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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246780, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285620


Abstract Anthelmintic drugs have been used strategically in livestock reared in the tropics. These drugs have been used in the treatment of endoparasitism which have resulted in an increase in the animals' performance. The agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) is a neo-tropical rodent with the potential for domestication and has been farmed intensively in Trinidad. However, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of anthelmintic use of the growth performance of the agouti. In searching the literature, it was found that this type of study on the agouti has not been done. In this experiment fourteen weaned agoutis weighing 1kg were divided into two groups randomly. The first group (T1) was not given any anthelmintic treatment but the second group (T2) was treated with Endovet Ces® subcutaneously every three months. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two groups in the carcass weight, weight gain, dressing percentage (hot and cold), heart, lungs, skin, head and feet. However, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was seen between groups in the weight of liver and pluck. To the authors knowledge this is the first time that carcass parameters has been presented in literature. The live weight of the animals at the end of the experiment ranged from 2.4 kg to 2.6 kg and animals had a dressing percentage of 57% to 55%. The results are suggestive that the use of anthelmintic drugs in agoutis reared intensively had no significant effect on weight gain and dressing percentage.

Resumo Drogas anti-helmínticas têm sido usadas estrategicamente em rebanhos criados nos trópicos. Essas drogas têm sido utilizadas no tratamento do endoparasitismo, o que resultou em um aumento no desempenho dos animais. A cutia (Dasyprocta leporina) é um roedor neotropical com potencial para domesticação e tem sido criada intensivamente em Trinidad. Porém, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar o efeito do uso de anti-helmínticos no desempenho de crescimento da cutia. Através de uma busca na literatura, constatou-se que esse tipo de estudo na cutia não foi realizado. Neste experimento, quatorze cutias desmamadas pesando 1kg foram divididas em dois grupos aleatoriamente. O primeiro grupo (T1) não recebeu nenhum tratamento anti-helmíntico, mas o segundo grupo (T2) foi tratado com Endovet Ces® por via subcutânea a cada três meses. Não houve diferenças significativas (p> 0,05) entre os dois grupos no peso da carcaça, ganho de peso, porcentagem de cobertura (quente e frio), coração, pulmão, pele, cabeça e pés. No entanto, uma diferença significativa (p <0,05) foi observada entre os grupos no peso do fígado e depenagem. Para os autores, esta é a primeira vez que parâmetros de carcaça são apresentados na literatura. O peso vivo dos animais ao final do experimento variou de 2,4 kg a 2,6 kg e os animais tinham uma porcentagem de curativo de 57% a 55%. Os resultados sugerem que o uso de anti-helmínticos em cutias criadas intensivamente não teve efeito significativo no ganho de peso e na porcentagem de curativo.

Animais , Cuniculidae , Dasyproctidae , Anti-Helmínticos , Roedores , Trinidad e Tobago
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(1): 333-343, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891715


Glucocorticoids have a wide range of pharmacological activities. Generally speaking, the steroid drugs, such as dexamethasone (DEX) can have severe side effects on the histology of different organs. In fact, glucocorticoids have been known as powerful medicines which can cure inflammation and work with the immune system to treat a wide range of health problems. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of DEX on the histological changes of the liver and kidney, as well as blood biochemical parameters. In total, 13 specific pathogen-free male Lepus Cuniculus rabbits aged 8-10 months old, with a mean weight of 1.12±0.13 kg were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (n=3) did not receive DEX, and they only received saline solution as a placebo (control). In Group II (n=5), the animals received 0.25 mg DEX/kg body weight/day for a period of 56 days, and the animals in Group III (n=5) received 0.5 mg DEX/kg body weight/day for 56 days. Blood was aspirated from the rabbit's marginal ear vein. All blood samples were centrifuged at 3000×g for 10 min to separate serum samples. Blood lipids and trace elements (zinc, copper, calcium, and iron) were measured. The microscopical analyses of the liver and kidney tissues were performed through the observation of the histological changes in the tissues. The results showed a significant (P≤0.05) decrease in the body and organ weight, as well as serum concentrations for the trace elements. On the other hand, lipid profile showed a significant increase (P≤0.05) in cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein. However, a significant decrease was recorded in high-density lipoprotein in both treated groups with DEX, compared to the control group. The results of the histological evaluation showed some degrees of degeneration, necrosis, cell vacuolation, and lymphocyte infiltration in the kidney and liver tissues in the treatment groups.

Cuniculidae , Lebres , Oligoelementos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Rim , Fígado , Masculino , Coelhos , Oligoelementos/farmacologia
Immunobiology ; 227(3): 152194, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278762


Opportunistic fungal pneumonia is a cause of concern in immunocompromised patients due to its high morbidity and mortality rates. One such opportunistic agent affecting immunocompromised patients is the microsporidia called Encephalitozoon cuniculi. This study aimed to evaluate pneumonia caused by E. cuniculi in mice treated with the immunosuppressive agent cyclophosphamide (Cy). This study also aimed to describe the immune cells associated with the microsporidial pneumonia. C57BL/6 mice were infected intravenously with E. cuniculi spores and treated with Cy (75 mg/kg/week, intraperitoneally). Thirty days post-infection, the fungal burden (qPCR), histopathological lesions, cytokine production, and the phenotype of the immune cells in the lung parenchyma were evaluated. Histologically, interstitial pneumonia with lymphocytic infiltrate was observed in the infected animals. The infiltrate mainly consisted of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, with reduced populations of B lymphocytes and macrophages. The production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was significant in the animals of the infected groups. Also, the fungal burden was higher in the Cy-treated animals, which was confirmed by the immunohistochemical observation of spores. These results demonstrated that E. cuniculi infection of C57BL/6 mice caused lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (characterized by a predominant lymphocytic infiltrate), which was aggravated by Cy-induced immunosuppression. Thus, these results can be used to understand the different pathological, immunological, and therapeutic aspects of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia.

Cuniculidae , Encefalitozoonose , Pneumonia , Animais , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
Int J Parasitol ; 52(4): 205-210, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774541


Cryptosporidium is one of the leading causes of diarrheal disease in humans and animals, which can be severe and deadly in neonates and immunocompromised hosts. Studies on the biology of Cryptosporidium and drug discovery efforts have been hindered by a number of factors including the limited availability of animal models. Here, we report the establishment and characterization of an immunocompetent rabbit model for infection with Cryptosporidium cuniculus. By testing four known anti-cryptosporidial compounds (nitazoxanide, baicalein, curcumin and matrine), we showed that the rabbit could be used as an alternative animal model for evaluating anti-cryptosporidial drug efficacy in vivo.

Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Cuniculidae , Animais , Criptosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Coelhos
Anat Histol Embryol ; 50(6): 931-939, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499362


The paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766) is a rodent species, typical of tropical regions. It is important that in addition to its commercial value as a protein source, it can be used as a scientific scope. The objective of this study was to describe the morphology of the thigh and the arm of the paca by anatomical and imaging methodology with radiography (X-ray), computed tomography (CAT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the surgical approach of the bones of these regions. It was concluded that the imaging study through X-ray, CAT scan and MRI are reliable methods for anatomical description of wild animals that have little known about their morphology. Finally, similarly to dogs, it was determined that lateral access is the best approach to the femoral diaphysis and the medial access is the best approach to the humerus diaphysis of the paca.

Cuniculidae , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Roedores
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246780, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378684


Anthelmintic drugs have been used strategically in livestock reared in the tropics. These drugs have been used in the treatment of endoparasitism which have resulted in an increase in the animals' performance. The agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) is a neo-tropical rodent with the potential for domestication and has been farmed intensively in Trinidad. However, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of anthelmintic use of the growth performance of the agouti. In searching the literature, it was found that this type of study on the agouti has not been done. In this experiment fourteen weaned agoutis weighing 1kg were divided into two groups randomly. The first group (T1) was not given any anthelmintic treatment but the second group (T2) was treated with Endovet Ces® subcutaneously every three months. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two groups in the carcass weight, weight gain, dressing percentage (hot and cold), heart, lungs, skin, head and feet. However, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was seen between groups in the weight of liver and pluck. To the authors knowledge this is the first time that carcass parameters has been presented in literature. The live weight of the animals at the end of the experiment ranged from 2.4 kg to 2.6 kg and animals had a dressing percentage of 57% to 55%. The results are suggestive that the use of anthelmintic drugs in agoutis reared intensively had no significant effect on weight gain and dressing percentage.

Anti-Helmínticos , Cuniculidae , Dasyproctidae , Animais , Roedores , Trinidad e Tobago
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256668, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428263


Wild animals infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis represent important indicators of this fungal agent presence in the environment. The detection of this pathogen in road-killed wild animals has shown to be a key strategy for eco-epidemiological surveillance of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), helping to map hot spots for human infection. Molecular detection of P. brasiliensis in wild animals from PCM outbreak areas has not been performed so far. The authors investigated the presence of P. brasiliensis through nested-PCR in tissue samples obtained from road-killed animals collected nearby a human PCM outbreak spot, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil and border areas. Eighteen species of mammals were analyzed: Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo, n = 6), Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox, n = 4), Coendou spinosus (hairy dwarf porcupine, n = 2), Lontra longicaudis (Neotropical river otter, n = 1), Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon, n = 1), Galactis cuja (lesser grison, n = 1), Tamandua tetradactyla (collared anteater, n = 1), Cuniculus paca (paca, n = 1), and Bradypus variegatus (brown-throated three-toed sloth, n = 1). Specific P. brasiliensis sequences were detected in the liver, spleen, and lymph node samples from 4/6 (66.7%) D. novemcinctus, reinforcing the importance of these animals on Paracoccidioides ecology. Moreover, lymph nodes samples from two C. thous, as well as lung samples from the C. paca were also positive. A literature review of Paracoccidioides spp. in vertebrates in Brazil indicates C. thous and C. paca as new hosts for the fungal pathogen P. brasiliensis.

Canidae/microbiologia , Cuniculidae/microbiologia , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Paracoccidioides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Brasil , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Feminino , Fígado/microbiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Paracoccidioides/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Baço/microbiologia
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 367, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159426


The objective of this study was to evaluate and to describe the main behaviors of family groups of lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca) raised in a commercial breeding facility. We used 24 adult pacas, 16 females and 8 males, with a mean live weight of 8.2 kg and age ranging from 2 to 4 years. The animals were kept in groups of two females and one male per enclosure. Cameras were used to monitor the animals. The behaviors identified were divided into five categories (maintenance, exploratory, social interaction, reproductive, and environmental interaction). A completely randomized design in a split-split plot arrangement with three treatment factors was used: sex, period of the day, and season. The frequencies of the maintenance and environmental interaction behavioral categories were significantly higher during the day compared to the nocturnal period (P < 0.05). The duration of each behavioral category differed significantly (P < 0.05) between day and night. The frequencies of the maintenance and reproductive behavioral categories were significantly higher during the dry season compared to the rainy season (P < 0.05) and the relative duration of behaviors of the environmental interaction category was shorter during the dry season (P < 0.05). Females exhibited a significantly higher frequency of maintenance and environmental interaction than males (P < 0.05) and the duration of environmental interaction was shorter (P < 0.05) in females. The present results add to the existing knowledge on the behavior of lowland pacas raised in captivity for production of this wild species which is in the stage of domestication.

Cuniculidae , Animais , Etologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Estações do Ano
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 155-161, Jan.-Feb. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153056


Paca (Cuniculus paca) has encouraged research as an experimental model both in the human medicine and veterinary, as well as the economic exploitation of its meat cuts, which favored its zootechnical use. There are no anatomical, microscopic descriptions and measurements of the larynx in this rodent. Eight pacas were dissected from the wild animal's sector of the Faculty of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences of the University of the State of São Paulo. The larynx was observed located in the ventral region of the neck, ventral to the esophagus, connecting the pharynx to the trachea, with cylindrical and irregular shape. Laryngeal cartilages (epiglottic, thyroid, cricoid and arytenoid) are interconnected and have different shapes. Thyroid showed greater length and width, compared to the others. Laryngeal cartilages were submitted to histological processing and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. The epiglottic cartilage was stained with toluidine blue. Laryngeal cartilages thyroid, cricoid and the lower portion of the arytenoids are of hyaline origin and, in contrast, the epiglottis and the upper portion of the arytenoids are elastic. This latter cartilage demonstrated taste buds. The results will be able to auxiliate in veterinary care and as well as the conservation programs for this rodent.(AU)

A paca (Cuniculus paca) tem encorajado inúmeras pesquisas, tornando-a modelo experimental tanto em humanos como na veterinária, além da exploração econômica de seus cortes cárneos, que favoreceu diretamente sua importância zootécnica. Não há descrições anatômicas, microscópicas e mensurações da laringe desse roedor. Foram dissecadas oito laringes de pacas, provenientes do setor de Animais Silvestres da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Universidade Estadual Paulista. Observou-se que a laringe localiza-se na região ventral do pescoço, ventral ao esôfago, conectando a faringe à traqueia, possuindo formato cilíndrico e irregular. As cartilagens laríngeas (epiglote, tireóide, cricóide e aritenóidea) são interligadas e possuem formatos variados. A cartilagem tireóide demonstrou-se maior em comprimento e largura, comparativamente às demais. As cartilagens laríngeas foram submetidas a processamento histológico e coradas em hematoxilina-eosina e tricrômio de Masson. A cartilagem epiglote foi corada em azul de toluidina. As cartilagens laríngeas tireóide, cricóide e a porção inferior das aritenóides são de origem hialina; em contrapartida, a epiglote e a porção superior das aritenóides, de origem elástica. Esta última cartilagem demonstrou corpúsculos gustativos. Os resultados poderão auxiliar tanto nos atendimentos veterinários quanto nos programas de conservação desse roedor.(AU)

Animais , Cuniculidae/anatomia & histologia , Cartilagens Laríngeas/anatomia & histologia , Laringe/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Respiratório/anatomia & histologia
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 18(2): 131-138, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085530


The consumption of wildlife meat is traditionally accepted in the Peruvian Amazon; however, little is known about the pathogens present in this type of food. One of the most frequently consumed species is a rodent, the paca (Cuniculus paca) or "majaz" in the Peruvian language. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Salmonella enterica and its antimicrobial resistance profile in paca carcasses sold in the Belen Market of Iquitos-Peru. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out. Fresh and smoked paca carcasses (72 samples) were evaluated during the low-rain period (July 2019) in the traditional market of Iquitos, in the Amazonian Region. Meat samples were swabbed, and International Standards Organization (ISO) 6579-1: 2017 protocol was followed to Salmonella isolation. Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis was performed by the disk diffusion method. In addition, serotyping was performed by using the Kauffmann-White scheme. A total of 25 strains of S. enterica were isolated in the paca carcasses, mainly in fresh carcasses (48.6%). The serovars isolated were Agona (45.8%), Infantis (41.7%), Wangata (8.3%), and Javiana (4.2%). A considerable number of the isolated strains were multidrug resistant (40%). The highest prevalence of resistance corresponded to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (64%) followed by nitrofurantoin (44%), chloramphenicol (40%), cefotaxime (40%), and nalidixic acid (40%). Ten strains isolated (40%) were identified as producers of extended spectrum beta lactamases, all in S. enterica serovar Infantis. This study describes the presence of Salmonella Infantis with multidrug resistance profiles in wildlife meat carcasses, making the consumption of this type of products a risk factor for the development of foodborne diseases in the Amazon region. Institutional Review Board: Approval Resolution of Thesis Project: N° 024-DACMVZ-DAFCVB-U.CIENTÍFICA-2019.

Cuniculidae/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Peru , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 48(1): 82-91, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229231


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of ketamine-midazolam for chemical restraint, isoflurane anesthesia and tramadol or methadone as preventive analgesia in spotted pacas subjected to laparoscopy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective placebo-controlled blinded trial. ANIMALS: A total of eight captive female Cuniculus paca weighing 9.3 ± 0.9 kg. METHODS: Animals were anesthetized on three occasions with 15 day intervals. Manually restrained animals were administered midazolam (0.5 mg kg-1) and ketamine (25 mg kg-1) intramuscularly. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane 30 minutes later. Tramadol (5 mg kg-1), methadone (0.5 mg kg-1) or saline (0.05 mL kg-1) were administered intramuscularly 15 minutes prior to laparoscopy. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (Pe'CO2), end-tidal concentration of isoflurane (Fe'Iso), pH, PaO2, PaCO2, bicarbonate (HCO3-), anion gap (AG) and base excess (BE) were monitored after chemical restraint, anesthesia induction and at different laparoscopy stages. Postoperative pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) for 24 hours. Variables were compared using anova or Friedman test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Chemical restraint was effective in 92% of animals. Isoflurane anesthesia was effective; however, HR, MAP, pH and AG decreased, whereas Pe'CO2, PaO2, PaCO2, HCO3- and BE increased. MAP was stable with tramadol and methadone treatments; HR, Fe'Iso and postoperative VAS decreased. VAS was lower for a longer time with methadone treatment; SpO2 and AG decreased, whereas Pe'CO2, PaCO2 and HCO3- increased. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ketamine-midazolam provided satisfactory restraint. Isoflurane anesthesia for laparoscopy was effective but resulted in hypotension and respiratory acidosis. Tramadol and methadone reduced isoflurane requirements, provided postoperative analgesia and caused hypercapnia, with methadone causing severe respiratory depression. Thus, the anesthetic protocol is adequate for laparoscopy in Cuniculus paca; however, methadone should be avoided.

Analgesia , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Cuniculidae , Isoflurano , Laparoscopia , Tramadol , Analgesia/veterinária , Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Laparoscopia/veterinária , Metadona/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tramadol/farmacologia
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1525-1527, Dec. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134471


SUMMARY: The study reported the influence of the high and acute dose of Letrozole on the testis morphology in paca (Cuniculus paca), an aromatase inhibitor that reduces the endogenous estrogen, the essential hormone for spermatogenesis. Morphological changes were observed in seminiferous epithelium with germ cells with apoptotic characteristics and presence of vacuoles and nuclei in pycnose.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la influencia de una dosis alta de Letrozol en la morfología de los testículos de la paca (Cuniculus paca), un inhibidor de la aromatasa que reduce el estrógeno endógeno, la hormona esencial para la espermatogénesis. Se observaron cambios morfológicos en el epitelio seminífero con células germinales con características apoptóticas y la presencia de vacuolas y núcleos en picnosis.

Animais , Masculino , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Cuniculidae , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Epitélio Seminífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Orquiectomia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Células Germinativas/efeitos dos fármacos
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 470, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028373


OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to facilitate genetic studies that would allow information on population structure and genetic diversity of natural or captive stocks of paca (Cuniculus paca), a species of ecological and socioeconomic importance, by testing cross-amplification of 20 heterologous microsatellite primer pairs developed for guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). RESULTS: Those primers that showed the best amplification profile in blood samples were subsequently applied to scats and saliva samples, to evaluate their efficiency. Of the 13 microsatellite pairs that amplified in blood, one-third (32%) were successfully amplified in saliva and scat samples. This initial work demonstrates successful cross-amplification in paca providing a solid and promising foundation for future genetic studies with this species. The ability to quantify genetic diversity using noninvasive samples from free-ranging paca is essential to developing applied management strategies for this large neotropical rodent that is not only a prey favored by wide-ranging carnivores [e.g., jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor)], but is also a species targeted by illegal hunting and wildlife trade.

Cuniculidae , Panthera , Puma , Animais , Cobaias , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Panthera/genética , Puma/genética , Roedores
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(9): 733-737, Sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143418


Paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766), rodent belong to the Cuniculidae family, has encouraged numerous scientific researches and for this reason could be an experimental model in both human and veterinary areas. And recently, the economic exploitation of the meat cuts, has being direct implication in its zootechnical importance. However, no anatomical descriptions regarding the vascularization of the base of the brain in this rodent has being found. Thus, the aim of the present study was to describe the arteries and the pattern of the vasculature and to compare it with the other species already established in the literature. For this, five pacas, donated by the Unesp Jaboticabal Wildlife Sector, were euthanized followed by the vascular arterial system was injected with red-stained-centrifuged latex by the common carotid artery. After craniectomy, the brains were removed and the arteries were identified and, in addition, compared with those described in other animal species. The presence of the right and left vertebral arteries, close to the medulla oblongata, was detected, originating the basilar artery, which divided into the terminal branches of the right and left basilar artery. Ventral to the optic tract there was the right internal carotid artery and the left, dividing the middle cerebral artery and left rostral and right; dorsal to the optic chiasm, the medial branch of the rostral cerebral arteries was identified. Based on the results, it is concluded that the vascularization of the paca brain base is supplied by the carotid and vertebrobasilar system.(AU)

A paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus 1766), roedor da família Cuniculidae, tem encorajado inúmeras pesquisas científicas, tornando-a modelo experimental tanto na área humana quanto na veterinária, além da recente exploração econômica de seus cortes cárneos, que favoreceu diretamente sua importância zootécnica. No entanto, não há até o momento, descrições anatômicas referentes à padronização da vascularização da base do encéfalo neste roedor. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar tal delineamento arterial nessa região do sistema nervoso central e compará-lo com as demais espécies já estabelecidas na literatura. Para isso, foram eutanasiadas cinco pacas doadas pelo setor de Animais Silvestres da Unesp Jaboticabal, as quais foram submetidas posteriormente à injeção de látex centrifugado e corante líquido xadrez vermelho, pela artéria carótida comum. Após craniectomia e segregação do encéfalo de todos os cadáveres, realizou-se a identificação das artérias presentes na base deste órgão e, ademais, comparação destas com as descritas cientificamente em outras espécies animais. Detectou-se a presença das artérias vertebral direita e esquerda, próximas à medula oblonga, originando a artéria basilar, que se dividiu nos ramos terminais da artéria basilar direito e esquerdo. Ventral ao trato óptico verificou-se a artéria carótida interna direita e esquerda dividindo-se na artéria cerebral média e rostral direita e esquerda; ainda, dorsal ao quiasma óptico, identificou-se o ramo medial das artérias cerebrais rostrais. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a vascularização da base do encéfalo da paca é suprida pelo sistema carotídeo e vertebro-basilar.(AU)

Animais , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Artérias Cerebrais/anatomia & histologia , Cuniculidae/anatomia & histologia
J Anat ; 237(1): 105-118, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255516


Studying the timing of the main events of embryonic and fetal development may clarify the strategies adopted by species to maximize neonatal survival and the consequences of these events for their life history. This study describes bone development during the fetal phase of the lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), comparing it with other precocial or altricial species, and its relationship with the species' adaptive strategies. A total of 102 embryos/fetuses obtained over the course of 17 years through collaboration with local subsistence hunters in the Amazon were analyzed. Measurements of mineralization of the axial and appendicular skeletons were performed by ultrasonography using a 10-18-MHz linear transducer. The chronological order of occurrence of mineralization in relation to the total dorsal length (TDL) was: skull (TDL = 4.1 cm); vertebral bodies (TDL = 4.6 cm); scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, ilium, ischium, femur, tibia, and fibula (TDL = 6.7 cm); ribs (TDL = 7.8 cm); clavicle (TDL = 8.5 cm); metacarpi/metatarsi (TDL = 11 cm); phalanges (TDL = 15 cm); tarsus (TDL = 18 cm); patella (TDL = 23 cm); and carpus (TDL = 27.2 cm). Secondary ossification centers first appeared in the femoral distal epiphysis (TDL = 16.6 cm) and tibial proximal epiphysis (TDL = 18.4 cm). Advanced fetuses (TDL > 30 cm, 97% gestational period) presented mineralization in all primary and most secondary centers. Compared to other species, paca neonates have a well-developed skeletal system at birth, which is important for their independent postnatal locomotion. Our results may contribute to the monitoring of bone development in other wild species, helping us to understand their life history, and serving as parameters for comparisons between precocial and altricial mammals.

Desenvolvimento Ósseo/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Animais , Cuniculidae , Ultrassonografia
Reprod Domest Anim ; 55(4): 442-447, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916295


We tested FSHp, eCG and FSHp + eCG to establish ovum pick-up (OPU) and in vitro maturation method in spotted paca. Eight healthy adult females were subjected to each of four treatments to stimulate ovarian follicular growth. All females were subjected to a hormonal protocol using a single dose of 45 mg of injectable progesterone and single intramuscular injection of 0.075 mg d-cloprostenol on day 6. Ovarian stimulation was carried out as follows: in Group TFE (FSHp and eCG), animals were treated with a single dose of 80 mg of FSHp and 200 IU of eCG intramuscularly on day 6 after the application of progesterone; in Group TF (FSHp), they were treated with a single dose of 80 mg of FSHp intramuscularly on day 6 after application of progesterone; in Group treatment eCG, they were treated with 200 IU of eCG intramuscularly on day 6 after application of progesterone; and in Group TC (saline solution), 1 ml of saline solution was administered to control does. The OPU was performed between 22 and 26 hr after gonadotropin treatments. All recovered oocytes were placed into maturation media and incubated for 24 hr. There were no differences among the mean number of observed follicles, aspirated follicles and oocytes recovered per treatment. Oocyte maturation rates did not differ among groups, except, TF and treatment eCG oocytes had greater maturation rates than TC oocytes. In this study, gonadotropin administration failed to superovulate treated does and increase oocyte retrieval efficiency. Despite the feasibility of the procedure, further studies are needed to develop and refine hormonal protocols for oocyte recovery and in vitro maturation in this species.

Cuniculidae/fisiologia , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Recuperação de Oócitos/veterinária , Animais , Cloprostenol/farmacologia , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia , Gonadotropinas Equinas/farmacologia , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/métodos , Recuperação de Oócitos/métodos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Progesterona/farmacologia
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1558-1564, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038680


The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chemical restraint, general anesthesia and opioid treatment on hematological components in Cuniculus paca. Eight healthy, adult, captivity female animals , underwent three laparoscopic procedures with a 15-day interval were evaluated. After physical restraint, an association of ketamine (25mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly for chemical restraint. Posteriorly, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; and randomly administered methadone (0.5mg/kg), tramadol (5mg/kg) or saline-placebo (0,1mL/kg) intramuscularly. After pharmacological restraint and in the final laparoscopy stage, venous blood samples were obtained for complete blood count, total plasma protein (TP), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sodium, potassium, chloride and ionized calcium analysis. During general anesthesia, hemoglobin, TP concentration and lymphocytes decreased (P=0.029; <0.001; 0.022 respectively), whereas the potassium levels increased (P=0.034). In conclusion, chemical restraint with ketamine/midazolam association causes a slight decrease in blood cellular components. Isoflurane anesthesia for laparoscopic procedure lead to decrease in hemoglobin, lymphocytes and protein concentrations, while potassium increased, without any influence from the tramadol or methadone treatment. However, these alterations were transient, and its hematologic values can collaborate in carrying out epidemiological, pathophysiological or case studies in the Cuniculus paca.(AU)

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de contenção química, anestesia geral e tratamento com opiáceos nos parâmetros hematológicos em Cuniculus paca. Foram avaliados oito animais saudáveis, fêmeas, adultas, de cativeiro, que foram submetidas a três procedimentos laparoscópicos, com intervalo de 15 dias. Após a contenção física, uma associação de cetamina (25mg/kg) e midazolam (0,5mg/kg) foi administrada por via intramuscular para contenção química. Posteriormente, a anestesia foi induzida e mantida com isoflurano, e administrou-se aleatoriamente metadona (0,5mg/kg), tramadol (5mg/kg) ou placebo salina por via intramuscular. Após a contenção farmacológica e em estágio final da laparoscopia, foram obtidas amostras de sangue venoso para contagem sanguínea completa, proteína de plasma total (TP), creatinina, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), cálcio, sódio, potássio e cloreto ionizado. Durante a anestesia geral, a concentração de hemoglobina, TP e linfócitos diminuiu (P= 0,029;< 0,001; 0,022, respectivamente), enquanto os níveis de potássio aumentaram (P= 0,034). Em conclusão, a contenção química com associação de cetamina/midazolam promove uma ligeira diminuição dos componentes celulares do sangue. A anestesia com isoflavano para o procedimento laparoscópico levou a uma diminuição das concentrações de hemoglobina, linfócitos e proteínas, enquanto o potássio aumentou, sem qualquer influência do tratamento com tramadol ou metadona. No entanto, essas alterações foram transitórias, e os seus valores hematológicos obtidos podem colaborar na realização de estudos epidemiológicos, fisiopatológicos ou casuísticas para Cuniculus paca.(AU)

Animais , Feminino , Cuniculidae/cirurgia , Cuniculidae/sangue , Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/sangue , Tramadol/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Metadona/administração & dosagem
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1293-1298, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038619


The pelvimetry consists of the metric determination of the pelvis dimensions and its use is directly related to the reproduction. The cartilage closure time of the ossification centers varies according to the bone, some closing already in the uterine life and others remaining present for many years. The objective was to evaluate, radiographically, the pelvic diameters by pelvimetry during the first 24 months of life in pacas, the second lagest Brazilian rodent and an animal that has shown big recent scientific interest, aiming the estimated age determination. Twelve pacas were used, which were monthly radiographed up from birth until 24 months old, with the animals anesthetized. The pacas are dolicopelvic animals and with pelvis presenting strong tendency to constant growth along the 12 first months of age, fact that can be useful in the approximated animals' age determination that do not have precise birth date, for example.(AU)

A pelvimetria consiste na determinação métrica das dimensões pélvicas, e sua utilização está diretamente relacionada à reprodução. O momento de fechamento da cartilagem dos centros de ossificação varia de acordo com o osso, algumas fechando já na vida uterina e outras permanecendo presentes por vários anos. Objetivou-se avaliar, radiograficamente, os diâmetros pélvicos, mediante pelvimetria, durante os 24 primeiros meses de vida de pacas, o segundo maior roedor brasileiro e sobre o qual tem havido grande interesse científico, para a determinação aproximada da idade. Foram utilizadas 12 pacas, as quais foram radiografadas mensalmente a partir do nascimento até 24 meses de idade, com os animais anestesiados. As pacas são animais dolicopélvicos e com pelve apresentando forte tendência ao crescimento constante durante os 12 primeiros meses de vida, o que pode ser útil na determinação aproximada da idade em animais que não possuem data precisa de nascimento, por exemplo.(AU)

Animais , Pelve/anatomia & histologia , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/veterinária , Cuniculidae , Pelvimetria/veterinária
Anim Reprod Sci ; 205: 105-114, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060921


Generation length (GL) of a mammal, calculated through the age at sexual maturity, first reproduction and reproductive senescence can be used to assess the capacity of a population of a species to withstand differing amounts of hunting pressure by humans without depletion of animal numbers. Due to the lack of reproductive data for wild mammals, the GL is often difficult to determine for most species. In the present study, the GL parameters were assessed for the wild lowland paca (Cuniculus paca) from a sample of 119 female genitalia obtained during a 15-year hunter participatory program in the Amazon. The probability of female pacas being sexually active, with observable ovarian functionality or pregnancy, increased as both body and genitalia masses increased. The average body mass at puberty was 5.46 kg. Puberty was estimated to occur at 4 months of age, from which there was estimation when age at first parturition would occur 9 months after birth. Additionally, there was no indication that there was a decrease in parturition rate at more advanced ages. The estimated age of first reproduction for pacas was much less than previous estimates, most from assessments of captive animals. In addition, because there was no evidence of reproductive senescence, it is suggested that the average age of mature hunted pacas should be used to determine optimal harvesting rates of pacas by humans. The present study highlights the importance of in situ studies on reproduction of animals in their natural habitat because these will yield more accurate reproductive variable estimates than those obtained from captive animals. It is suggested that similar methods be used to accurately assess reproductive parameters of other tropical species that are hunted by humans.

Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cuniculidae/fisiologia , Parto/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Dinâmica Populacional , Gravidez
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 571-576, mar.-abr. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011274


Este trabalho se baseou na descrição morfológica da paca (Cuniculus paca), espécie selvagem pertencente à ordem dos roedores, típica de regiões tropicais, sendo o seu conhecimento anatômico detalhado muito importante para sua conservação, experimentação e comercialização, pois ainda são escassos na literatura os trabalhos sobre morfologia de espécies selvagens. Macroscopicamente, o pâncreas da paca é formado por lóbulos, organizados em ramificações difusas, e, microscopicamente, tal órgão possui uma camada de tecido conjuntivo frouxo, a partir da qual partem septos, que dividem a glândula em lóbulos, compostos de ácinos e ilhotas pancreáticas.(AU)

The present study aimed to describe the morphology of pacas (Cuniculus paca), a wild species belonging to the order Rodentia, found in tropical areas. The detailed anatomical knowledge of pacas is very important for conservation, experimental studies and commercialization because studies in literature about wild species are scarce. The pancreas of paca has lobes organized in diffuse branches at the macroscopic level and microscopically this organ has a loose connective tissue layer, originating septa that divide the gland into lobes composed of acini and pancreatic islets.(AU)

Animais , Pâncreas/anatomia & histologia , Cuniculidae/anatomia & histologia