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1.
Clin Ter ; 172(5): 425-426, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625773

RESUMO

Abstract: The present letter is in response to the article entitled "The Italian Supreme Court Joint Sections set forth the interpretative underpinnings of the "Gelli-Bianco" law: varying degrees of guilt aimed at limiting medical liability, article 2236 c.c. makes a comeback", which was published on the second file of 2020. Aim is to state that art. 2236 c.c., as interpreted by the Supreme Court, can allow to overcome the limitations proved by the Gelli-Bianco law related to penal liability, so as to take to an end the season of cultural change started by the Balduzzi decree in 2012.


Assuntos
Culpa , Responsabilidade Legal , Humanos , Itália
3.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(5): 550-561, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472890

RESUMO

Psychopathy is a personality construct encompassing impaired interpersonal-affective functioning, combined with the inclination to lead an erratic lifestyle and to engage in antisocial acts. Individuals with elevated psychopathic traits often make decisions that have a negative impact on others. Some findings suggest that a lack of empathy and guilt is a key explanatory factor, while other results point toward a decreased sense of fairness in individuals with elevated psychopathic traits. The goal of the present study was to directly compare these hypotheses. Eighty-six healthy individuals completed the Self-Report Psychopathy scale and performed the Hidden Multiplier Trust Game, a socioeconomic decision-making task designed to untangle the roles of guilt and fairness during decision-making. Computational modeling of choice data identified five types of moral decision strategies: inequity aversion, guilt aversion, moral opportunism, greed, and generosity. The model-free results demonstrated that psychopathic traits were associated with lower levels of reciprocity. The model-based results suggested that a reduced sense of fairness, associated with affective traits, was driving this behavior. Our findings stress the importance of treating guilt and fairness as independent concepts, and highlight the importance of improving conceptual precision in untangling the individual impact of fairness and guilt, as this could help explain the mixed results in moral decision-making literature. Elucidating the psychological motivations underlying the relationship between psychopathic traits and poor social decision-making opens new avenues for research on the underlying cognitive mechanisms. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Princípios Morais , Afeto , Empatia , Culpa , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360524

RESUMO

This research work had three objectives: (1) to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Work-Family Guilt Scale, (2) to examine its invariance according to gender, and (3) to study the relationship between work-family guilt (WFG) and the different proposed antecedent (e.g., hours spent working, social support, rumination, and personality) or consequential factors (e.g., life satisfaction), noting any gender differences. The incidental sample comprised 225 parents who were in paid work and had at least one child attending nursery school (49.1% women; age of total sample = 36.88 on average). Multiple-group and confirmatory factor analyses, correlations, multiple regression, and moderation analyses were carried out. The WFGS reflected the same factorial structure in men and women, with two main factors: work interfering with family guilt (WIFG) and family interfering with work guilt (FIWG). No gender differences were found. The discrepancy associated with perfectionism was the only variable that was found to be a predictor of FIWG. The major predictors of WIFG were brooding from rumination and the number of hours spent working. WIFG was also associated with lower life satisfaction in women. The implications of these results are discussed, stressing the need to promote work-family reconciliation policies.


Assuntos
Família , Culpa , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Psicometria
6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(10): 2096-2107, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240253

RESUMO

Although Chinese parents are seen as employing guilt and shame induction to socialize children's culturally appropriate behavior, research has focused primarily on Chinese parents' use of these inductions and their links with child adjustment rather than on children's evaluations of them. Furthermore, this research typically does not examine variations in children's appraisals based on the type of behavior being socialized. The present study addressed these gaps in the literature by examining 206 Hong Kong Chinese children's and early adolescents' (Ms = 9.76, 13.35 years, SDs = 0.78, 0.54; 50% and 61% female, respectively) appraisals of maternal guilt induction (act- vs. parent-focused) and shame induction (social comparison vs. denigration) following a hypothetical moral and academic transgression. Overall, act-focused guilt induction was evaluated as more appropriate, respectful, effective, and reflective of mothers' love and concern than parent-focused guilting, and in turn, social comparison shaming, and then denigration and more so overall for the moral than the academic transgression. Early adolescents judged act-focused guilting for the moral transgression as more effective and eliciting more positive feelings than did children. Although culturally valued, social comparison shame (and also denigration) were judged as less appropriate, less effective, as reflecting less maternal love and concern, and as eliciting less positive feelings (but only for social comparison shaming in response to lower-than-expected academic performance) by early adolescents as compared to younger peers, suggesting that youth become more critical of these culturally appropriate practices in the transition to adolescence.


Assuntos
Culpa , Vergonha , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Mães
7.
Evol Psychol ; 19(3): 14747049211032576, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318720

RESUMO

Moral emotion is thought to have evolved to guide our behavior and control our impulse to achieve immediate rewards, thus serving to enforce pro-social behavior. Guilt, one of the moral emotions, is a social, other-oriented emotion that is experienced primarily in interpersonal situations, although it may also be experienced in non-interpersonal situations. We predicted that the intensity of the sense of guilt would differ depending on the relationship between a witness and the person who performed the antisocial behavior because building a good reputation plays an important role in the evolution of reciprocal altruism through indirect reciprocity. Participants were asked to imagine that they had been observed by a third party while committing five kinds of moral transgression based on moral foundation theory, and to describe the intensity of their sense of guilt when witnessed by parents, a cordial friend, a neighbor, or a stranger. The intensity of guilt was significantly lower when the act was witnessed by a stranger regardless of the moral foundation involved. The effects of the kind of witness, however, differed for each moral foundation. The results support the hypothesis that guilt functions to guide our behavior, to achieve cooperation.


Assuntos
Culpa , Princípios Morais , Emoções , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Social
8.
J Anxiety Disord ; 82: 102443, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265540

RESUMO

Existing empirical findings are inconsistent on the correlations of shame and guilt with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). This study aimed to quantitatively summarize the strength of the associations of shame and guilt with PTSS and explore potential moderators. Based on a three-level meta-analytic method, shame was positively correlated with PTSS, no matter whether the effects of guilt were controlled; guilt also had a positive correlation with PTSS, regardless of whether the effects of shame were partialling out. Moderator analyses showed that type of shame measure (generalized vs. contextual vs. trauma-specific shame) moderated the relation between shame and PTSS, and type of guilt measure (generalized vs. contextual vs. trauma-specific guilt) moderated the relation between guilt and PTSS. In addition, culture had a marginally significant moderating effect on the relation between guilt and PTSS, with a stronger association of guilt with PTSS in Western culture than in Eastern culture. These results supported the links of shame and guilt to PTSS and implied that we should focus on the conceptual underpinnings of the manifest psychometric issue and maintain cultural sensitivity in future research. The implications for posttraumatic stress disorder treatment were also discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Culpa , Humanos , Psicometria , Vergonha , Comportamento Social
9.
J Nurs Manag ; 29(8): 2515-2522, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216495

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to describe nurses' views on what it is like to be a working mother in Turkey. BACKGROUND: Most mothers are in the workforce but continue to fulfil their traditional roles at home. This emerges as an important factor causing mothers to try to find a balance between work and home. METHOD: For this purpose, a semi-structured form was used in face-to-face interviews conducted with 17 participants. A phenomenological design was preferred in this qualitative study. RESULTS: The findings obtained from the study revealed the six themes of 'the sense of inadequacy/helplessness, the sense of responsibility, the strong desire to have a positive effect, gender role stereotypes, the choice between achieving a successful career and being a good mother, but with a sense of depletion'. CONCLUSION: The results obtained from the study of nurses in Turkey have shed light on how policies should be developed to eliminate work-life barriers in realizing the roles of motherhood. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: The study results will guide nurse managers in taking the steps needed to incorporate arrangements that will result in balanced conduct of work and home for nurses.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras Administradoras , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Feminino , Culpa , Humanos , Mães , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Turquia
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14856, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290344

RESUMO

Coercive power has different effects on individuals, and which were unable to be fully addressed in Milgram's famous studies on obedience to authority. While some individuals exhibited high levels of guilt-related anxiety and refused orders to harm, others followed coercive orders throughout the whole event. The lack of guilt is a well-known characteristic of psychopathy, and recent evidence portrays psychopathic personalities on a continuum of clustered traits, while being pervasive in a significant proportion in the population. To investigate whether psychopathic traits better explain discrepancies in antisocial behavior under coercion, we applied a virtual obedience paradigm, in which an experimenter ordered subjects to press a handheld button to initiate successive actions that carry different moral consequences, during fMRI scanning. Psychopathic traits modulated the association between harming actions and guilt feelings on both behavioral and brain levels. This study sheds light on the individual variability in response to coercive power.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Culpa , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychol Sci ; 32(8): 1214-1226, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320327

RESUMO

False accusations of wrongdoing are common and can have grave consequences. In six studies, we document a worrisome paradox in perceivers' subjective judgments of a suspect's guilt. Specifically, we found that people (including online panelists, n = 4,983, and working professionals such as fraud investigators and auditors, n = 136) use suspects' angry responses to accusations as cues of guilt. However, we found that such anger is an invalid cue of guilt and is instead a valid cue of innocence; accused individuals (university students, n = 230) and online panelists (n = 401) were angrier when they are falsely relative to accurately accused. Moreover, we found that individuals who remain silent are perceived to be at least as guilty as those who angrily deny an accusation.


Assuntos
Culpa , Julgamento , Ira , Humanos
12.
Subst Use Misuse ; 56(11): 1715-1725, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253147

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression and problem drinking are comorbid in emerging adulthood, yet the processes that link them are not well understood. Research has argued that shame has a unique influence on the experience of problematic drinking, but this has rarely been assessed at the state level. Using ecological momentary assessments (EMAs), we assessed whether shame, and not guilt, mediated the association between baseline depression and alcohol use and problems. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-four emerging adults (Mage= 19.27) completed a 12-day EMA study. Multilevel models were used to test hypotheses. RESULTS: In a model with alcohol use as the outcome, there were no significant associations between shame or guilt and alcohol use at the within- or between-subjects level. In a model with alcohol problems as the outcome, guilt was positively associated with alcohol problems but only at the daily level. At the between-subjects level and after controlling for guilt, there was a significant association between depression, shame, and alcohol problems; average levels of shame mediated the association between depression and alcohol problems. In post-hoc reverse directionality models, average alcohol problems mediated the relationship between depression and shame and guilt at the between-person level. No mediation was present for alcohol use. CONCLUSION: After controlling for guilt, shame is an emotion that helps explain risk for alcohol problems among depressed emerging adults, which has implications for targeted interventions. Reciprocal associations between shame, guilt, and alcohol problems emerged highlighting the need for more fulsome assessments of shame and guilt in future EMA research.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Depressão , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções , Culpa , Humanos , Vergonha , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(8): 1693-1708, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131855

RESUMO

Adolescents with internalizing problems are more prone to feelings of guilt and shame, experience more guilt-induction, and report more negative parenting, but little is known about the way these processes are associated nor the extent to which they occur within real-time parent-adolescent interactions. The current study sought to clarify these links by investigating whether negatively biased perceptions of maternal communication mediate links between adolescent internalizing symptoms and their feelings of guilt, shame, and guilt-induction during real-time mother-adolescent discussions. One hundred twenty-three mother-adolescent dyads participated in the study. These dyads were moderately diverse in both race/ethnicity (53% White, 29% Black, 12% Hispanic) and family income (26% earned less than $30,000/year, 22% earned more than $100,000/year) and included adolescents who ranged in age from 12 to 17 (Mage = 13.99) and were approximately half female (54%). Mothers and adolescents engaged in lab discussions about issues of conflict and guilt and rated mothers' positive and negative communication during the tasks; observers rated these same behaviors. Adolescents also reported on their general internalizing symptoms prior to the discussions and feelings of guilt, shame, and experienced guilt induction following each discussion task. Structural equation models, parceling out shared and unique perceptions of maternal communication behaviors, showed that adolescents with more internalizing symptoms reported greater feelings of shame and perceived maternal guilt-induction following the discussion, and that these associations were mediated by adolescents' unique perceptions of more maternal negativity. These findings highlight the potential role of cognitive biases in perpetuating established associations among adolescent internalizing symptoms, shame, and parental guilt-induction.


Assuntos
Culpa , Vergonha , Adolescente , Comunicação , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Percepção
14.
Blood ; 137(24): 3314-3316, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137845

Assuntos
Culpa
15.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 73: 101666, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reduction of trauma related negative cognitions, such as guilt, is thought to be a mechanism of change within PTSD treatments like prolonged exposure (PE). Research suggests PE can directly address guilt cognitions. However, whether pharmacotherapies for PTSD can remains unclear. METHODS: Data from a randomized controlled trial of PE plus placebo (PE + PLB), sertraline plus enhanced medication management (SERT + EMM), and their combination (PE + SERT) in 195 Veterans from recent wars was analyzed. RESULTS: The unadjusted means and mixed-effects model showed guilt decreased significantly over the follow-up time as expected; however, contrary to our hypothesis, PE conditions were not associated with greater reductions in guilt than the SERT + EMM condition. As hypothesized, week 12 reduction in guilt predicted post-treatment (weeks 24-52) reduction in PTSD and depression, but not impairments in function. LIMITATIONS: Generalizability of findings is limited by the sample being comprised of combat Veterans who were predominantly male, not on SSRI at study entry, willing to be randomized to therapy or medication, and reporting low levels of guilt. To reduce differences in provider attention, SERT + EMM was administered over 30 min to include psychoeducation and active listening; it is unknown if this contributed to effects on guilt. CONCLUSIONS: PE + PLB, SERT + EMM, and PE + SERT were equally associated with reduction in trauma related guilt. Reducing trauma related guilt may be a pathway to reducing PTSD and posttraumatic depression symptoms. Further study is needed to determine how best to treat trauma related guilt and to understand the mechanisms by which guilt improves across different treatments for PTSD.


Assuntos
Terapia Implosiva , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Cognição , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Culpa , Humanos , Masculino , Sertralina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Compr Psychiatry ; 108: 152241, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Feelings of shame and guilt have rarely been investigated in people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. We aimed to outline differences in shame and guilt in relation to empathy and theory of mind (ToM) in young people, particularly those at UHR for psychosis. METHODS: First, 166 young healthy controls were assessed for their proneness to shame and guilt using the Test of Self-Conscious Affect, empathy and its four subdomains (perspective taking, fantasy, empathic concern, and personal distress) using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), ToM using the ToM picture stories task, and neurocognitive performance using the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). Next, we evaluated shame and guilt in 24 UHR individuals comparing them to 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Finally, we explored relationships for shame and guilt in relation to empathy and ToM in the UHR individuals. RESULTS: In the healthy youth, a regression analysis showed fantasy and personal distress in IRI to be significant determinants of shame, while perspective taking and empathic concern in IRI, ToM, and SPM were independent predictors of guilt. Meanwhile, compared to the healthy controls, individuals with UHR exhibited higher levels of shame, which was associated with increased personal distress. DISCUSSION: Our findings showed that four subdomains of empathy, ToM, and neurocognition were differentially associated with shame and guilt in healthy young people. Given the correlation between excessive feelings of shame and high levels of the personal distress dimension of empathy in UHR for psychosis, redressing the tendency to focus on self-oriented negative emotions upon witnessing distress of others could possibly reduce self-blame or self-stigma of help-seeking individuals.


Assuntos
Culpa , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adolescente , Emoções , Empatia , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Vergonha
17.
Addict Behav ; 120: 106954, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957551

RESUMO

A dominant view of guilt and shame is that they have opposing action tendencies: guilt- prone people are more likely to avoid or overcome dysfunctional patterns of behaviour, making amends for past misdoings, whereas shame-prone people are more likely to persist in dysfunctional patterns of behaviour, avoiding responsibility for past misdoings and/or lashing out in defensive aggression. Some have suggested that addiction treatment should make use of these insights, tailoring therapy according to people's degree of guilt-proneness versus shame-proneness. In this paper, we challenge this dominant view, reviewing empirical findings from others as well as our own to question (1) whether shame and guilt can be so easily disentangled in the experience of people with addiction, and (2) whether shame and guilt have the opposing action tendencies standardly attributed to them. We recommend a shift in theoretical perspective that explains our main finding that both emotions can be either destructive or constructive for recovery, depending on how these emotions are managed. We argue such management depends in turn on a person's quality of self-blame (retributive or 'scaffolding'), impacting upon their attitude towards their own agency as someone with fixed and unchanging dispositions (shame and guilt destructive for recovery) or as someone capable of changing themselves (shame and guilt productive for recovery). With an eye to therapeutic intervention, we then explore how this shift in attitude towards the self can be accomplished. Specifically, we discuss empathy-driven affective and narratively-driven cognitive components of a process that allow individuals to move away from the register of retributive self-blame into a register of scaffolding 'reproach', thereby enabling them to manage their experiences of both shame and guilt in a more generative way.


Assuntos
Culpa , Autoimagem , Emoções , Empatia , Humanos , Vergonha
18.
J Clin Nurs ; 30(19-20): 2854-2862, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934413

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to shed light on patients with late-stage COPD and their experiences of shame. BACKGROUND: Patients with COPD often experience shame for bringing the disease into their lives due to smoking. Knowledge about patients with COPD and their feelings of shame is crucial, but limited, however. DESIGN: The study has a qualitative and explorative design. We interviewed twelve patients with late-stage COPD. The data were analysed using Kvale and Brinkmann's three interpretative contexts. The COREQ checklist was used. RESULTS: Three main themes were defined; the body as a mirror of shame; a sense of being unworthy, invisible and powerless; and that sharing the burden is too difficult. The participants experienced that the disease defined their value as human beings and that made them feel vulnerable, ashamed and more socially isolated. CONCLUSIONS: The participants experienced feelings of shame, guilt and self-blame due to their own perceptions of themselves. They were in doubt about whether they were worthy to receive care and comfort from both health professionals and, their family and friends. The participants seemed to have internalised the moral norms of contemporary society and the understanding that the disease, and especially a 'self-inflicted' disease, is a personal weakness. RELEVANCE FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE: Findings from this study show that patients struggle with feelings such as shame and misery. The nurses who work bedside are in continuous contact with the patients and have an opportunity to gain knowledge of these feelings in order to meet the patients' needs for comfort and care. They have an obligation to ask patients about their feelings and meet them with empathy and respect. Moreover, it is necessary to have interdisciplinary fora in clinical practice where health professionals reflect, discuss and challenge themselves according to attitudes towards patients with so-called 'self-inflicted' diseases.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Vergonha , Emoções , Culpa , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Cognition ; 214: 104770, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023670

RESUMO

People often feel guilt for accidents-negative events that they did not intend or have any control over. Why might this be the case? Are there reputational benefits to doing so? Across six studies, we find support for the hypothesis that observers expect "false positive" emotions from agents during a moral encounter - emotions that are not normatively appropriate for the situation but still trigger in response to that situation. For example, if a person accidentally spills coffee on someone, most normative accounts of blame would hold that the person is not blameworthy, as the spill was accidental. Self-blame (and the guilt that accompanies it) would thus be an inappropriate response. However, in Studies 1-2 we find that observers rate an agent who feels guilt, compared to an agent who feels no guilt, as a better person, as less blameworthy for the accident, and as less likely to commit moral offenses. These attributions of moral character extend to other moral emotions like gratitude, but not to nonmoral emotions like fear, and are not driven by perceived differences in overall emotionality (Study 3). In Study 4, we demonstrate that agents who feel extremely high levels of inappropriate (false positive) guilt (e.g., agents who experience guilt but are not at all causally linked to the accident) are not perceived as having a better moral character, suggesting that merely feeling guilty is not sufficient to receive a boost in judgments of character. In Study 5, using a trust game design, we find that observers are more willing to trust others who experience false positive guilt compared to those who do not. In Study 6, we find that false positive experiences of guilt may actually be a reliable predictor of underlying moral character: self-reported predicted guilt in response to accidents negatively correlates with higher scores on a psychopathy scale.


Assuntos
Emoções , Princípios Morais , Culpa , Humanos , Julgamento , Comportamento Social
20.
Conscious Cogn ; 92: 103140, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022639

RESUMO

Although dispositional shame and guilt have been distinguished by perceptions of the self and behavioral responses, the underlying information processing patterns remain unclear. We hypothesized that an ability to contemplate alternatives to perceptions of the current environment, i.e., flexibility in perspective shifting, may be essential to both dispositions. Dispositional shame may additionally relate to negative relational knowledge that involves a self-representation of being rejected. One hundred and six community participants rated the two dispositions, and had their flexibility in perspective shifting and internalized self-association with rejection assessed. Regression analysis indicated that a lower cost of perspective shifting was observed with dispositional guilt and shame. Yet, unlike a direct association with perspective shifting for dispositional guilt, it was an interaction between perspective shifting and negative relational knowledge that accounted for dispositional shame. The association of dispositional shame with perspective shifting was contingent upon the tendency to pair the self with rejection.


Assuntos
Emoções , Culpa , Humanos , Personalidade , Vergonha
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