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1.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(4): 92-104, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1347845

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: analisar a "periculosidade" como um dispositivo a partir das publicações que se encontram nos campos das Ciências Sociais, Humanas e da Saúde. MÉTODO: revisão integrativa das publicações disponíveis nas bases de dados da PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO e a BDTD, entre os anos de 2014 a 2017. Foi utilizada a análise temática para tratamento e análise dos dados. RESULTADO: foram selecionadas 43 produções, organizadas em grupos que apontam os elementos que compõem o dispositivo, entre eles o entrelaçamento de saberes, risco, culpa e estratégias de intervenção. CONCLUSÃO: tomar a periculosidade como um dispositivo expõe uma série de relações de saber-poder que se reproduzem ao longo do tempo, mas permite também estabelecer outras estratégias de intervenção para o processo de reintegração social destes sujeitos.


OBJECTIVE: to analyze "hazardousness" as a device through the publications in the fields of Social, Humanities and Health Sciences. METHOD: an integrative review of publications available in reference databases of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO and BDTD databases, from 2014 to 2017. Thematic analysis was used for data treatment and analysis. RESULT: a total of 43 productions were selected, organized in groups that point out the elements that compose the device, including the intertwining of knowledge, risk, guilt and intervention strategies. CONCLUSION: hazardousness as a device exposes a series of knowledge-power relationships that reproduce over time, but it also allows establishing other intervention strategies for the process of social reintegration of these subjects.


OBJETIVO: analizar la "peligrosidad" como dispositivo a través de las publicaciones en los campos de las Ciencias Sociales, Humanitarias y de la Salud. MÉTODO: revisión integradora de publicaciones disponibles en bases de datos de referencia de PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO y BDTD, de 2014 a 2017. Se utilizó el análisis temático para el tratamiento y el análisis de datos. RESULTADO: se seleccionaron 43 producciones, organizadas en grupos que señalan los elementos que componen el dispositivo, entre ellos la combinación de estrategias de conocimiento, riesgo, culpa e intervención. CONCLUSIÓN: tomar la peligrosidad como un dispositivo expone una serie de relaciones de conocimiento-poder que se reproducen con el tiempo, pero también permite establecer otras estrategias de intervención para el proceso de reintegración social de estos sujetos.


Assuntos
Ciências Sociais , Poder Psicológico , Comportamento Perigoso , Ciências da Saúde , Criminosos , Direitos Humanos , Ciências Humanas
2.
Psychiatr Prax ; 48(8): 412-420, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741285

RESUMO

In Germany, offenders with addiction problems may be sentenced to treatment in forensic psychiatric hospitals. A considerable share of patients, in some hospitals more than 40 percent, is returned to prison. The paper presents findings of a long-term evaluation study. METHOD: 16 hospitals participated and provided data on patients' background and course of treatment. The Federal Office of Justice reported on patients' conduct after discharge in terms of new entries in the federal criminal register (FCR). A matched sample of controls - prisoners with addiction problems - was recruited referring to a schema of criminological characteristics. FINDINGS: The former patients' social adjustment was significantly better than the former prisoners': the total risk reduction (less new FCR-entries) amounted over 20 percent (effect-size bcohen > 0.45). This comparison included all patients returned to prison. DISCUSSION: The treatments reveal - in total - a significant and substantial effect in favor of patients' later adjustment, though a too large subgroup of patients is returned to prison.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Prisioneiros , Reincidência , Alemanha , Humanos , Prisões
3.
Georgian Med News ; (319): 152-160, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749342

RESUMO

The purpose of the article is to determine the feasibility and necessity of the mandatory participation of a psychiatrist in the conduct of a forensic psychiatric examination under the legislation of Ukraine and Georgia. The task is to outline the ways of improving the norms of the criminal law of both countries in the legal and medical spheres based on the analysis of the norms of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine and the Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia. It has been established that the constitutional provision of the right to human health (in particular the researched one) in Ukraine and Georgia is contained not only in the codes and medical legislation of both states, but also in a number of international legal acts that have been ratified by their parliaments. The analysis of the relevant norms carried out in the article revealed the imperfection of concepts and terms, methods and methods of implementing the norms that should reflect the specified right. The authors of the article found that the main problem of realizing the human right to full legal and medical protection in the conduct of forensic psychiatric examination, as well as in the exercise of the rights and duties of an expert psychiatrist, is the lack of a clear procedure for the participation of a doctor in the conduct of judicial and investigative actions. Scientific research has established that the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine, the Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia and methodological recommendations regarding the participation of a psychiatrist in carrying out procedural measures to collect evidence in the commission of a crime have common features, wording and requirements. The authors of the article revealed that the requirements of international legal norms and a certain specificity of the situation for conducting a forensic psychiatric examination dictate the need to amend the criminal procedural legislation of Ukraine and Georgia. Changes in the legislation of these countries should be aimed at a clearer formulation of the basic concepts and terms of the doctor's participation in the conduct of judicial and investigative actions. These new norms of the law will act as a guarantee for the realization of the right to health, meet the basic international principles and requirements in the field of health care and law.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Direitos Humanos , Medicina Legal , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Ucrânia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769862

RESUMO

Juvenile perpetrators account for over 25% of all sexual offenses, and over one-third of such offenses are against victims under the age of 18. Given empirical connections between adverse childhood experience (ACE) exposure and perpetration of violence, we create victim typologies based on the juveniles' relationship to their victims among 5539 justice-involved adolescents who have committed violent against-person sexual felonies. Multinomial logistic regression is used to assess which covariates, including individual ACE exposures and cumulative traumatic exposures, are associated with victim typologies. This approach allows for better targeting of violence prevention efforts, as a more nuanced understanding of the increased likelihood to victimize specific victim groups lends to potential differences in treatment provision, beyond simplistic findings regarding ACE exposure increasing offending. Results indicate five classes of victim types, ranging from a low of 6.4%, with primarily strangers as victims, to 31.3%, with predominately acquaintances as victims, and only 12.9% with a diverse array of relationships to victims. Importantly, many demographic and individual risk factors, and specific traumatic exposures were related to victimizing one's sibling, while cumulative trauma as measured by an ACE score decreased the likelihood of victimizing classmates, while increasing the likelihood of victimizing siblings and other relatives compared to victimizing acquaintances.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Vítimas de Crime , Criminosos , Delinquência Juvenil , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Humanos , Violência
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833406

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: It is known that there may be an interconditionality between social status, personality disorders, and aggressive behavior. This study aimed to analyze the social and psychiatric diagnosis characteristics in subjects imprisoned for domestic violence acts compared to other types of aggressive behaviors. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective study using psychiatric medical-legal reports at the National Institute of Legal Medicine "Mina Minovici" Bucharest from 2016 to 2020. Results: We included 234 cases in our analysis, from which 132 (56%) were domestic violence offenders (DVO), and 102 (44%) were violence offenders imprisoned for other aggressions (OVO). Overall, DVOs were older than OVOs (43.0 +/- 14.7 vs. 36.1 +/- 16.6 years-old). In both study groups, most subjects were men, but the DVO group had more women than the OVO group: 23 cases (17%) and 3 cases (3%), respectively. In 14 cases (11%), previous criminal records were found from the DVO and 31 (30%) from the OVO group. Significantly fewer DVO were chronic psychoactive substance users: 83 (63%) in the DVO group versus 78 (86%) in the OVO group. Significantly more DVO had suicidal tendencies 26 (20%) compared to OVO 9 (9%). DVO subjects had significantly less often unsocialized conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder compared to the OVO group. Conclusions: We found that DVO, compared to the OVO, were more numerous, older, less abusive, with a less frequent history of psychoactive substance abuse and addictions, and were less frequently indifferent to the committed acts.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Violência Doméstica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Agressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 64(6): 56-60, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814647

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to determine the place of formal logic methods for determination of causality in 'medical cases'. The study was carried out using the dialectical method, as well as analysis, generalization, induction, deduction, comparison, and the statistical method. Using the principle of causality, the authors stipulate that causality is not only a tool of categorical comprehension of the world, but also a form of thinking activity that allows us to directly discover cause-and-effect patterns. The principle of conditio sine qua non is used in conjunction with other methods of formal logic to identify causality. Further dialectical methods of cognition are applied, which involve appealing to the categories of possibility and reality, necessity and randomness, essence and phenomenon, etc. A mistake made at the stage of applying the methods of formal logic leads to an erroneous conclusion on the whole situation of establishing causality. The article demonstrates this with the example of 'medical cases'. The correct application of logical methods of detecting causality does not yet predetermine the correctness of the final decision on the causality. The authors conclude that the forensic expert examines only individual aspects of legally significant causality in the permissible use of the construct of direct causality, and in general the legal assessment of the presence or absence of causality is made in the process of qualification of the criminal situation, involving the establishment of socially dangerous act as an independent component of legally significant causal relationship, the guilt of the person and other elements of the crime.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Lógica , Causalidade , Crime , Medicina Legal , Humanos
7.
Clin Ter ; 172(5): 438-441, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625776

RESUMO

Introduction: Over the last years, many research groups have been working on evaluating the most appropriate rehabilitation approaches in offenders with mental disorders, taking into account the need to prevent crime reiteration. The HKT-R (Historisch Klinisch Toekomst- Revised), recently validated in Italy, is a comprehensive tool that offers useful indications to healthcare operators on relapse hazard and major risk areas on which intensify rehabilitation treatments. The present study aims to assess the risk of violent crime recidivism in psychiatric patients during different rehabilitative pats. Materials&Methods: the risk of violent crime recidivism was assessed by using the HKT-R in 34 patients with mental disorders treated in ordinary psychiatric therapeutic rehabilitative units (CRAP - Comunità Terapeutiche Riabilitative Assistenziali Psichiatriche) and in CRAP-D (Comunità Terapeutiche Riabilitative Assistenziali Psichiatriche Dedicate) specialized in crime offenders. Results and Conclusions: Results have demonstrated a higher risk of violent behavior in CRAP-D, and a negative correlation between the risk of violent recidivism, global functioning of patients, and length of care program. These data suggest that residential rehabilita-tion programs, by improving personal and social functioning, could negatively impact the risk of violent crime recidivism, especially in patients with severe mental illness.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Crime , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Violência/prevenção & controle
8.
Georgian Med News ; (318): 172-176, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628402

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to discuss and present authors' vision of problems of euthanasia legal regulation in legislation with due consideration of human rights and liberties. The study was performed considering a set of disciplines: medicine, jurisprudence, religion, philosophy. A number of international documents were generalized, practice of European Court of Human Rights, Criminal Codes of Ukraine, Georgia and a number of other countries, relating to the question under study, views of scholars on moral and legal aspects, juridical and philosophical comprehension of this agenda. The following scientific methods were applied: systemic legal method, comparative legal method, philosophical legal method, logical method, as well as analysis and synthesis method. The authors developed proposals in solution of problems connected with this subject matter. Legalization of euthanasia is found to be possible by allowing its application to be reflected in Article 52, Law of Ukraine "Fundamentals of Ukrainian Legislation on Public Health". We determined that execution of euthanasia belongs to rights of physician, not his/her duties. In this we noted that this novelty will rule out any possibility of subsequent introduction of a special norm to Ukrainian Criminal Code stipulating criminal responsibility of physician for execution of euthanasia and, as a subsequence, will preclude any pre-trial and trial judicature (Articles 214, 215, Code of Criminal Procedure of Ukraine).


Assuntos
Criminosos , Médicos , República da Geórgia , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Princípios Morais
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639760

RESUMO

Child and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) is an international public health problem. Despite the importance of CSA, there is no consensus definition, and the lack of consensus is related to difficulties in conducting prevalence studies as well as research in other areas. To establish a consensual definition, legal aspects such as the age of sexual consent and the difference in age or power between victim and aggressor as well as aspects related to sexual freedom and sexual indemnity must be considered. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to analyze the age of sexual consent in the legal systems of Spanish-speaking countries and to examine whether the Romeo and Juliet clause is established. To achieve the proposed aims, we employed the legal interpretation method, and we analyzed the current Criminal Codes of the 21 Spanish-speaking countries. From the results, it is found that the age of sexual consent varies between countries, establishing valid sexual consent between 13 and 18 years. In addition, only six countries have the Romeo and Juliet clause that protects sexual freedom in adolescents. Finally, we discussed the lack of consensus on the age of sexual consent and the limitations presented by the Romeo and Juliet clause.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Criminosos , Adolescente , Criança , Liberdade , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639808

RESUMO

Considering that adolescent offenders are quite a heterogeneous group in terms of behavioral and psychosocial variables, it is considered that a typological approach can assist in the systematization of these differences, aiming at a better understanding of the phenomenon and at clearer guidance in terms of interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the behavioral and psychosocial profiles of male adolescent offenders, based on empirical data collected in a Brazilian sociocultural context. The profiles were made with a sample of 400 adolescent offenders to perform an exploratory latent classes analysis. The instruments used in data collection were the Youth Behavior Questionnaire (Questionário de Comportamentos Juvenis, QCJ) and the Brazilian Jesness Inventory-Revised (Inventário Jesness-Revisado-Brasileiro, IJ-R-Br). The most appropriate model was that of four classes, with the profiles found indicating differences between the adolescent offenders both in relation to psychological functioning and criminal pattern, as well as the psychosocial risk/protective factors associated with each of the profiles. These findings, in addition to contributing to understanding the phenomenon, may help to reflect on the assessments required to assist in judicial decision-making processes and the customized proposal of psychosocial interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Criminosos , Delinquência Juvenil , Adolescente , Comportamento Criminoso , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 4): 535-540, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718277

RESUMO

This paper discusses the assessment of psychopatic traits in perpetrators with schizofrenia in the light of common assumption that perpetrators with schizofrenia are not homogenic group but rather heterogenic group whose future risk does not rest exclusively on the psychopathology of the underlying disease. Our sample consists of 150 perperators with schizofrenia who commited a criminal act and were subjects of forensic evaluation in the University Hospital of Psychiatry Vrapce, Center for Forensic Psychiatry throughout a period of 11 years. All data were extracted from written evaluations. In our research, the assessment of psychopatic trait was performed by PCL-R (Psychopathy Checklist- Revised) - the assessment tool rarely used in Croatia. Data were analysed by methods of descriptive statistics and multivariant discriminatory analysis. Our results show that some of psychopatic traits exist in all of our evaluees, but with markedly different intensity. The average PCL-R score was 19.92 (SD=8.30), and by defining the cut off at 26, our subjects were divided into two groups: subjects with a higher level of psychopathy trait (High-P) and those with a lower level of psychopathy trait (Low-P). These two groups showed significant differences in all of the items. The confirmation of our hypothesis opens new areas for discussion and future research: problem of comorbidites in patients with schizofrenia in a forensic setting and a rationale for the routine usage of PCL-R in forensic evaluations.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Esquizofrenia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
12.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 31(5): 321-330, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment completion difficulties are common in forensic mental health settings and may have a profound impact on recidivism rates. AIMS: To test for associations between measures of risk and of security needs on the one hand and treatment non-completion on the other among male offender-patients in one medium security hospital. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective file study in a Flemish medium security hospital. A random sample of 25 treatment non-completers was compared to a random same-size sample of completers, each rated, blind to outcome, on the DUNDRUM-1 security needs scale from data recorded at the time of admission to the unit. 'Non-completion' was defined as any failure to complete treatment, whether staff-terminated or self-terminated; in Flanders, failure to comply with the judicial conditions of placement can result in re-imprisonment. We used binary logistic regression to test relationships between treatment completion/non-completion and security need, measured with the DUNDRUM-1, together with a range of possible confounding variables. RESULTS: Most patients had psychosis and/or personality disorder and often substance use disorders also. Treatment non-completion was invariably staff ordered because of security breaches. DUNDRUM-1 and PCL-R Facet 4 scores at the time of admission and HCR-20 scores during admission were significantly higher among non-completers than completers, but after binary logistic regression, only the DUNDRUM-1 rating was independently associated with non-completion. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that an admission DUNDRUM-1 rating, indicating levels of security need, co-varies only to a small extent with the historical items of the HCR-20, so may be regarded as measuring complementary domains. While conditions in Flanders at the time of the study complicated it in that medium security hospital units offered the highest level of hospital security available, the finding that non-completion of treatment was particularly likely when the DUNDRUM-1 indicated a higher security need than facilities could provide may have implications for all secure hospital services.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Psicóticos , Psiquiatria Legal , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Res Dev Disabil ; 118: 104062, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that motor difficulties may be closely associated with severe emotional and behavioural problems in children. However, there is limited research on the role of motor function in young adults who offend. AIMS: To assess motor skills, balance, and primary reflex persistence in young people who offend, and to examine the relative association of different motor factors with self-reported levels of aggression. METHODS: We recruited three groups of males (14-18 years); young people serving custodial sentences (n = 33) in a youth justice centre, and an IQ-matched comparison group (n = 36) and an average-IQ comparison group (n = 38) of non-offenders. All completed a standardised test of motor skills, clinical assessment protocols for balance and primary reflex persistence, and a standardised self-report behavioural rating scale. RESULTS: The youth justice group showed significantly lower abilities in some motor skills and balance and significantly higher levels of primary reflex persistence and aggression than both comparison groups. In a multiple regression model, only manual dexterity (p = .032) and primary reflex persistence (p = .002) were significant predictors of aggression. CONCLUSIONS: A broad range of motor difficulties are likely to occur in young people who offend. We discuss the implications of motor difficulties for approaches to rehabilitation of persistent offenders.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Adolescente , Agressão , Criança , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e044656, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475139

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Considerable evidence supports an association between poor impulse control (impulsivity) and violent crime. Furthermore, impulsivity and aggression has been associated with reduced levels of serotonergic activity in the brain. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of anti-depressants that aim to regulate brain serotonin concentrations. Several small studies in psychiatric populations have administered SSRIs to impulsive--aggressive individuals, resulting in reduced impulsivity, anger, aggression and depression. However, no clinical trial has been undertaken in a criminal justice population. This protocol describes the design and implementation of the first systematic study of the potential benefits of SSRIs in impulsive---violent offenders who are at high risk of reoffending. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised, double-blinded, multicentre trial to test the clinical efficacy of an SSRI, sertraline hydrochloride, compared with placebo on recidivism and behavioural measures (including impulsivity, anger, aggression, depression and self-reported offending) over 12 months. 460 participants with histories of violence and screening positive for impulsivity are recruited at several local courts and correctional service offices in New South Wales, Australia. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Possible implications of the effectiveness of this pharmacological intervention include economic benefits of reducing prison costs and societal benefits of improving safety. This study has received ethical approval from the University of New South Wales, Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council, Corrective Services NSW and the NSW Justice Health and Forensic Mental Health Network. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12613000442707.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Agressão , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sertralina/uso terapêutico
15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 143: 285-291, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530339

RESUMO

Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk for arrest and incarceration relative to the same-community population without SMI. Publicly-funded inpatient psychiatric hospitals usually feature short lengths of stay and limited opportunities for extended services that might impact criminal justice involvement after discharge. This study examined the influence of an early intervention program for SMI at a high-volume public psychiatric hospital on involvement in the criminal justice system post-discharge. The Early Onset Treatment Program (EOTP) is an extended service intervention program for uninsured patients who are within 5 years of SMI onset. Criminal justice records (number of arrests with conviction, days of incarceration) were obtained for EOTP participants (n = 164) and comparison patients (n = 164) matched on demographics, diagnosis, and discharge date via propensity score matching. Data were zero-inflated and analyzed using hurdle models, controlling for prior arrests. The EOTP group was less likely to be convicted of at least one crime post-discharge (0 arrests vs. > 0, p < .001), and spent fewer days incarcerated (if incarcerated ≥1 day, p < .03). Participation in the EOTP service was linked to reduced likelihood of post-discharge arrest and days incarcerated. Several alternative variables may contribute to this preliminary observation, including length of stay, medication adherence, longer environmental stability, and individual patient characteristics.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Assistência ao Convalescente , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Alta do Paciente
17.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 117, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DSM-5 provided a dimensional model of personality disorders which may be more clinically informative for the assessment and management of prisoners than a categorical one, as diagnoses of personality disorders alone cannot explain the type of violence. The role of DSM-5 personality facets is however understudied in child molesters, and no study compared these clinical features between individuals who have committed sex crime against children and those who have committed other types of crime. The present study compared DSM-5 personality trait facets between prisoners who had committed sex crime against children, prisoners who had committed property crime (i.e., robbery, fraud) and those who had committed crime against the person (i.e., homicide, assault or violence not implying a sexual element). A further aim was to explore which facets were associated with sex crime against children as compared with the other types of crime, controlling for socio-demographics (age, gender), psychiatric comorbidity (presence of any psychiatric diagnoses) and general psychopathy traits. METHODS: One hundred sixty-seven prisoners participated (91 had committed sex crime against children, 25 property crime, and 51 committed a crime against the person) and completed the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. RESULTS: Prisoners who had committed sex crime against children reported higher Restricted Affectivity traits than those who had committed property crime and crime against the person and higher Irresponsibility traits than those who had committed property crime. The results of a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that on the one hand being a man, having a higher age, and the presence of a psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to be related to sex crime than property crime, on the other hand higher Irresponsibility personality traits, being a man, and the presence of a psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to be related to sex crime against children than crime against the person. CONCLUSIONS: The Irresponsibility facet might be specific to child molesters and can differentiate this group from offenders who have committed other crime types. This facet might be considered a key target of a tailored assessment and treatment planning during clinical practice with child molesters.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Homicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade
18.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(9): 759-773, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeat offending, also known as criminal recidivism, in people released from prison has remained high over many decades. To address this, psychological treatments have been increasingly used in criminal justice settings; however, there is little evidence about their effectiveness. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in prison to reduce recidivism after release. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar for articles published from database inception to Feb 17, 2021, without any language restrictions. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effect of psychological interventions, delivered to adolescents and adults during incarceration, on recidivism outcomes after release. We excluded studies of solely pharmacological interventions and of participants in secure psychiatric hospitals or special residential units, or attending therapies mainly delivered outside of the prison setting. We extracted summary estimates from eligible RCTs. Data were extracted and appraised according to a prespecified protocol, with effect sizes converted to odds ratios. We used a standardised form to extract the effects of interventions on recidivism and estimated risk of bias for each RCT. Planned sensitivity analyses were done by removing studies with fewer than 50 participants. Our primary outcome was recidivism. Data from individual RCTs were combined in a random-effects meta-analysis as pooled odds ratios (ORs) and we explored sources of heterogeneity by comparing effect sizes by study size, control group, and intervention type. The protocol was pre-registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020167228. FINDINGS: Of 6345 articles retrieved, 29 RCTs (9443 participants, 1104 [11·7%] females, 8111 [85·9%] males, and 228 [2·4%] unknown) met the inclusion criteria for the primary outcome. Mean ages were 31·4 years (SD 4·9, range 24·5-41·5) for adult participants and 17·5 years (SD 1·9; range 14·6-20·2) for adolescent participants. Race or ethnicity data were not sufficiently reported to be aggregated. If including all 29 RCTs, psychological interventions were associated with reduced reoffending outcomes (OR 0·72, 95% CI 0·56-0·92). However, after excluding smaller studies (<50 participants in the intervention group), there was no significant reduction in recidivism (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0·68-1·11). Based on two studies, therapeutic communities were associated with decreased rates of recidivism (OR 0·64, 95% CI 0·46-0·91). These risk estimates did not significantly differ by type of control group and other study characteristics. INTERPRETATION: Widely implemented psychological interventions for people in prison to reduce offending after release need improvement. Publication bias and small-study effects appear to have overestimated the reported modest effects of such interventions, which were no longer present when only larger studies were included in analyses. Findings suggest that therapeutic communities and interventions that ensure continuity of care in community settings should be prioritised for future research. Developing new treatments should focus on addressing modifiable risk factors for reoffending. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Fonds de recherche du Québec - Santé.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Prisões/organização & administração , Intervenção Psicossocial , Reincidência/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 168: 43-51, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358580

RESUMO

Recent research has demonstrated that psychopathic offenders exhibit dynamic cognitive and behavioral deficits on a variety of lab tasks that differentially activate left hemisphere resources. The Left Hemisphere Activation (LHA) hypothesis is a cognitive perspective that aims to address these deficits by conceptualizing psychopathy as a disorder in which behavior and cognitive processing change dynamically as a function of the differential taxation of left hemisphere resources. This study aimed to investigate whether psychopathic traits are associated with electrophysiological anomalies under conditions that place differential demands on left hemisphere language processing systems. We examined in a sample of 43 incarcerated indivdiuals the evocation of the N320, an event-related potential (ERP) elicited by nontarget stimuli during a phonological/phonetic decision task that has been shown to elicit greater activation and cognitive processing within the left hemisphere than the right hemisphere. Findings for a subsample of 18 offenders low in psychopathic traits were generally consistent with previous findings in healthy individuals, suggesting similar electrophysiological activity during phonological processing. However, psychopathic traits impacted the amplitude of the N320. Higher levels of psychopathic traits were associated with reduced left-lateralization in phonological processing as well as enhanced ERP differentiation between pronounceable and nonpronounceable stimuli. These findings provide physiological evidence of a relationship between psychopathic traits and anomalous language processing at the phonological level of word processing.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Processos Mentais
20.
Autism Res ; 14(10): 2053-2060, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402601

RESUMO

Researchers have identified that autistic individuals are encountering the criminal justice system as victims, offenders, and witnesses at high rates. The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasing and generating a comprehensive approach to addressing criminal justice system involvement among autistic individuals is a timely and urgent need. Revisions to an established framework generated for use among individuals with mental health diagnoses, the sequential Intercept Model (SIM), were produced by an international consortium of interdisciplinary stakeholders presenting a new opportunity to identify gaps in ASD research and generate preventive solutions across the criminal justice system. The revised SIM maps each criminal justice system component, or Intercept, and includes paths for the experiences of autistic individuals as victims or witnesses to crimes as well as offenders to catalyze new and interdisciplinary research, policy, and practice efforts. As the field of ASD research continues to grow, the revised SIM is a promising pathway to avoiding siloed research approaches, including diverse autistic voices, and contributing to international dialogue about criminal justice reform at a critical juncture. LAY SUMMARY: Autistic individuals are encountering the criminal justice system as victims, offenders, and witnesses at high rates. A revised version of the SIM generated by an international consortium provides a cohesive framework to ensure research focused on this topic extends across the criminal justice system. Preventing and improving interactions between autistic individuals and the criminal justice system is an urgent research, policy, and practice need.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Criminosos , Direito Penal , Humanos , Prevalência
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