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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102535

RESUMO

The previous research of clinical big data mining showed that stir-baking Semen Cuscuta with salt solution (YP) ranked the first in the usage rate of treating abortion caused by kidney deficiency. At the same time, pharmacodynamic studies also showed that YP has better effect on improving recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) compared to raw products of Semen Cuscuta (SP). However, there were few studies on the biomarkers of YP improving RSA. In this study, the chemical and metabonomic profiling were used to screen the quality markers of YP on improving RSA. Firstly, a metabolomics study was carried out to select representative biomarkers of RSA. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) technique was used to investigate the components of exogenous and endogenous in serum of rats after administrated with YP and SP. As a result, 14 differential compounds were identified between the serum of rats administrated SP and YP. Compared to SP, there was an upward trend in YP of the compounds including kaempferol-3-glucuronide, iso-kaempferol-3-glucuronide, (1S) -11-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and 3-phenylpropionic acid. Meanwhile, there was a reducing trend in YP of the compounds including kaempferol 3-arabinofuranoside, apigenin-3-O-glucoside, hyperoside, caffeic acid-ß-D glucoside, dicaffeoylquinic acid, linoleic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, palmitic acid and methyl myristate. 12 biomarkers for RSA indication were identified. SP and YP have a certain effect on the endogenous biomarker. The regulation effect of YP was higher than that of SP. The main metabolic pathways included phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, sphingolipid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. This study demonstrated a promising way to elucidate the active chemical and endogenous material basis of TCM.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Perda do Embrião/metabolismo , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Culinária , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
2.
Plant Physiol ; 185(4): 1395-1410, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793912

RESUMO

Dodder (Cuscuta spp., Convolvulaceae) is a genus of parasitic plants with worldwide distribution. Dodders are able to simultaneously parasitize two or more adjacent hosts, forming dodder-connected plant clusters. Nitrogen (N) deficiency is a common challenge to plants. To date, it has been unclear whether dodder transfers N-systemic signals between hosts grown in N-heterogeneous soil. Transcriptome and methylome analyses were carried out to investigate whether dodder (Cuscuta campestris) transfers N-systemic signals between N-replete and N-depleted cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hosts, and it was found that N-systemic signals from the N-deficient cucumber plants were rapidly translocated through C. campestris to the N-replete cucumber plants. Unexpectedly, certain systemic signals were also transferred from the N-replete to N-depleted cucumber hosts. We demonstrate that these systemic signals are able to regulate large transcriptome and DNA methylome changes in the recipient hosts. Importantly, N stress also induced many long-distance mobile mRNA transfers between C. campestris and hosts, and the bilateral N-systemic signaling between N-replete and N-depleted hosts had a strong impact on the inter-plant mobile mRNAs. Our 15N labeling experiment indicated that under N-heterogeneous conditions, N-systemic signals from the N-deficient cucumber hosts did not obviously change the N-uptake activity of the N-replete cucumber hosts; however, in plant clusters comprising C. campestris-connected cucumber and soybean (Glycine max) plants, if the soybean plants were N-starved, the cucumber plants exhibited increased N-uptake activity. This study reveals that C. campestris facilitates plant-plant communications under N-stress conditions by enabling extensive bilateral N-systemic signaling between different hosts.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/genética , Cuscuta/fisiologia , Cuscuta/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Proteínas PII Reguladoras de Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas PII Reguladoras de Nitrogênio/genética
3.
Plant Physiol ; 185(4): 1457-1467, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661304

RESUMO

Invasive holoparasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta (dodder) threaten African ecosystems due to their rapid spread and attack on various host plant species. Most Cuscuta species cannot photosynthesize and hence rely on host plants for nourishment. After attachment through a peg-like organ called a haustorium, the parasites deprive hosts of water and nutrients, which negatively affects host growth and development. Despite their rapid spread in Africa, dodders have attracted limited research attention, although data on their taxonomy, host range, and epidemiology are critical for their management. Here, we combine taxonomy and phylogenetics to reveal the presence of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris) and C. kilimanjari (both either naturalized or endemic to East Africa), in addition to the introduction of the giant dodder (C. reflexa), a south Asian species, in continental Africa. These parasites have a wide host range, parasitizing species across 13 angiosperm orders. We evaluated the possibility of C. reflexa to expand this host range to tea (Camelia sinensis), coffee (Coffea arabica), and mango (Mangifera indica), crops of economic importance to Africa, for which haustorial formation and vascular-bundle connections in all three crops revealed successful parasitism. However, only mango mounted a successful postattachment resistance response. Furthermore, species distribution models predicted high habitat suitability for Cuscuta spp. across major tea- and coffee-growing regions of Eastern Africa, suggesting an imminent risk to these crops. Our findings provide relevant insights into a poorly understood threat to biodiversity and economic wellbeing in Eastern Africa, and provide critical information to guide development of management strategies to avert Cuscuta spp. spread.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/genética , Cuscuta/fisiologia , Cuscuta/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Plantas Daninhas/parasitologia , África Oriental , Cuscuta/classificação , Ecossistema , Fazendas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Plantas Daninhas/genética
4.
Plant Physiol ; 185(2): 491-502, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721891

RESUMO

The genus Cuscuta comprises stem holoparasitic plant species with wide geographic distribution. Cuscuta spp. obtain water, nutrients, proteins, and mRNA from their host plants via a parasitic organ called the haustorium. As the haustorium penetrates into the host tissue, search hyphae elongate within the host tissue and finally connect with the host's vascular system. Invasion by Cuscuta spp. evokes various reactions within the host plant's tissues. Here, we show that, when Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is invaded by Cuscuta campestris, ethylene biosynthesis by the host plant promotes elongation of the parasite's search hyphae. The expression of genes encoding 1-aminocylclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthases, ACC SYNTHASE2 (AtACS2) and ACC SYNTHASE6 (AtACS6), was activated in the stem of Arabidopsis plants upon invasion by C. campestris. When the ethylene-deficient Arabidopsis acs octuple mutant was invaded by C. campestris, cell elongation and endoreduplication of the search hyphae were significantly reduced, and the inhibition of search hyphae growth was complemented by exogenous application of ACC. In contrast, in the C. campestris-infected Arabidopsis ethylene-insensitive mutant etr1-3, no growth inhibition of search hyphae was observed, indicating that ETHYLENE RESPONSE1-mediated ethylene signaling in the host plant is not essential for parasitism by C. campestris. Overall, our results suggest that C. campestris recognizes host-produced ethylene as a stimulatory signal for successful invasion.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Cuscuta/fisiologia , Etilenos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Crescimento Celular , Cuscuta/genética , Endorreduplicação , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Liases/genética , Liases/metabolismo , Mutação , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
5.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(2): 737-751, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655703

RESUMO

'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) is a phloem-limited non-culturable α-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing, a highly destructive disease threatening global citrus industry. Research on CLas is challenging due to the current inability to culture CLas in vitro and the low CLas titre in citrus plant. Here, we develop a CLas enrichment system using the holoparasitic dodder plant (Cuscuta campestris) as an amenable host to acquire and enrich CLas from CLas-infected citrus shoots maintained hydroponically. Forty-eight out of fifty-five (87%) dodder plants successfully parasitized CLas-infected citrus shoots with detectable CLas by PCR. Among 48 dodders cultures, 30 showed two- to 419-fold CLas titre increase as compared to the corresponding citrus hosts. The CLas population rapidly increased and reached the highest level in dodder tendrils at 15 days after parasitizing citrus shoot. Genome sequencing and assembly derived from CLas-enriched dodder DNA samples generated a higher resolution than those obtained for CLas from citrus hosts. No genomic variation was detected in CLas after transmission from citrus to dodder during short-term parasitism. Dual RNA-Seq experiments showed similar CLas gene expression profiles in dodder and citrus samples, yet dodder samples generated a higher resolution of CLas transcriptome data. The ability of dodder to support CLas multiplication to high levels, as well as its advantage in CLas genomic and transcriptomic analyses, make it an optimal model for further studies on CLas-host interaction.


Assuntos
Cuscuta , Rhizobiaceae , Genômica , Liberibacter , Doenças das Plantas , Rhizobiaceae/genética , Transcriptoma
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 270: 113790, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460759

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and Lycium barbarum L. (SC-FL) is a commonly used kidney tonic Chinese medicine combination that is widely used in the clinical treatment of oligoasthenospermia.However, its specific mechanism remains unclear and requires in-depth study. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the potential targets of SC-FL in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia using network pharmacology, and to verify the results with in vivo and in vitro experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A herb-compound-target-disease network and PPI network were constructed with Cytoscape software. The targets of SC-FL for the treatment of male sterility were introduced into a bioinformatics annotation database, and the GO and KEGG databases were used for pathway enrichment analysis. Subsequently, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (GTW) polyglycoside was used to induce a spermatogenic dysfunction model in GC-1 spg cells and SD male rats in in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively. The SC-FL and PI3K pathway inhibitor LY294002 was used to intervene in the spermatogenic dysfunction model to detect the expression of proteins and mRNA related to the PI3K pathway and to detect the indicators related to proliferation and apoptosis. RESULTS: In in vitro experiments, the percentage of spermatogenic cells and the proportion of GC-1 spg cells at G0/G1 and G2/M stages in the model group (GTW group) and the inhibitor group (LY group) were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) compared with the blank control group (NC group). The apoptosis rate of the GTW group was significantly increased (P < 0.01). The ultrastructures of GC-1 spg cells in the GTW group and LY group were obviously destroyed. Compared with the GTW group, the SC-FL group had a significantly reduced apoptosis rate of GC-1 spg cells, reduced percentage of cells in S phase, and a significantly improved mitochondrial membrane potential. SC-FL can repair the ultrastructure of GC-1 spg cells damaged by GTW. The above effects of SC-FL are closely related to up-regulation of GFRa1, RET, PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2 and down-regulation of BAD and BAX proteins and mRNA expression. In vivo, compared with the GTW group, the body mass, testicular mass, and epididymal weight of the GTW + SC-FL group were significantly increased (P < 0.01). Sperm concentrations and the PR + NP of GTW + SC-FL were significantly higher than in the GTW group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). FSH, LH, and T levels in the GTW + SC-FL and LY + SC-FL groups were significantly higher than those in the GTW and LY group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). HE staining results showed that the morphology of testicular tissue in the GTW + SC-FL and LY + SC-FL groups was superior to that in the GTW and LY group. The above effects of SC-FL are closely related to the up-regulation of proteins and mRNA expression of PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2. CONCLUSION: Through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, SC-FL up-regulates GFRa1, RET, PI3K, p-AKT, and Bcl-2, and down-regulates the expression of BAD and BAX proteins and mRNA, thus reducing the percentage of GC-1 spg cells in S-phase, significantly increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, significantly reducing cell apoptosis, and improving sperm counts and viability.


Assuntos
Astenozoospermia/tratamento farmacológico , Cuscuta/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Lycium/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Astenozoospermia/induzido quimicamente , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Cuscuta/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Lycium/metabolismo , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/ultraestrutura , Testículo/patologia , Tripterygium/toxicidade
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 273: 113826, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465443

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cuscuta epithymum Murr. (CE) is a parasitic plant used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as muscle and joint pains and headache different parts of the world, Europe in the north, Asia in the east. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of CE and its probable mechanism(s) in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-nociceptive activity of different doses of CE methanolic extract (2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was assessed using tail flick, formalin and writhing tests. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) was used as positive control drug. The possible mechanisms were evaluated by using naloxone (4 mg/kg, i.p.), ondansetron (4 mg/kg, i.p.), picrotoxin (0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) and MK-801 (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.). RESULTS: GC-MS analysis indicated that one of the main components of CE extract was terpenoid compounds. The CE extract (25-100 mg/kg), like morphine, reduced tail flick latency and nociceptive response in both phases of the formalin test. We also observed that the extract significantly decreased the number of abdominal contractions dose-dependently from 5 to 100 mg/kg. The results of tail flick and the first phase of formalin test proved that unlike ondansetron and MK-801, naloxone and picotroxin were able to reverse the anti-nociceptive effect of CE extract. CONCLUSION: Our observations showed the anti-nociceptive potential of the CE extract, which may be mediated by opioidergic and GABAergic systems.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Cuscuta/química , GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , GABAérgicos/química , GABAérgicos/uso terapêutico , GABAérgicos/toxicidade , Masculino , Metanol/química , Camundongos , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Receptores de Glutamato/metabolismo , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo
8.
Plant Sci ; 303: 110770, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487354

RESUMO

Dodder is a holoparasitic flowering plant that re-establishes parasitism with the host when broken off from the host. However, how in vitro dodder shoots recycle stored nutrients to maintain growth for reparasitizing hosts is not well characterized. Here, the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of carbohydrates and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analysed to explore the mechanism of recycling stored nutrients in dodder shoots in vitro. Our results showed that in vitro dodder shoots grew actively for more than 10 d, while dry mass decreased continuously. During this process, the transcript levels and activities of amylases gradually increased until 2 d and then declined in basal stems, which induced starch degradation at the tissue, cellular and subcellular levels. Additionally, the distribution characteristics of H2O2 and the activities and transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes indicated that shoot tips exhibited more robust ROS-scavenging capacity, and basal stems maintained higher ROS accumulation. Comparative proteomics analysis revealed that starch in basal stems acted as an energy source, and the glycolysis, TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathway represented the energy supply for shoot tip elongation with time. These results indicated that efficient nutrient recycling and ROS modulation facilitated the parasitism of dodder grown in vitro by promoting shoot elongation growth to reach the host.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Cuscuta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Cuscuta/metabolismo , Cuscuta/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
New Phytol ; 229(4): 2365-2377, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090498

RESUMO

The parasitic genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae) is exceptional among plants with respect to centromere organization, including both monocentric and holocentric chromosomes, and substantial variation in genome size and chromosome number. We investigated 12 species representing the diversity of the genus in a phylogenetic context to reveal the molecular and evolutionary processes leading to diversification of their genomes. We measured genome sizes and investigated karyotypes and centromere organization using molecular cytogenetic techniques. We also performed low-pass whole genome sequencing and comparative analysis of repetitive DNA composition. A remarkable 102-fold variation in genome sizes (342-34 734 Mbp/1C) was detected for monocentric Cuscuta species, while genomes of holocentric species were of moderate sizes (533-1545 Mbp/1C). The genome size variation was primarily driven by the differential accumulation of LTR-retrotransposons and satellite DNA. The transition to holocentric chromosomes in the subgenus Cuscuta was associated with loss of histone H2A phosphorylation and elimination of centromeric retrotransposons. In addition, basic chromosome number of holocentric species (x = 7) was smaller than in monocentrics (x = 15 or 16). We demonstrated that the transition to holocentricity in Cuscuta was accompanied by significant changes in epigenetic marks, chromosome number and the repetitive DNA sequence composition.


Assuntos
Cuscuta , Centrômero/genética , Cuscuta/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta/genética , Estilo de Vida , Filogenia
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 195: 113847, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358618

RESUMO

As a traditional Chinese medicine of invigorating the kidney, Cuscuta chinensis (CC) can be applied in improving the deficiency of kidney qi in menopausal women and regulating the level of estrogen. Previously, it was found that the ethanol extract of CC had an estrogen-like effect. In this study, the metabolic profile and metabolic pathways of rats in sham, ovariectomized model and CC groups were analyzed using UPLC-TOFMS-based metabolomics and the pattern recognition technology. The serum endogenouse metabolites could be well differentiated in different group, indicating significant differences of metabolic profiles. CC had an reverse adjustment effect on 14 differential metabolites of ovariectomized rats, including sinapyl alcohol, deoxycholic acid, prostaglandin B2, prostaglandin I2, dihydrosphingosine, choline, pentadecanoic acid, arachidonic acid, 1-stearoyl-Sn-Glycerol-3-Phosphocholine, palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid. Furthermore, these differential metabolites were categorized into several major pathways, such as biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, lycerophospholipid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. Therefore, it could be concluded that the estrogen-like effect of CC was related to the lipid metabolism to some extent. The research results provide useful help for the in-depth research and development of CC.


Assuntos
Cuscuta , Animais , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Ratos
11.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(7): 639-644, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377721

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of Cuscuta chinensis flavonoids (CCF) on the expression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the testis of the rat with oligozoospermia (OZ). METHODS: Thirty SD male rats were randomly divided into three groups of equal number, blank control, OZ model control and CCF intervention. The OZ model was established in the latter two groups by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide at 30 mg/kg qd for 5 successive days. From the 6th day, the rats in the CCF intervention group were treated intragastrically with mixed suspension of CCF at 5 mL/kg and those in the other two groups with normal saline, all for 4 weeks. The epididymal sperm concentration and motility and the testicular morphology were examined and the expression of GM-CSF in the testis tissue detected with the SELDI Protein Chip. RESULTS: Compared with the rats in the blank control and CCF intervention groups, the OZ model controls showed dramatically decreased epididymal sperm concentration and motility (both P < 0.01) and significant morphological changes in the testis with deformed seminiferous tubules and reduced number and disordered arrangement of spermatogenic cells. Normal testicular morphology was observed in the CCF intervention group and there were no statistically significant differences in sperm concentration and motility between the CCF intervention and blank control groups (P > 0.05). The expression of GM-CSF was significantly up-regulated in the testis tissue of the OZ model controls but lower than the minimum value obtained with the SELDI Protein Chip in the blank control and CCF intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Cuscuta chinensis flavonoids can significantly down-regulate the expression of GM-CSF in the testis of the rats with cyclophosphamide-induced oligozoospermia.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Oligospermia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Oligospermia/induzido quimicamente , Oligospermia/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espermatozoides , Testículo/metabolismo
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4327651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083466

RESUMO

Frostbite is caused due to extreme vulnerability to cold, resulting in damage of deeper and superficial tissues alike. In this study, we report the anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties of aqueous methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (Cs.Cr) against contact frostbite. Thirty rats were divided into five groups including three treatment groups with increasing doses of Cs.Cr, a standard drug group receiving acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and a metal bar-induced frostbite group. Frostbite injury was induced by a 3 × 3.5 cm metal bar frozen up to -79°C on shaved skin for continuous 3 minutes. Wounded area percentages were recorded to measure the healing rate in response to Cs.Cr administration. Haematological parameters and malondialdehyde content were also noted. On treatment with Cs.Cr, the healing rate is drastically increased and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Results were compared with frostbite and ASA (standard drug group). These results indicate that Cs.Cr possesses excellent wound-healing properties against frostbite injury and can prove to be a prospective compound in such conditions.


Assuntos
Cuscuta , Congelamento das Extremidades , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Estudos Prospectivos , Ratos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5299, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082345

RESUMO

Parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta penetrate shoots of host plants with haustoria and build a connection to the host vasculature to exhaust water, solutes and carbohydrates. Such infections usually stay unrecognized by the host and lead to harmful host plant damage. Here, we show a molecular mechanism of how plants can sense parasitic Cuscuta. We isolated an 11 kDa protein of the parasite cell wall and identified it as a glycine-rich protein (GRP). This GRP, as well as its minimal peptide epitope Crip21, serve as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern and specifically bind and activate a membrane-bound immune receptor of tomato, the Cuscuta Receptor 1 (CuRe1), leading to defense responses in resistant hosts. These findings provide the initial steps to understand the resistance mechanisms against parasitic plants and further offer great potential for protecting crops by engineering resistance against parasitic plants.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Cuscuta/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Cuscuta/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23125-23130, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868415

RESUMO

Many plants use environmental cues, including seasonal changes of day length (photoperiod), to control their flowering time. Under inductive conditions, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is synthesized in leaves, and FT protein is a mobile signal, which is able to travel to the shoot apex to induce flowering. Dodders (Cuscuta, Convolvulaceae) are root- and leafless plants that parasitize a large number of autotrophic plant species with varying flowering time. Remarkably, some dodder species, e.g., Cuscuta australis, are able to synchronize their flowering with the flowering of their hosts. Detailed sequence inspection and expression analysis indicated that the FT gene in dodder C. australis very likely does not function in activating flowering. Using soybean host plants cultivated under inductive and noninductive photoperiod conditions and soybean and tobacco host plants, in which FT was overexpressed and knocked out, respectively, we show that FT-induced flowering of the host is likely required for both host and parasite flowering. Biochemical analysis revealed that host-synthesized FT signals are able to move into dodder stems, where they physically interact with a dodder FD transcription factor to activate dodder flowering. This study demonstrates that FTs can function as an important interplant flowering signal in host-dodder interactions. The unique means of flowering regulation of dodder illustrates how regressive evolution, commonly found in parasites, may facilitate the physiological synchronization of parasite and host, here allowing the C. australis parasite to time reproduction exactly with that of their hosts, likely optimizing parasite fitness.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/fisiologia , Cuscuta/parasitologia , Flores/fisiologia , Flores/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Parasitos/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Soja/parasitologia , Soja/fisiologia , Tabaco/parasitologia , Tabaco/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993192

RESUMO

Dodder (Cuscuta spp.) is a parasitic weed damaging many plants and agricultural production. The native obligate parasite Cuscuta japonica Choisy (Japanese dodder) parasitizes Dimocarpus longans Lour., Ficus septica Burm. F., Ficus microcarpa L.f., Mikania micrantha H.B.K. and Melia azedarach Linn, respectively. Five Japanese dodders growing on different plants exhibit slightly different metabolites and amounts which present different pharmacological effects. Among these plants, a significant antiviral activity against influenza A virus (IAV) was found in Japanese dodder parasitizing on D. longans Lour. (CL). To further explore methanol extract components in Japanese dodder (CL), four undescribed aromatic glycosides, cuscutasides A-D (compounds 1-4) were isolated, together with twenty-six known compounds 5-30. The chemical structures of 1-4 were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic techniques. The eighteen isolated compounds were evaluated for antiviral activity against IAV activity. Among them, 1-monopalmitin (29) displayed potent activity against influenza A virus (A/WSN/1933(H1N1)) with EC50 2.28 ± 0.04 µM and without noteworthy cytotoxicity in MDCK cells. The interrupt step of 29 on the IAV life cycle was determined. These data provide invaluable information for new applications for this otherwise harmful weed.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Cuscuta/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Extratos Vegetais , Sapindaceae , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Cães , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(13)2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635386

RESUMO

It is well established that physiological stress has an adverse effect on the male reproductive system. Experimental studies have demonstrated the promising effects of MOTILIPERM in male infertility. MOTILIPERM extract is composed of three crude medicinal herbs: Morinda officinalis How (Rubiaceae) roots, Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae) outer scales, and Cuscuta chinensis Lamark (convolvulaceae) seeds. The present study aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms responsible for the effects of MOTILIPERM on testicular dysfunction induced by immobilization stress. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups (10 rats each): a normal control group (CTR), a control group administered MOTILIPERM 200 mg/kg (M 200), an immobilization-induced stress control group (S), an immobilization-induced stress group administered MOTILIPERM 100 mg/kg (S + M 100), and MOTILIPERM 200 mg/kg (S + M 200). Stressed rats (n = 30) were subjected to stress by immobilization for 6 h by placing them in a Perspex restraint cage, while controls (n = 20) were maintained without disturbance. Rats were administrated 100 or 200 mg/kg MOTILIPERM once daily for 30 days 1 h prior to immobilization. At the end of the treatment period, we measured body and reproductive organ weight; sperm parameters; histopathological damage; reproductive hormone levels; steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR); biomarkers of oxidative stress; and apoptosis markers. MOTILIPERM treatment improved testicular dysfunction by up-regulating (p < 0.05) sperm count, sperm motility, serum testosterone level, StAR protein level, Johnsen score, and spermatogenic cell density in stressed rats. MOTILIPERM decreased oxidative stress by increasing (p < 0.05) testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPx 4), catalase, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) levels and decreasing (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) levels. Furthermore, MOTILIPERM down-regulated (p < 0.05) cleaved caspase 3 and BCL2 associated X protein (Bax) levels; increased pro caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) levels; and upregulated testicular germ cell proliferation in stressed rats. The number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels also significantly (p < 0.05) decreased after pretreatment with MOTILIPERM in stressed rats. Collectively, our results suggest that, in immobilization-mediated stress-induced testicular dysfunction, MOTILIPERM sustains normal spermatogenesis via antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities by activating the NRF/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cuscuta/química , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Morinda/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Cebolas/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Testículo/patologia , Testículo/fisiopatologia
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(25): 31357-31368, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488702

RESUMO

To study the alleviating effects of flavonoids from Cuscuta chinensis (CCFs) on ovary injury in female offspring of pregnant mice exposed to BPA, five groups (n = 20) of pregnant mice were intragastrically administrated with BPA (5 mg/kg/day) and CCFs (20 mg/kg/day, 30 mg/kg/day, 40 mg/kg/day) at pregnancy days 1-18. The ovaries and serum of F1 female mice were collected at postnatal day (PND) 21 and PND 56 for the detection of related indicators. The ovarian and testicular histomorphologies were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining (H&E). The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and the contents of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and testosterone (T) in serum were detected by radioimmunoassay. The contents of ovarian and testicular estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERß) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of caspase-7, caspase-9, bcl-2, and bax in ovaries and testes of offspring mice were detected by Western blot, and apoptosis in ovaries and testes was detected by TUNEL. The mRNA relative transcription levels of ERα, progesterone receptor (PgR), DNA methyltransferase1 (Dnmt1), DNA methyltransferase3A (Dnmt3A), and DNA methyltransferase3B (Dnmt3B) were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The ovary of female offspring with PND 56 was treated with bisulfite sequence PCR (BSP). Our results showed that, compared with the BPA group, 40 mg/kg CCFs significantly reduced the ovarian index of F1 females and the ovarian cytoapoptosis (P < 0.01). CCFs also can alleviate the injure of the levels of serum hormone, hormone receptors, and DNMTs induced by BPA in F1 females at PND 21 and PND 56. Forty milligrams per kilogram of CCFs significantly inhibited the hypermethylation of the H19/Igf2 imprinted gene induced by BPA (P < 0.01). It indicated that CCFs adjusted H19/Igf2 methylation by increasing the expression of DNMTs, thereby increasing the levels of reproductive hormones and receptors along with reducing the cytoapoptosis.


Assuntos
Cuscuta , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Estradiol , Feminino , Flavonoides , Masculino , Camundongos , Ovário , Fenóis , Gravidez
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530960

RESUMO

Cuscuta (dodders) is a group of parasitic plants with tremendous economic and ecological significance. Their seeds are often described as "simple" or "unspecialized" because they do not exhibit any classical dispersal syndrome traits. Previous studies of seed morphology and/or anatomy were conducted on relatively few species. We expanded research to 101 species; reconstructed ancestral character states; investigated correlations among seed characters and explored allometric relationships with breeding systems, the size of geographical distribution of species in North America, as well as the survival of seedlings. Seed morphological and anatomical characters permit the separation of subgenera, but not of sections. Identification of Cuscuta species using seed characteristics is difficult but not impossible if their geographical origin is known. Seeds of subg. Monogynella species, exhibit the likely ancestral epidermis type consisting of elongated and interlocked cells, which are morphologically invariant, uninfluenced by dryness/wetness. Subgenera Cuscuta, Pachystigma and Grammica have evolved a seed epidermis with isodiametric cells that can alternate their morphology between two states: pitted when seeds are dry, and papillose after seed imbibition. A seed coat with double palisade architecture throughout the entire seed has also apparently evolved in subgenera Cuscuta, Pachystigma and Grammica, but several species in two clades of the latter subgenus reverted to a single palisade layer outside the hilum area. The same latter species also evolved a peculiar, globose embryo, likely having a storage role, in contrast to the ancestral filiform and coiled embryo present throughout the remainder of the genus. Autogamous species had on average the highest number of seeds per capsule, whereas fully xenogamous taxa had the lowest. No correlation was revealed between the size of the seeds and the size of their geographical distribution in North America, but seedlings of species with larger seeds survived significantly longer than seedlings resulted from smaller seeds. Diversity and evolution of seed traits was discussed in relationship with their putative roles in dormancy, germination and dispersal.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Classificação , Cuscuta/anatomia & histologia , Cuscuta/classificação , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Variância , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Análise de Regressão , Plântula/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/ultraestrutura
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 761-765, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098317

RESUMO

Oligozoospermia is a common infertility disease, and the incidence rate is increasing year by year. Cuscuta chinensis is a commonly used medicine for the treatment of oligozoospermia in Chinese medicine. Flavonoids are its main component. GM-CSF is a multifunctional cytokine that plays an important role in the inflammatory response. In this paper, we performed HE staining and immunohistochemical staining on the testis of rats with oligozoospermia. We intend to study the expression changes of GM-CSF in rats with oligospermia and the effect of flavonoids on the expression of GM-CSF in testis of rats with oligozoospermia.


La oligozoospermia es una enfermedad común de infertilidad, con una tasa de incidencia que aumenta año tras año. Cuscuta chinensis es un medicamento de uso común para el tratamiento de la oligozoospermia en la medicina china. Los flavonoides son su componente principal. GM-CSF es una citocina multifuncional que tiene un rol importante en la respuesta inflamatoria. En este trabajo, realizamos tinción con hematoxilina y eosina y tinción inmunohistoquímica en testículos de ratas con oligozoospermia. TNuestro objetivo fue estudiar los cambios de expresión de GM-CSF en ratas con oligozoospermia y el efecto de los flavonoides en la expresión de GM-CSF en testículos de ratas con oligozoospermia.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Oligospermia/metabolismo , Oligospermia/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Cuscuta , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 28, 2020 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The climate is the dominant factor that affects the distribution of plants. Cuscuta chinensis is a stem holoparasitic plant without leaves or roots, which develops a haustorium and sucks nutrients from host plants. The potential distribution of the parasitic plant C. chinensis has not been predicted to date. This study used Maxent modeling to predict the potential global distribution of C. chinensis, based on the following six main bioclimatic variables: annual mean temperature, isothermality, temperature seasonality, precipitation seasonality, precipitation of the warmest quarter, and precipitation of the coldest quarter. RESULTS: The optimal annual average temperature and isothermality of C. chinensis ranged from 4 to 37 °C and less than 45, respectively, while the optimal temperature seasonality and precipitation seasonality ranged from 4000 to 25,000 and from 50 to 130, respectively. The optimal precipitation of the warmest season ranged from 300 to 1000 mm and from 2500 to 3500 mm, while that of the coldest season was less than 2000 mm. In Asia, C. chinensis is mainly distributed at latitudes ranging from 20° N to 50° N. During three specific historical periods (last glacial maximum, mid-Holocene, and 1960-1990) the habitats suitable for C. chinensis were concentrated in the central, northern, southern, and eastern parts of China. From the last glacial maximum to the mid-Holocene, the total area with suitability of 0.5-1 increased by 0.0875 million km2; however, from the mid-Holocene to 1960-1990, the total area with suitability of 0.5-1 decreased by 0.0759 million km2. The simulation results of habitat suitability in the two representative concentration pathways (RCP) 2.6 (i.e., the low greenhouse gas emissions pathway) and 8.5 (i.e., the high greenhouse gas emissions pathway) indicate that the habitat suitability of C. chinensis decreased in response to the warming climate. Compared with RCP2.6, areas with averaged suitability and high suitability for survival (RCP8.5) decreased by 0.18 million km2. CONCLUSION: Suitable habitats of C. chinensis are situated in central, northern, southern, and eastern China. The habitat suitability of C. chinensis decreased in response to the warming climate. These results provide a reference for the management and control of C. chinensis.


Assuntos
Cuscuta , Aquecimento Global , China , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema
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