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1.
Asclepio ; 74(2)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212900

RESUMO

Desde una perspectiva histórico crítica, este trabajo analiza diversos artículos de la Revista de Criminología, Psiquiatría y Medicina Legal publicados entre 1914 y 1927 que se han ocupado de clasificar y establecer un diagnóstico médico legal infantil en la Argentina. A su vez, se articula la perspectiva histórica con un enfoque de género, en tanto se plantean las especificidades presentes para niños varones en tales clasificaciones e intervenciones por parte de los saberes psi de la época. La producción de conocimiento sobre los criminales varones, se piensa como respuesta a múltiples problemas sociales como la delincuencia juvenil, la deambulación en las calles y las posibilidades de una rehabilitación/reeducación temprana. Se recuperan las ideas naturalistas y evolucionistas que funcionaron como una matriz de análisis e intervención en el proceso de difusión de los saberes expertos en la Argentina en el periodo delimitado por este artículo.(AU)


From a critical historical perspective, this paper analyses various articles from the Revista de Criminología, Psiquiatría y Medicina Legal published between 1914 and 1927 that have been concerned with classifying and establishing a medical-legal diagnosis of children in Argentina. At the same time, the historical perspective is articulated with a gender approach, insofar as the specificities present for male children in such classifications and interventions by the psi knowledge of the time are raised. The production of knowledge about male criminals is seen as a response to multiple social problems such as juvenile delinquency, wandering in the streets and the possibilities of early rehabilitation/re-education. This paper also addresses the naturalistic and evolutionary ideas that functioned as a common ground for the analysis and intervention in the process of dissemination of expert knowledge in Argentina.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Medicina Legal , Criminologia , Psiquiatria Infantil , Psicologia/história , Masculinidade , História da Medicina , Ciência/história
2.
Rev. med. cine ; 18(4): 357-363, dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213918

RESUMO

Se narra el uso del cine comercial para realizar evaluaciones formativas de Psicología en tres grados diferentes de la Universidad Pompeu Fabra (UPF): Criminología, Biología Humana y Medicina. Se comparan los resultados en los tres grados. Los estudiantes de Criminología obtuvieron resultados inferiores a los de Biología Humana y de Medicina. (AU)


The use of commercial cinema to carry out formative examinations of Psychology in three different degrees of the Pompeu Fabra University (UPF): Criminology, Human Biology and Medicine is narrated. Results in the three grades are compared. The students of Criminology obtained lower results than those of Human Biology and Medicine. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Psicologia , Avaliação Educacional , Biologia/educação , Criminologia/educação , Educação Médica
3.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 65(5): 64-68, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196843

RESUMO

The study objective is to present facts from the history of casting art and biographical information about the casting artists S.P. Fiveysky and M.A. Kurbatov, the founders of the casting craft in Russia. The attributes of the technology for making death masks, their features, advantages, and disadvantages as objects that capture appearance are described. The role of models and death masks in forensic practice, forensic science, and pedagogical activity is addressed.


Assuntos
Criminologia , Medicina Legal , Federação Russa
4.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 48(4): 158-165, Octubre - Diciembre 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213684

RESUMO

Las bases de datos genéticas con fines de investigación criminal constituyen una herramienta de indiscutible utilidad en la investigación de hechos delictivos.En América Latina existe un progresivo avance en la implementación de bases de datos para uso forense. La legislación existente es escasa, y heterogénea, tanto respecto de los delitos que se incluyen, como de la situación de los individuos cuyo ADN es pasible de registro. La mayoría no exige la acreditación de los laboratorios forenses bajo la norma ISO 17025. Las bases de datos de ADN existentes carecen, actualmente, de un régimen normalizado de comunicación.El establecimiento de un sistema de consulta e intercambio de datos genéticos en apoyo a los sistemas penales nacionales y a la persecución de delitos a nivel internacional, demanda acuerdos de cooperación, para lo cual, los implementados en la Unión Europea desde 1992, perfeccionados con la decisión de Prüm, constituyen un valioso referente. (AU)


DNA databases for criminal investigation purposes, constitute a tool of indisputable utility in the investigation of criminal acts.In the countries of Latin America there is a progressive advance in the implementation of databases for forensic use. The existing legislation is limited, and it is also heterogeneous both with respect to the crimes included and the procedural situation of the individuals whose DNA is subject to registration. Most of them do not require the accreditation of the forensic laboratories under the ISO 17025 standard. Existing DNA databases currently lack a standard communication regime.The establishment of a system of consultation and exchange of genetic data in support of national criminal systems and the prosecution of crimes at the international level, demands cooperation agreements, for which, those implemented in the European Union since 1992, perfected with the decision of Prüm, constitute a valuable reference. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos/organização & administração , Criminologia/métodos , Genética Forense/legislação & jurisprudência , Genética Forense/organização & administração , América Latina , União Europeia
6.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9902

RESUMO

Exposição do Nat C. Robertson Distinguished, Professor Howard Kushner, sobre as ideias do psiquiatra e criminólogo italiano, Cesare Lombroso. O foco recai sobre os argumentos e a racionalidade que levou Lombroso a estabelecer uma relação entre canhotismo e comportamento criminal.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Criminologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564753

RESUMO

Serial murder is a specific type of violent crime that falls into the crime category of multicide. According to the nomenclature of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Violent Crime Classification Manual and Academic Researchers for the Classification of Violent Crimes, most serial killers are adults. However, serial murder is also committed by young people, although to a lesser extent. Young serial killers are a topic of relevance in areas such as psychology, criminology, and the justice system. Given that the study of the variables that could be the basis of such multicide criminality is not conclusive, the need for further research is evident. The homicides perpetrated by children and young people point to a social panorama that is alarming due to their young age. This issue is prevalent enough to conduct a review. The performed review concludes the importance of psychosocial factors to better understand the process by which children and young people commit crimes as serious as serial murders. The scope of the problem of serial murders perpetrated by minors is controversial because it often depends on how the number of real cases is counted. Although official statistics indicate the low prevalence of juvenile serial killers, childhood is a period in which antisocial behaviour can have its beginning. Some authors consider that it is not uncommon for the first murder of this type to occur in adolescence. It is important to consider psychopathy as an influential factor in the various forms of serial criminal conduct committed by children and young people. The research works consulted provide evidence of the special relevance of psychopathy in the generation of serious juvenile delinquency.


Assuntos
Criminologia , Delinquência Juvenil , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Criança , Crime/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Homicídio , Humanos
8.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 81: 101773, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026441

RESUMO

The general psychopathology general theory or p Factor is an influential theoretical development in the social and behavioral sciences, but has yet to gain traction in criminology and criminal justice. Drawing on data from a sample of 1722 federal pretrial defendants, we created a 22-item composite indicator or additive index of the p Factor containing externalizing, internalizing, substance use, paraphilic, and forensic indicators. Negative binomial regression models found that age, sex, and diverse forms of trauma exposure are associated with higher p Factor scores. Higher p scores strongly predicted total, violent, sexual, property, weapon, and drug arrest charges net the effects of demographic features and adverse childhood experiences. There is broad heterogeneity in psychopathology within this sample with nearly 29% of clients exhibiting zero psychopathology, nearly 61% showing average psychopathology or less, and nearly 40% evincing average to exceedingly high psychopathology. As a general theory, the p Factor has considerable potential to inform the assorted morbidities that often accompany criminal activity, including self-harm, reduced global functioning, substance use, and social dysfunction and thus is a parsimonious conceptual framework to understand the overlapping and systemic personal problems that typify chronic and serious criminal offenders.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Crime , Direito Penal , Criminologia , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
9.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 66(4): 327-344, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090045

RESUMO

Green criminology allows for the study of environmental and criminal laws, environmental criminality which includes widespread environmental harm, and the abuse and exploitation of nonhuman animals. Yet many environmental crimes are not the core focus of criminal justice systems or public concern about crime and safety despite having the potential to cause far wider social harm and a large number of deaths. Instead much environmental enforcement is regulatory or administrative in nature, particularly in respect of corporate environmental wrongdoing, which is often categorized as accidental wrongdoing, largely considered to be the fault of "rogue" employees or the unintended consequences of governance failures. Unlike traditional street and property crimes, environmental crimes (and environmental harms) frequently have long-lasting and irreversible effects. This raises questions about the effectiveness of justice systems in dealing with environmental offenders and the damage they cause. This paper explores the effectiveness of contemporary environmental enforcement mechanisms. In particular, the paper explores the extent to which they such mechanism are equipped to deal with corporate environmental offending which in many cases is a consequence of the operation of neoliberal markets. This paper examines whether the drive for profits and anthropocentric attitudes toward the environment and exploitation of natural resources create a situation where corporate environmental crime is a foreseeable and even natural/inevitable consequence. Where that is the case and where corporations have the resources to continue paying fines and the expertise to navigate regulatory justice systems, an alternative to the law enforcement "detection apprehension and punishment" approach might be required.


Assuntos
Direito Penal , Criminosos , Crime/prevenção & controle , Criminologia , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei
10.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 66(4): 407-429, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153364

RESUMO

This essay adopts an interdisciplinary approach to consider the meaning of "eco-crime" in the aquatic environment and draws on marine science, the study of criminal law and environmental law, and the criminology of environmental harms. It reviews examples of actions and behaviors of concern, such as offences committed by transnational organized crime and the legal and illegal over-exploitation of marine resources, and it discusses responses related to protection, prosecution and punishment, including proposals for an internationally accepted and enforced law of ecocide. One key element of the policy and practice of ending ecocide is the call to prioritize the adoption of technologies that are benign and renewable. Our essay concludes with a description of the "Almadraba" method of fishing to illustrate that there are ways in which the principles of sustainability and restoration can be applied in an ethical and just way in the context of modern fisheries.


Assuntos
Crime , Criminologia , Direito Penal , Pesqueiros , Humanos , Punição
11.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 66(4): 451-469, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215564

RESUMO

As of June 2020, there have been at least 2,540 mass shootings since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in Newtown, CT, on December 14, 2012. Some have suggested that the repeated trauma of these massacres has created a collective "emotional numbness," lessening our empathy. This article asks whether a similar phenomenon is occurring with respect to environmental crime and harm. It considers whether we have developed "compassion fatigue" regarding environmental violence and contemplates a "workout regimen" for empathy for Gaia's suffering. In so doing, it seeks to engage with emerging work in the penumbra of narrative criminology and green cultural criminology.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Vacinas , Crime , Criminologia , Humanos , Violência/psicologia
13.
Rev. crim ; 64(1): [95-108], 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369483

RESUMO

Desde el institucionalismo histórico se describen las acciones desarrolladas por la Policía Nacional de Colombia en el año 2020 en el servicio de policía, con ocasión del escenario de emergencia sanitaria generado por la pandemia del covid-19, que cambió el entramado criminógeno y el comportamiento de actores criminales y el delito en el país. Por lo tanto, la policía utilizó un enfoque de policía proactiva y criminología táctica para la contención del crimen en Colombia, que se explica en este capítulo. Entre los principales resultados se destacan el uso de evidencia científica y la utilización de la criminología táctica como soporte de la planeación del servicio policial, para el diseño de acciones que estuvieron asociados con la disminución del homicidio en Colombia del 4,2%, evidenciando contención del repunte del delito como efecto de la reconfiguración del crimen en la coyuntura crítica del confinamiento. Así mismo, este capítulo puede ser un referente para los organismos de seguridad, que plantea una reflexión de las enseñanzas en la aplicación de un enfoque de policía proactiva en los cambios recientes del crimen durante el escenario de pandemia covid-19.


Assuntos
Criminologia , Pandemias , COVID-19
14.
Rev. crim ; 64(1): [133-153], 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369490

RESUMO

La investigación tiene como objetivo identificar las creencias whistleblowers sobre la denuncia de presuntos delitos financieros, segmentados en los contextos hispanoamericano y brasileño. Las entrevistas se prospectaron con 50 profesionales de negocios de 14 países latinoamericanos, utilizando el protocolo de Ajzen (2006) para investigar los determinantes de las creencias de los denunciantes. El análisis de contenido de las respuestas permitió identificar las creencias regionales de los resultados favorables y desfavorables de un informe potencial, los referentes relevantes que se pueden comparar y los controles percibidos que permiten y facilitan u obstaculizan el desempeño del comportamiento de los denunciantes. La evidencia recopilada contribuye a la literatura, las organizaciones y los investigadores criminales, señalando las creencias locales que pueden usarse para influir, medir y predecir el comportamiento local de los denunciantes.


Assuntos
Criminologia , Denúncia de Irregularidades
15.
Rev. crim ; 63(3): [9-31], 20211201.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369281

RESUMO

El comportamiento de la criminalidad durante el año 2020 evidenció variaciones asociadas con los cambios en las dinámicas de las poblaciones en todo el país. Este artículo utilizando elementos descriptivos, expone las características del delito en Colombia durante el año 2020 y el contexto criminógeno asociado con las transformaciones del crimen haciendo énfasis en el homicidio. En particular, al interior del artículo incluye una sección que plantea una reflexión en torno a los aportes de la neurocriminología para la comprensión de la conducta criminal. Entre las conclusiones se indica: 1) una reducción importante en el homicidio que representó la tasa más baja de los últimos 46 años en Colombia equivalente a 23,8 homicidios por cien mil habitantes. 2) un decremento equivalente al 29% de los delitos de impacto ocurridos en el país al comparar el año 2019 con el año 2020. 3) asociado a un año de emergencia sanitaria la Policía Nacional capturó 173.217 sujetos por la comisión de diferentes delitos y de acuerdo con ejercicios analíticos realizados en territorios, las unidades de policía aumentaron su carga laboral con nuevas tareas derivadas de las medidas de atención y prevención del COVID-19.


Assuntos
Criminologia , Comportamento Criminoso , COVID-19 , Homicídio
16.
Rev. crim ; 63(3): [245-264], 20211201.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369297

RESUMO

Es innegable que el crimen en México aumenta y sin duda alguna, para frenarlo son necesarias políticas públicas empíricamente argumentadas. La investigación busca dar respuesta a tres interrogantes fundamentales sobre el crimen en el estado de Tabasco: ¿Existen patrones en la conducta delictiva? ¿Cuál es su tendencia? ¿Cómo caracterizarla durante las últimas décadas? Para responderlos se recurre a la estadística descriptiva, la georreferenciación y al análisis de series de tiempo (1997-2018) para identificar los patrones subyacentes. Villahermosa o El Centro, la ciudad capital del estado, ha sido, es y seguirá siendo una de las ciudades más inseguras del país, de no tomarse decisiones radicales para inhibir las tasas delictivas. En la actualidad, el secuestro y el abigeato son las modalidades delincuenciales que afectan, de gran modo, las actividades económicas de la región e i


Assuntos
Criminologia
17.
Behav Sci Law ; 39(5): 611-623, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755372

RESUMO

To further understand psychopathy within a Developmental and Life-Course Criminology perspective, the current article investigates the stability and change in psychopathy from childhood to middle age. The Cambridge Study in delinquent development is a prospective longitudinal study of 411 males, where psychopathy was coded based on contemporanously collected data from young people and in adulthood. Psychopathy in middle age was assessed in a medical interview. The findings indicate a high degree of stability of psychopathy across the life-course. To explain stability and change, childhood factors that might predict this were investigated. Few factors were related to stability and change across the life-course. Poor supervision, poor housing, a large family, and having a convicted father were associated with any change. A depressed mother was associated with a later decrease in psychopathy. This investigation has implications not only for the downward extension of psychopathy to childhood, but also for the understanding of the development of criminal and antisocial behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criminologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 16(3): 263-279, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689486

RESUMO

While research on Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) has been conducted on issues ranging from quality, process, and effectiveness, gaps remain. Social science researchers have raised issues regarding decisions by IRBs applied to the social sciences based on biomedical research. To date, little is known about the experience of social scientists in criminology and criminal justice with IRBs and this research seeks to fill this gap. An online survey, including open- and closed-ended questions drawn from the validated IRB-Researcher Assessment Tool, was administered to members of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and the American Society of Criminology about their experiences with IRBs. Results revealed that researchers report experiencing challenges with their IRBs including timeline delays of their research, bias against their research, and decisions that protect legal liability rather than human subjects ethics. Recommendations for improving IRB reviews of protocols and challenges unique to criminology and criminal justice are discussed.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Direito Penal , Criminologia , Humanos , Pesquisadores , Estados Unidos
19.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 65(8): 916-936, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522338

RESUMO

Offender rehabilitation is a challenging goal that calls for ongoing creative innovations. Amongst is a non-doing rehabilitative initiation that is inspired by spiritual traditions. The aim of this paper is to present an application of non-doing offender rehabilitation that has no declared intention to rehabilitate, carried by a peacemaking Islamic Sufi route. Based on the positive criminology approach, we conducted a qualitative phenomenological study consisted of interviews with 11 ex-prisoners who were employed in the Shadhiliyya-Yashrutiyya Sufi order as construction workers and also with 35 Sufi disciple and leaders. We identified five themes of non-doing: (1) atmosphere; (2) modeling; (3) social inclusion and suspension of judgement; (4) spiritual meaning; (5) feasibility of transformative processes. The discussion presents principles of a model of non-doing rehabilitation in a spiritual community and emphasizes the research innovation in presenting non-doing as a holistic method of inclusion within a transformative faith community.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Prisioneiros , Criminologia , Humanos , Islamismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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