are often placed in residential treatment. However, little is known about the effectiveness of such treatments in terms of reducing recidivism or enhancing mental wellbeing. To better understand the impact of residential treatment for these juveniles we conducted a Systematic Review on studies that reported recidivism rates. PRISMA guidelines were followed. 1126 studies were initially identified, with only six meeting the final inclusion criteria. Sexual recidivism rates averaged 5.20% across the six studies, which is similar rates of non-residential treatments. The results suggest that certain client factors predict recidivism, for example youth labeled as obsessive offenders were more likely to recidivate compared to those labeled as opportunistic. Most studies also measured non-sexual crimes post treatment; recidivism rates for sexual misconduct tended to be lower than for other crimes. Despite the significant intrusion of residential treatment centers, remarkably few empirical studies exist to establish their effectiveness in reducing recidivism. The comparable recidivism rates to non-residential treatment programs begs the question of whether residential centers add value beyond outpatient care and suggest that less restrictive interventions may be sufficient. Helping youth evidencing problematic sexual behaviors involves complex dynamics, however caution is recommended on relying on residential treatment.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delinquência Juvenil , Reincidência , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual , Tratamento Domiciliar
13.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(10): 657-662, 2022.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36583275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leave is an essential part of treatment within the framework of the tbs measure (court ordered psychiatric treatment for offenders with a mental disorder). Traditionally, these leaves lead to concerns about safety. AIM: To study how often tbs-patients do not return from leave (on time) and how often they commit a crime during an unauthorized absence (UA). In addition, we investigate whether patient or offence characteristics can predict an UA. METHOD: All UA’s between 2009-2020 were examined. We also analysed the patient characteristics of 11,525 permit applications between 2010 and 2018 from the registration system of the Advisory Board for Permitting Leave TBS (AVT). RESULTS: 2.5% of the applications for leave between 2009 and 2020 involved an UA and 0.15% involved an UA with a recidivism. Patients with a cluster B personality disorder, substance use disorder, mood disorder, attention disorder, arson or a serious violent crime as an index offence had a significantly higher chance of having an UA. However, these associations were very weak. The risk factor violation of conditions (from the Dutch risk assessment tool, the HKT (Historical, Clinical, Future)) was also a significant but very weak predictor of UA. CONCLUSION: UA is a rare event. Despite the fact that some patient and offence characteristics were associated with an UA, this relationship is weak and predicting an UA is difficult.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Reincidência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Crime/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Violência/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia
14.
Asclepio ; 74(2)dic. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212897

RESUMO

El objetivo de este artículo es aproximarnos a la historia del gabinete antropométrico de la prisión Modelo de Barcelona entre 1895 y 1918. Será revisada la confluencia entre las nociones jurídicas, científicas y religiosas que los agentes correctores de la cárcel introdujeron en el gabinete, así como las discusiones, tensiones e interpretaciones que produjo su práctica. Para llevar a cabo este propósito la investigación girará en torno a las siguientes preguntas ¿cómo se consolidó la antropometría criminal en Barcelona? ¿Cuáles fueron las características de su proceso de apropiación? ¿las posturas vernáculas de los agentes correctores de la Modelo implicaron una transformación en el sistema antropométrico? y ¿cuáles fueron las consideraciones de los presos frente a este saber? Para responder estas preguntas, este artículo problematizará metodológicamente sobre las perspectivas enunciadas, primero, por la prensa local y los escritos de los representantes de la prisión Modelo, desde donde se interseccionó el ideal de prevención y corrección. Además, se hará un acercamiento a las experiencias escritas por los individuos antropometrizados, con las cuales se ofrecerá una constelación de representaciones microhistóricas y regresivas que develarán la criminalización del enemigo político, de las clases subalternas y el funcionamiento mismo del gabinete.(AU)


The aim of this article is to offer an approach to the history of the anthropometric cabinet for criminal identification at the Modelo Prison in Barcelona between 1895 and 1918, reviewing the confluence of legal, scientific and religious notions that prison correctional officers introduced into the cabinet. Based on these considerations, we will ask the following questions: how criminal anthropometry was consolidated in Barcelona? what were the characteristics of its appropriation process? did this imply a process of transformation of anthropometry by the vernacular postures of those who had access to it? and what were the considerations of the prisoners in relation to this knowledge? In order to answer these questions, this article will methodologically problematize around the perspectives enunciated, first, by the local press and the writings of the representatives of the Modelo prison, through which the ideal of prevention and correction was intersected. And secondly, by seeking a reading from the experiences written by anthropometrized individuals, which offers a constellation of representations conducive to discuss the criminalization of the political enemies, the subaltern classes and the operation itself at the cabinet.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Antropometria , Prisões , Prisioneiros , Reincidência , Criminosos , Espanha , Ciência/história , História da Medicina
15.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 24(12): 741-748, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36534316

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the non-punitive intents and goals of sexual offender civil commitment ("SOCC") proceedings. We apply the impacts of open courtrooms in SOCC hearings to what is known about the provision of effective, ethical, and constitutional interventions to those committed and we examine whether open proceedings are consistent with evidence-based practices, including the risk, needs, and responsivity principles. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of open courtrooms in SOCC proceedings presents numerous barriers to ethical, effective, and efficient interventions. Open courtrooms fuel treatment resistance, low treatment enrollment, exacerbation of risk factors, and mental conditions, and they disrupt protective factors, undermining the integrity of SOCC systems. These negative consequences are punitive and inconsistent with evidence-based practices, the RNR principles, and do not facilitate positive treatment outcomes. The SOCC's purpose is to prevent sexual re-offense by helping those committed improve their sexual offense risk-related mental conditions. Open courtrooms and the harm they cause undermine the constitutionality pillars of SOCC proceedings and are inconsistent with best practice principles. Legislators, judges, attorneys, and policymakers should monitor and reform courtroom procedures to ensure they are consistent with evidence-based practices and the non-punitive intent and goals of civil commitment.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Ética Profissional
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554272

RESUMO

This study investigated whether drug dealing juvenile offenders in Belgium differ from non-drug dealers in levels of violent and non-violent offending behaviors, aggression, substance use, and mental health needs. The current study examined data from 226 16- to 17-year-old male juvenile offenders. Information relating to drug dealing, substance use, and mental health needs were collected through self-report questionnaires. A structured diagnostic interview was used to collect information about past violent and non-violent behaviors. Chi-square tests and multivariate analysis of variance compared non-dealers and dealers and explored if hard-drug dealers and soft-drug dealers differed from each other. Relative to non-drug dealers, drug dealers engaged in more violent offending behaviors, exhibited higher levels of aggression, substance use and oppositional defiant problems, and displayed lower levels of anxiety. Soft- and hard-drug dealers did not differ from each other. To conclude, detained drug dealers are characterized by severe antisocial behavior.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delinquência Juvenil , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Criminosos/psicologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Prisões Locais , Violência , Agressão , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554869

RESUMO

Homicide-suicide can be defined as homicide followed by the suicide of the perpetrator shortly afterward. In the so-called "homicide-delayed suicide", homicide and suicide occur but within a wide and not strictly defined timeframe. This study analyzes data concerning the suicide of 667 inmates in Italy between 2002 and 2015, considering homicide perpetrators compared to all offenders. The analyses revealed that inmates who had committed homicide were more likely to commit suicide (71% versus 45%; χ2 = 10.952, p = 0.001) and the odds of suicide increase concerning 1.58 times among homicide perpetrators. The time-to-suicide interval after homicide ranges between 0 to 9.125 days (mean = 1.687,9; SD = 2.303,1). Moreover, the intimate-homicide offenders who committed suicide had a significantly shorter survival time after the offense than did the other non-intimate offenders who died by suicide (t test, t = -3.56, df = 90, p = 0.001). The link between homicide and higher suicide risk in homicide perpetrators should be highlighted because of all the homicide offenders passing through the criminal justice system. Superior knowledge about the path of homicide-delayed suicide will be of particular use to professionals in evaluating and treating homicide inmates.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Suicídio , Humanos , Homicídio , Violência , Morte
18.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278640, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36490284

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sexual assault is a prevalent and persistent problem in the military, yet few studies have examined predictors of sexual offenses. The study aim was to determine pre-service factors associated with sexual offense conviction among U.S. Marines. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed data from male active duty U.S. Marines (2003-2018). Pre-service factors were assessed using survey data from the Recruit Assessment Program, obtained prior to recruit training at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego, California. These survey data were linked with sexual offense conviction data obtained from the Naval Criminal Investigative Service Consolidated Law Enforcement Operations Center. RESULTS: Of the 146,307 participants, the majority were 18-19 years old (66.7%) and non-Hispanic, White (62.1%) with a high school education or less (76.8%); 107 received convictions for a sexual offense. In unadjusted analyses, race and ethnicity, parental education, type of primary caregiver, parental death, family economic status, childhood emotional trauma, childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, and unprotected sex were associated with a sexual offense conviction. In the final multivariable model, race and ethnicity (American Indian/Alaskan Native, odds ratio [OR]: 5.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86-14.98; Hispanic, OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.06-3.18; multiracial/other, OR: 3.28, 95% CI: 1.56-6.89), education (≤ high school, OR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.21-5.80), parental death (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.16-4.45), unprotected sex (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.03-3.05), and school suspension/expulsion (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.02-2.65) were significant predictors of a subsequent sexual offense conviction. CONCLUSIONS: Results underscore the importance of understanding factors associated with sexual offense and highlight the large discrepancy between self-reported estimates of sexual assault and sexual offense convictions. Findings may inform the development of effective strategies to reduce sexual misconduct, such as technology-facilitated programs that provide private, targeted education; supportive assistance; and prevention materials to individuals who may have elevated sexual misconduct risk.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Militares , Morte Parental , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
19.
Law Hum Behav ; 46(6): 398-414, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In October 2021, the American Psychological Association (APA) passed a resolution addressing ways psychologists could work to dismantle systemic racism in criminal legal systems. In the present report, developed to inform APA's policy resolution, we detail the scope of the problem and offer recommendations for policy makers and psychologists to address the issue by advancing related science and practice. Specifically, we acknowledge the roots of modern-day racial and ethnic disparities in rates of criminalization and punishment for people of color compared with White people. Next, we review existing theory and research that helps explain the underlying psychological mechanisms driving racial and ethnic disparities in criminal legal systems (e.g., endorsement of negative stereotypes, explicit and implicit bias). We also elucidate how racially disparate treatment generates downstream negative mental health consequences for people of color. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based recommendations to work toward eliminating systemic racism in the criminal legal systems include (a) rigorous measurement and analysis of disparities; (b) targeted changes in policy, practice, and law; (c) increased access to culturally aware and competent services and interventions; (d) design and promotion of education and training programs regarding racial bias; (e) increased attention to issues of intersectionality; and (f) promotion of diversity and fair-mindedness among criminal legal actors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Criminosos , Racismo , Humanos , Racismo Sistêmico , Saúde Mental
20.
Sante Ment Que ; 47(1): 63-85, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548793

RESUMO

Objectives This article provides an overview of the approaches and instruments used to assess the risk of other-directed violence, with particular focus on risk formulation. Issues pertaining to the development and implementation of these instruments are briefly reviewed. Method A critical analysis of the literature pertaining to the methods and current issues related to risk assessment of other-directed violence is proposed. Results Violence risk assessment instruments are used to manage offenders struggling with mental health issues. They help inform decisions regarding monitoring, supervision, treatment and sentencing in correctional and forensic mental health settings. There are different approaches to violence risk assessment and numerous instruments offered to professionals working in these settings. Considering the structured professional judgement (SPJ) tools, they have considerably evolved in the last years with regard to the types of violence and the methods used to assess and manage risk. Examples of these innovations include taking into consideration victim safety planning and strategies to facilitate risk communication such as scenario planning based on an explanatory framework informed by risk formulation. Risk formulation is a relatively new step in the administration SPJ tools, and invites users to go beyond documenting the presence and relevance of specific risk factors by allowing them to consider the nature and the etiology of violence in an individualized manner. Risk formulation integrates both relevant risk and protective factors that facilitate the process of scenario planning and the identification of successful risk management strategies. Conclusion Although structured approaches to violence risk assessment of offenders struggling with mental health issues have become more and more frequent in many settings, some methodological and implementation issues still have to be tackled. In spite that these issues warrant further discussion based on new empirical data, their contribution to risk reduction and to the success of social rehabilitation of the individuals at the centre of these assessments is undeniable.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Violência , Humanos , Violência/psicologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
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