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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(8): 355, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39017938

RESUMO

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus that produces melanin during infection, an important virulence factor in Cryptococcal infections that enhances the ability of the fungus to resist immune defense. This fungus can synthesize melanin from a variety of substrates, including L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine). Since melanin protects the fungus from various stress factors such as oxidative, nitrosative, extreme heat and cold stress; we investigated the effects of environmental conditions on melanin production and survival. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pH values (5.6, 7.0 and 8.5) and temperatures (30 °C and 37 °C) on melanization and cell survival using a microtiter plate-based melanin production assay and an oxidative stress assay, respectively. In addition, the efficacy of compounds known to inhibit laccase involved in melanin synthesis, i.e., tunicamycin, ß-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, sodium azide and caspofungin on melanization was evaluated and their sensitivity to temperature and pH changes was measured. The results showed that melanin content correlated with pH and temperature changes and that pH 8.5 and 30 °C, were best for melanin production. Besides that, melanin production protects the fungal cells from oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. Thus, changes in pH and temperature drastically alter melanin production in C. neoformans and it correlates with the fungal survival. Due to the limited antifungal repertoire and the development of resistance in cryptococcal infections, the investigation of environmental conditions in the regulation of melanization and survival of C. neoformans could be useful for future research and clinical phasing.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus neoformans , Melaninas , Estresse Oxidativo , Temperatura , Cryptococcus neoformans/metabolismo , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Melaninas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Tunicamicina/farmacologia , Caspofungina/farmacologia , Azida Sódica/farmacologia , Mercaptoetanol/farmacologia , Ditiotreitol/farmacologia , Criptococose/microbiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo
2.
Ann Afr Med ; 23(3): 391-399, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Francês, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39034564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the anti-cryptococcal potential of certain essential oils (EOs)/compounds alone and in combination with fluconazole. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the antifungal activity of oils of Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Syzygium aromaticum, and their major active ingredients cinnamaldehyde, citral, eugenol, and geraniol against clinical and standard strains of Cryptococcus neoformans (CN). Disc diffusion, broth microdilution, checkerboard methods, and transmission electron microscopy were employed to determine growth inhibition, synergistic interaction, and mechanism of action of test compounds. RESULTS: EOs/compounds showed pronounced antifungal efficacy against azole-resistant CN in the order of cinnamaldehyde > eugenol > S. aromaticum > C. verum > citral > C. citratus > geraniol ≥ C. martini, each exhibiting zone of inhibition >15 mm. These oils/compounds were highly cidal compared to fluconazole. Eugenol and cinnamaldehyde showed the strongest synergy with fluconazole against CN by lowering their MICs up to 32-fold. Transmission electron microscopy indicated damage of the fungal cell wall, cell membrane, and other endomembranous organelles. CONCLUSION: Test oils and their active compounds exhibited potential anti-cryptococcus activity against the azole-resistant strains of CN. Moreover, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde significantly potentiated the anti-cryptococcal activity of fluconazole. It is suggested that multiple sites of action from oils/compounds could turn static fluconazole into a cidal drug combination in combating cryptococcosis.


RésuméObjectifs: Cette étude a étudié le potentiel anti-cryptocoque de certaines huiles essentielles (HE)/composés seuls et en combinaison avec fluconazole. Matériels et méthodes: Nous avons étudié l'activité antifongique des huiles de Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini et Syzygium spiceum , et leurs principaux ingrédients actifs, le cinnamaldéhyde, le citral, l'eugénol et le géraniol, contre les normes cliniques et standards. souches de Cryptococcus neoformans (CN). Diffusion sur disque, microdilution en bouillon, méthodes en damier et microscopie électronique à transmission ont été utilisés pour déterminer l'inhibition de la croissance, l'interaction synergique et le mécanisme d'action des composés testés. Résultats: HE/composés a montré une efficacité antifongique prononcée contre les CN résistantes aux azoles dans l'ordre suivant: cinnamaldéhyde > eugénol > S. spiceum > C. verum > citral > C. citratus > géraniol ≥ C. martini , chacun présentant une zone d'inhibition > 15 mm. Ces huiles/composés étaient hautement cides par rapport au fluconazole. L'eugénol et le cinnamaldéhyde ont montré la synergie la plus forte avec le fluconazole contre le CN en abaissant leurs CMI jusqu'à 32 fois. La microscopie électronique à transmission a indiqué des dommages à la paroi cellulaire fongique, à la membrane cellulaire et à d'autres organites endomembranaires. Conclusion: Les huiles testées et leurs composés actifs ont montré une activité anti-cryptocoque potentielle contre les souches de CN résistantes aux azoles. De plus, l'eugénol et le cinnamaldéhyde ont significativement potentialisé l'activité anticryptococcique du fluconazole. Il est suggéré que plusieurs Les sites d'action des huiles/composés pourraient transformer le fluconazole statique en une combinaison médicamenteuse cide pour lutter contre la cryptococcose.


Assuntos
Acroleína , Antifúngicos , Cryptococcus neoformans , Cymbopogon , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Eugenol , Fluconazol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/ultraestrutura , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Cymbopogon/química , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Acroleína/farmacologia , Eugenol/farmacologia , Humanos , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/microbiologia
3.
Med Mycol ; 62(7)2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982313

RESUMO

The yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are fungal pathogens that can be isolated from the environment, including the surfaces of many plants. Cryptococcus gattii caused an outbreak on Vancouver Island, British Columbia beginning in 1999 that has since spread to the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Coastal Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is an important lumber species and a major component of the ecosystems in this area. Previous research has explored Cryptococcus survival and mating on Douglas fir plants and plant-derived material, but no studies have been done on the production of cryptococcal virulence factors by cells grown on those media. Here, we investigated the effects of growth on Douglas fir-derived media on the production of the polysaccharide capsule and melanin, two of the most important cryptococcal virulence factors. We found that while the capsule was mostly unchanged by growth in Douglas fir media compared to cells grown in defined minimal media, Cryptococcus spp. can use substrates present in Douglas fir to synthesize functional and protective melanin. These results suggest mechanisms by which Cryptococcus species may survive in the environment and emphasize the need to explore how association with Douglas fir trees could affect its epidemiology for human cryptococcosis.


Cryptococcus gattii is a fungal pathogen that can be found in the environment. It is responsible for causing an outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, in the late 90s. In our study, we created media from Douglas fir, a tree commonly found in the affected areas. We examined the production of virulence factors by Cryptococcus cells grown in this media.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus neoformans , Meios de Cultura , Melaninas , Fatores de Virulência , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melaninas/metabolismo , Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Cryptococcus neoformans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Cryptococcus gattii/patogenicidade , Cryptococcus gattii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cryptococcus gattii/efeitos dos fármacos , Cápsulas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana , Criptococose/microbiologia , Humanos
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(7): e1012220, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976694

RESUMO

The fungal infection, cryptococcosis, is responsible for >100,000 deaths annually. No licensed vaccines are available. We explored the efficacy and immune responses of subunit cryptococcal vaccines adjuvanted with Cationic Adjuvant Formulation 01 (CAF01). CAF01 promotes humoral and T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 immune responses and has been safely used in human vaccine trials. Four subcutaneous vaccines, each containing single recombinant Cryptococcus neoformans protein antigens, partially protected mice from experimental cryptococcosis. Protection increased, up to 100%, in mice that received bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine formulations. Vaccinated mice that received a pulmonary challenge with C. neoformans had an influx of leukocytes into the lung including robust numbers of polyfunctional CD4+ T cells which produced interferon gamma (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and interleukin (IL)-17 upon ex vivo antigenic stimulation. Cytokine-producing lung CD8+ T cells were also found, albeit in lesser numbers. A significant, durable IFNγ response was observed in the lungs, spleen, and blood. Moreover, IFNγ secretion following ex vivo stimulation directly correlated with fungal control in the lungs. Thus, we have developed multivalent cryptococcal vaccines which protect mice from experimental cryptococcosis using an adjuvant which has been safely tested in humans. These preclinical studies suggest a path towards human cryptococcal vaccine trials.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Criptococose , Cryptococcus neoformans , Vacinas Fúngicas , Vacinas de Subunidades Antigênicas , Criptococose/imunologia , Criptococose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Camundongos , Vacinas Fúngicas/imunologia , Vacinas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Cryptococcus neoformans/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades Antigênicas/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades Antigênicas/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Adjuvantes de Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Fungos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças
5.
Mycoses ; 67(7): e13767, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The radiological manifestations of central nervous system (CNS) cryptococcosis are diverse and often subtle. There is heterogeneity on how different neuroimaging patterns impact prognosis. This study aims to assess the association between the neuroimaging and clinical outcomes of CNS cryptococcosis. METHODS: All patients with CNS cryptococcosis between July 2017 and April 2023 who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included. The primary outcome was mortality during hospitalisation. Secondary outcomes were readmission, ventricular shunting, duration of hospitalisation and time to the first negative cerebrospinal fluid culture. We compared the outcomes for each of the five main radiological findings on the brain MRI scan. RESULTS: We included 46 proven CNS cryptococcosis cases. The two main comorbidity groups were HIV infection (20, 43%) and solid organ transplantation (10, 22%), respectively. Thirty-nine patients exhibited at least one radiological abnormality (85%), with the most common being meningeal enhancement (34, 74%). The mortality rates occurred at 11% (5/46) during hospitalisation. We found no significant disparities in mortality related to distinct radiological patterns. The presence of pseudocysts was significantly associated with the need for readmission (p = .027). The ventricular shunting was significantly associated with the presence of pseudocysts (p = .005) and hydrocephalus (p = .044). CONCLUSION: In this study, there is no association between brain MRI findings and mortality. Larger studies are needed to evaluate this important issue.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Criptococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Criptococose/mortalidade , Criptococose/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Infecções Fúngicas do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Fúngicas do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Infecções Fúngicas do Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Prognóstico , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Infecções por HIV/complicações
6.
Am J Case Rep ; 25: e944291, 2024 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that typically occurs in patients with compromised immune systems, primarily affecting the respiratory and central nervous systems. However, cryptococcal osteomyelitis is a rare manifestation of cryptococcal infection, characterized by nonspecific clinical features. Here, we present a case of vertebral cryptococcal osteomyelitis in a middle-aged woman and discuss diagnostic approaches. CASE REPORT A 56-year-old woman presented with lower back pain and limited mobility, without fever, and with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical examination revealed enlarged lymph nodes and tenderness in the thoracic vertebrae. A computed tomography-guided biopsy confirmed granulomatous inflammation caused by Cryptococcus, with abundant 10 µm spherical microbial spores. After 4 weeks of treatment with amphotericin B and fluconazole, symptoms and lesions improved. Upon discharge, the patient was prescribed oral fluconazole. Follow-up examinations showed a stable condition and a negative serum cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen test. CONCLUSIONS Given the rarity and lack of specificity of clinical features of cryptococcal spondylitis, clinicians encountering similar presentations should consider tuberculous spondylitis and spinal tumors as differential diagnoses. Additionally, tissue biopsy of the affected vertebral bodies should be performed early to establish the type of vertebral infection, aiding in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Osteomielite , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Vértebras Torácicas , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
J Clin Immunol ; 44(7): 163, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans or C. gattii. Neutralizing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in otherwise healthy adults with cryptococcal meningitis have been described since 2013. We searched for neutralizing auto-Abs in sera collected from Colombian patients with non-HIV-associated cryptococcosis in a retrospective national cohort from 1997 to 2016. METHODS: We reviewed clinical and laboratory records and assessed the presence of neutralizing auto-Abs against GM-CSF in 30 HIV negative adults with cryptococcosis (13 caused by C. gattii and 17 caused by C. neoformans). RESULTS: We detected neutralizing auto-Abs against GM-CSF in the sera of 10 out of 13 (77%) patients infected with C. gattii and one out of 17 (6%) patients infected with C. neoformans. CONCLUSIONS: We report eleven Colombian patients diagnosed with cryptococcosis who had auto-Abs that neutralize GM-CSF. Among these patients, ten were infected with C. gattii and only one with C. neoformans.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Autoanticorpos , Criptococose , Cryptococcus gattii , Cryptococcus neoformans , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos , Humanos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Masculino , Colômbia , Feminino , Adulto , Cryptococcus gattii/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cryptococcus neoformans/imunologia , Criptococose/imunologia , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soronegatividade para HIV/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Idoso
9.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38925137

RESUMO

A 2-year-old Norwegian Forest cat was presented for evaluation of bilateral purulent nasal discharge and stertorous breathing. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the head revealed an intranasal mass of the left nasal cavity extending behind the tube openings and completely obstructing the nasopharynx. Rhinoscopy confirmed a pinkish, shiny mass. CT scan showed both compartments of the right middle ear filled with abnormal soft tissue attenuating material. There was no change in the bony outline of the middle ear. In the endoscopic examination, after endoscopically assisted tympanocentesis, this material in the accessible dorsolateral compartment proved to be classic polypous tissue in addition to highly viscous glue-like secretions. A secondary otitis media due to a drainage disorder was suspected.Using an endoscopic-interventional approach through the nostril, the nasopharyngeal mass was removed for histopathological examination, in order to restore the nasal airway, and to allow tube drainage. In contrast to cats with classical malignant nasal cavity masses, the cat showed several attachment points of the mass and multiple undulating elevations bilaterally in the nasopharyngeal mucosa.Cytological and histopathological examination identified the mass as a fungal granuloma in the context of a cryptococcus infection only rarely observed in Germany. Molecular genetic analysis confirmed an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii.A single intranasal and nasopharyngeal endoscopic debridement resulted in a significant improvement of the clinical signs and a complete healing of the right middle ear (including the tympanic membrane) within 14 days, but not in a complete cure of the disease. The cat was therefore treated with oral itraconazole solution for several weeks.The case report shows that nasal cryptococcosis can also affect cats in Germany. Rhinoscopy reveals a nasopharyngeal mass with multiple attachment points, which is unusual for a neoplasia. In addition to the recommended removal of the mass, oral administration of systemic antimycotics is strongly advised.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Criptococose , Animais , Gatos , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Criptococose/veterinária , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/microbiologia , Criptococose/patologia , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/veterinária , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Alemanha , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Doenças Nasofaríngeas/veterinária , Doenças Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Doenças Nasofaríngeas/microbiologia , Doenças Nasofaríngeas/patologia
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1392015, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841113

RESUMO

Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS1) was identified as a virulence factor for Cryptococcus neoformans and a promising therapeutic target. This study reveals previously unknown roles of TPS1 in evasion of host defenses during pulmonary and disseminated phases of infection. In the pulmonary infection model, TPS1-deleted (tps1Δ) Cryptococci are rapidly cleared by mouse lungs whereas TPS1-sufficent WT (H99) and revertant (tps1Δ:TPS1) strains expand in the lungs and disseminate, causing 100% mortality. Rapid pulmonary clearance of tps1Δ mutant is T-cell independent and relies on its susceptibility to lung resident factors and innate immune factors, exemplified by tps1Δ but not H99 inhibition in a coculture with dispersed lung cells and its rapid clearance coinciding with innate leukocyte infiltration. In the disseminated model of infection, which bypasses initial lung-fungus interactions, tps1Δ strain remains highly attenuated. Specifically, tps1Δ mutant is unable to colonize the lungs from the bloodstream or expand in spleens but is capable of crossing into the brain, where it remains controlled even in the absence of T cells. In contrast, strains H99 and tps1Δ:TPS1 rapidly expand in all studied organs, leading to rapid death of the infected mice. Since the rapid pulmonary clearance of tps1Δ mutant resembles a response to acapsular strains, the effect of tps1 deletion on capsule formation in vitro and in vivo was examined. Tps1Δ cryptococci form capsules but with a substantially reduced size. In conclusion, TPS1 is an important virulence factor, allowing C. neoformans evasion of resident pulmonary and innate defense mechanisms, most likely via its role in cryptococcal capsule formation.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Cryptococcus neoformans , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucosiltransferases , Pulmão , Fatores de Virulência , Animais , Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Cryptococcus neoformans/enzimologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/imunologia , Criptococose/microbiologia , Criptococose/imunologia , Camundongos , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Baço/microbiologia , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Imunidade Inata , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Deleção de Genes
11.
Clin Lab ; 70(6)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In July 2023, our hospital confirmed one case of lumbar spine infected complicated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient was admitted due to lower back pain for 1 year and a hard lump for 3 months. Symptoms and signs: Dressing can be seen fixed on the lower back, with severe bleeding. When the dressing is removed, a hard and protruding lump with a size of 6 cm x 8 cm, a sinus tract can be seen near the mass, with a slightly red wound and a sinus depth of about 3 cm. Light red fluid can be seen flowing out. There are no symptoms such as redness, swelling, or heat in the rest of the lower back, and the patient has no other underlying diseases or surgical history. METHODS: Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar CT examination; Percutaneous puncture lumbar vertebral biopsy was performed, and the biopsy tissue was subjected to pathological examination, mNGS (metagenomic next-generation sequencing), and acid-fast staining; Extract pus from the lump for fungal culture and ink staining, and identify the fungi through MALDI-TOF MS. RESULTS: Bone destruction and bone marrow edema in the L5 vertebral body, compression of the spinal canal at the L5 vertebral body level; The pathological results of the biopsy tissue indicate granulomatous lesions. The acid-fast staining of the tissue is positive, and the mNGS of the tissue indicates infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A single fungus was cultured from pus and identified by MALDI-TOF MS as Cryptococcus neoformans. Clinically, isoniazid 0.3 g ivgtt + rifampicin 0.45 g qd po + ethambutol 0.25 g qd po + pyrazinamide 0.75 g qd po + fluconazole 0.3 g qd po was administered for treatment. After 11 days, there was slight pain at the incision site, and the original symptoms were significantly relieved. The wound dressing was fixed in place, dry and without obvious exudation. Improved and discharged, followed up for 3 months with no recurrence of the lesion. CONCLUSIONS: mNGS is an effective identification technique that can be used to accurately diagnose suspected infection cases. MALDI-TOF MS has significant advantages over traditional detection methods in shortening detection time. This case achieved satisfactory treatment results for patients through a reasonable treatment plan, which is of great significance for exploring the diagnosis and treatment of similar disease infections.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Cryptococcus neoformans , Vértebras Lombares , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Humanos , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação , Vértebras Lombares/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/microbiologia , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/microbiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(26): e38671, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941424

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to delineate the distinctive high-resolution computed tomography features of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-HIV-infected patients. This retrospective analysis encompasses high-resolution computed tomography scans from 58 patients with histologically confirmed pulmonary cryptococcosis, focusing on the diagnostic challenges and the factors that lead to misdiagnosis. Analysis of computed tomography scans from these patients indicated that nodular or mass-like presentations were evident in 32 cases (55.2%), consolidation presentations in 7 cases (12.1%), and mixed presentations in 19 cases (32.8%). Lesions were predominantly located in the lower lobes of the lungs (40 cases, 69.0%) and in peripheral zones (55 cases, 94.8%). Notable radiographic signs included the presence of the burr sign in 55 cases (94.8%), lobulation sign in 53 cases (91.4%), halo sign in 53 cases (91.4%), and air bronchogram in 46 cases (79.0%). Moreover, 24 cases (41.4%) exhibited necrosis or cavitation, mediastinal lymphadenopathy was noted in 6 cases (10.3%), and pleural effusion was present in 5 cases (8.6%). Lesions were devoid of calcification. Pulmonary cryptococcosis ought to be contemplated in the differential diagnosis when computed tomography imaging exhibits patterns including, but not limited to, lower lobe and peripheral distribution, a broad base abutting the pleura, clustered growth with a propensity for fusion, air bronchogram within lesions, and peripheral halo sign.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Pneumopatias Fúngicas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criptococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(7): e0341923, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842336

RESUMO

Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen responsible for >200,000 yearly cases with a mortality as high as 81%. This burden results, in part, from an incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis and ineffective antifungal treatments; hence, there is a pressing need to understand the biology and host interactions of this yeast to develop improved treatments. Protein palmitoylation is important for cryptococcal virulence, and we previously identified the substrates of its main palmitoyl transferase. One of them was encoded by the uncharacterized gene CNAG_02129. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, a homolog of this gene named hyphal anastomosis protein 13 plays a role in proper cellular communication and filament fusion. In Cryptococcus, cellular communication is essential during mating; therefore, we hypothesized that CNAG_02129, which we named hyphal anastomosis protein 1 (HAM1), may play a role in mating. We found that ham1Δ mutants produce more fusion products during mating, filament more robustly, and exhibit competitive fitness defects under mating and non-mating conditions. Additionally, we found several differences with the major virulence factor, the polysaccharide capsule, that may affect virulence, consistent with prior studies linking virulence to mating. We observed that ham1Δ mutants have decreased capsule attachment and transfer but exhibit higher amounts of exopolysaccharide shedding and biofilm production. Finally, HAM1 expression is significantly lower in mating media relative to non-mating conditions, consistent with it acting as a negative regulator of mating. Understanding the connection between mating and virulence in C. neoformans may open new avenues of investigation into ways to improve the treatment of this disease. IMPORTANCE: Fungal mating is a vital part of the lifecycle of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. More than just ensuring the propagation of the species, mating allows for sexual reproduction to occur and generates genetic diversity as well as infectious propagules that can invade mammalian hosts. Despite its importance in the biology of this pathogen, we still do not know all of the major players regulating the mating process and if they are involved or impact its pathogenesis. Here, we identified a novel negative regulator of mating that also affects certain cellular characteristics known to be important for virulence. This gene, which we call HAM1, is widely conserved across the cryptococcal family as well as in many pathogenic fungal species. This study will open new avenues of exploration regarding the function of uncharacterized but conserved genes in a variety of pathogenic fungal species and specifically in serotype A of C. neoformans.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Cryptococcus neoformans , Proteínas Fúngicas , Fatores de Virulência , Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Cryptococcus neoformans/fisiologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Virulência/genética , Criptococose/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos Tipo Acasalamento/genética , Fenótipo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Hifas/genética , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hifas/metabolismo , Camundongos
14.
Med Mycol ; 62(6)2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38935902

RESUMO

Cryptococcosis causes a high burden of disease worldwide. This systematic review summarizes the literature on Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii infections to inform the World Health Organization's first Fungal Priority Pathogen List. PubMed and Web of Science were used to identify studies reporting on annual incidence, mortality, morbidity, antifungal resistance, preventability, and distribution/emergence in the past 10 years. Mortality rates due to C. neoformans were 41%-61%. Complications included acute renal impairment, raised intracranial pressure needing shunts, and blindness. There was moderate evidence of reduced susceptibility (MIC range 16-32 mg/l) of C. neoformans to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. Cryptococcus gattii infections comprised 11%-33% of all cases of invasive cryptococcosis globally. The mortality rates were 10%-23% for central nervous system (CNS) and pulmonary infections, and ∼43% for bloodstream infections. Complications described included neurological sequelae (17%-27% in C. gattii infections) and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. MICs were generally low for amphotericin B (MICs: 0.25-0.5 mg/l), 5-flucytosine (MIC range: 0.5-2 mg/l), itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole (MIC range: 0.06-0.5 mg/l). There is a need for increased surveillance of disease phenotype and outcome, long-term disability, and drug susceptibility to inform robust estimates of disease burden.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Criptococose , Cryptococcus gattii , Cryptococcus neoformans , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Humanos , Criptococose/epidemiologia , Criptococose/microbiologia , Criptococose/mortalidade , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cryptococcus gattii/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
15.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 24(6): 533-540, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is a global invasive mycosis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing from serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been regarded as a gold standard for early diagnosis. This study aimed to develop and validate a rapid and sensitive sandwich chemiluminescent magnetic microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for quantitative detection of CrAg in sera. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: CMIA is based on magnetic beads modified with capture antibodies and biotinylated antibodies and Streptavidin-polyHRP, where biotinylated antibodies functioned as the recognition element and Streptavidin-polyHRP as the signal component. Assay parameters were first optimized, and then assay performances were evaluated. RESULTS: Under optimized conditions, the total runtime of the CMIA was 22 min. The assay had a wide linear range (2 -10,000 ng/mL) and high analytical sensitivity (0.24 ng/mL), together with acceptable reproducibility, accuracy, and stability. Besides, it exhibited no cross-reactivity with other pathogens. Importantly, the assay showed 92.91% (95% CI, 80.97-93.02%) overall qualitative agreement with a commercial ELISA kit in a retrospective cohort of 55 cases with confirmed cryptococcal infection, and 72 controls without evidence of invasive fungal disease (IFD). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that the present study paved a novel strategy for reliable quantitative detection of CrAg in sera.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Fungos , Criptococose , Medições Luminescentes , Humanos , Antígenos de Fungos/sangue , Antígenos de Fungos/imunologia , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Cryptococcus/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(7): e0390223, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842310

RESUMO

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are both known urease producers and have the potential to cause hyperammonemia. We hypothesized that the risk of hyperammonemia is increased by renal failure, burden of cryptococcal infection, and fungal strain characteristics. We performed a retrospective review of plasma ammonia levels in patients with cryptococcal infections. Risk factors for hyperammonemia were statistically compared between patients with and without hyperammonemia (>53 µmol/L). Cryptococcal cells from three patients included in the study were recovered from our biorepository. Strain characteristics including urease activity, ammonia production, growth curves, microscopy, melanin production, and M13 molecular typing were analyzed and compared with a wild-type (WT) C. neoformans strain. We included 29 patients, of whom 37.9% had hyperammonemia, 59% had disseminated cryptococcal infection (DCI), and 41% had isolated central nervous system infection. Thirty-eight percent of patients had renal failure and 28% had liver disease. Renal failure was associated with 4.4 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5, 13.0) higher risk of hyperammonemia. This risk was higher in DCIs (RR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0, 40.2) versus isolated cryptococcal meningitis (RR 2.5, 95% CI, 0.40, 16.0). Liver disease and cryptococcal titers were not associated with hyperammonemia. C. neoformans from one patient with extreme hyperammonemia demonstrated a 4- to 5-fold increase in extracellular urease activity, slow growth, enlarged cell size phenotypes, and diminished virulence factors. Hyperammonemia was strongly associated with renal failure in individuals with DCI, surpassing associations with liver failure or cryptococcal titers. However, profound hyperammonemia in one patient was attributable to high levels of urease secretion unique to that cryptococcal strain. Prospective studies are crucial to exploring the significance of this association.IMPORTANCECryptococcus produces and secretes the urease enzyme to facilitate its colonization of the host. Urease breaks down urea into ammonia, overwhelming the liver's detoxification process and leading to hyperammonemia in some hosts. This underrecognized complication exacerbates organ dysfunction alongside the infection. Our study investigated this intricate relationship, uncovering a strong association between the development of hyperammonemia and renal failure in patients with cryptococcal infections, particularly those with disseminated infections. We also explore mechanisms underlying increased urease activity, specifically in strains associated with extreme hyperammonemia. Our discoveries provide a foundation for advancing research into cryptococcal metabolism and identifying therapeutic targets to enhance patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Cryptococcus gattii , Cryptococcus neoformans , Hiperamonemia , Urease , Humanos , Criptococose/microbiologia , Hiperamonemia/microbiologia , Hiperamonemia/etiologia , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Urease/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Amônia/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Insuficiência Renal/microbiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
17.
mBio ; 15(7): e0103124, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38916308

RESUMO

Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcosis, one of the most prevalent fungal diseases, generally characterized by meningitis. There is a limited and not very effective number of drugs available to combat this disease. In this manuscript, we show the host defense peptide mimetic brilacidin (BRI) as a promising antifungal drug against C. neoformans. BRI can affect the organization of the cell membrane, increasing the fungal cell permeability. We also investigated the effects of BRI against the model system Saccharomyces cerevisiae by analyzing libraries of mutants grown in the presence of BRI. In S. cerevisiae, BRI also affects the cell membrane organization, but in addition the cell wall integrity pathway and calcium metabolism. In vivo experiments show BRI significantly reduces C. neoformans survival inside macrophages and partially clears C. neoformans lung infection in an immunocompetent murine model of invasive pulmonary cryptococcosis. We also observed that BRI interacts with caspofungin (CAS) and amphotericin (AmB), potentiating their mechanism of action against C. neoformans. BRI + CAS affects endocytic movement, calcineurin, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Our results indicate that BRI is a novel antifungal drug against cryptococcosis. IMPORTANCE: Invasive fungal infections have a high mortality rate causing more deaths annually than tuberculosis or malaria. Cryptococcosis, one of the most prevalent fungal diseases, is generally characterized by meningitis and is mainly caused by two closely related species of basidiomycetous yeasts, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. There are few therapeutic options for treating cryptococcosis, and searching for new antifungal agents against this disease is very important. Here, we present brilacidin (BRI) as a potential antifungal agent against C. neoformans. BRI is a small molecule host defense peptide mimetic that has previously exhibited broad-spectrum immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory activity against bacteria and viruses. BRI alone was shown to inhibit the growth of C. neoformans, acting as a fungicidal drug, but surprisingly also potentiated the activity of caspofungin (CAS) against this species. We investigated the mechanism of action of BRI and BRI + CAS against C. neoformans. We propose BRI as a new antifungal agent against cryptococcosis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Criptococose , Cryptococcus neoformans , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Camundongos , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Caspofungina/farmacologia , Feminino , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Anfotericina B/farmacologia
18.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 46(8): 530-537, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842400

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This article reports an elderly male patient with nodules and ulcers on the face and behind the left ear after trauma. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis was confirmed using pathological biopsy, special staining, tissue culture, and fungal sequencing. The patient received a therapeutic intervention involving the administration of the antifungal agent itraconazole. Substantial amelioration of cutaneous manifestations was observed after a 3-month course of treatment. After an elapsed interval, the patient was diagnosed with esophageal tumor. Moreover, the literature on 33 patients with primary cutaneous cryptococcosis published in the past 10 years was also reviewed.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Criptococose , Dermatomicoses , Humanos , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/patologia , Criptococose/microbiologia , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Masculino , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Idoso , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Biópsia , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação
19.
PLoS Biol ; 22(6): e3002682, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843310

RESUMO

In exploring the evolutionary trajectories of both pathogenesis and karyotype dynamics in fungi, we conducted a large-scale comparative genomic analysis spanning the Cryptococcus genus, encompassing both global human fungal pathogens and nonpathogenic species, and related species from the sister genus Kwoniella. Chromosome-level genome assemblies were generated for multiple species, covering virtually all known diversity within these genera. Although Cryptococcus and Kwoniella have comparable genome sizes (about 19.2 and 22.9 Mb) and similar gene content, hinting at preadaptive pathogenic potential, our analysis found evidence of gene gain (via horizontal gene transfer) and gene loss in pathogenic Cryptococcus species, which might represent evolutionary signatures of pathogenic development. Genome analysis also revealed a significant variation in chromosome number and structure between the 2 genera. By combining synteny analysis and experimental centromere validation, we found that most Cryptococcus species have 14 chromosomes, whereas most Kwoniella species have fewer (11, 8, 5, or even as few as 3). Reduced chromosome number in Kwoniella is associated with formation of giant chromosomes (up to 18 Mb) through repeated chromosome fusion events, each marked by a pericentric inversion and centromere loss. While similar chromosome inversion-fusion patterns were observed in all Kwoniella species with fewer than 14 chromosomes, no such pattern was detected in Cryptococcus. Instead, Cryptococcus species with less than 14 chromosomes showed reductions primarily through rearrangements associated with the loss of repeat-rich centromeres. Additionally, Cryptococcus genomes exhibited frequent interchromosomal translocations, including intercentromeric recombination facilitated by transposons shared between centromeres. Overall, our findings advance our understanding of genetic changes possibly associated with pathogenicity in Cryptococcus and provide a foundation to elucidate mechanisms of centromere loss and chromosome fusion driving distinct karyotypes in closely related fungal species, including prominent global human pathogens.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Fúngicos , Cryptococcus , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Fúngico , Genômica , Cariótipo , Cryptococcus/genética , Cryptococcus/patogenicidade , Cryptococcus/classificação , Cromossomos Fúngicos/genética , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia , Sintenia , Centrômero/genética , Criptococose/microbiologia , Humanos
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2775: 47-55, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758310

RESUMO

In vivo models provide advantages to study the progression of disease and to identify potential biomarkers to detect and monitor infections. For the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, murine intranasal models aim to recapitulate natural infection from inhalation of desiccated fungal cells from the environment and permit monitoring of disease over time. In this chapter, we describe the establishment of a murine model for cryptococcosis and the subsequent collection of organs, tissues, and fluids for sampling. These samples may support novel diagnostic strategies and opportunities to monitor dissemination of the fungal cells throughout the host and propose new treatment options to combat disease.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Cryptococcus neoformans , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Animais , Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Criptococose/microbiologia , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Camundongos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Humanos
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