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J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 132(3): 228-237, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37126056


Explicitly or implicitly, psychopathology is often defined in terms of statistical deviance, requiring that an affected individual be sufficiently distant from the norm in some dimension of psychological or neural function. In recent decades, the dominant paradigm in psychiatric research has focused primarily on deviance in neural function, treating psychopathology as disease of the brain. We argue that these conceptualizations are misguided. We recently proposed a novel theory of psychopathology, based in cybernetics and drawing additionally from neuroscience, psychometrics, and personality theory (DeYoung & Krueger, 2018a). In this theory, deviations from the norm in psychological and neural functioning serve as important risk factors for psychopathology but are not in themselves necessary or sufficient to identify psychopathology, which requires the presence of cybernetic dysfunction. Psychopathology is defined as persistent failure to move toward one's goals, due to failure to generate effective new goals, interpretations, or strategies when existing ones prove unsuccessful. We argue that adopting a cybernetic theory to replace conceptualizations of psychopathology as statistical deviance or brain disease would facilitate improvements in measurement, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

Encefalopatias , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Cibernética , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Psicopatologia , Encéfalo
J Integr Neurosci ; 22(2): 39, 2023 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36992588


Norbert Wiener and Nikolai Bernstein set the stage for a worldwide multidisciplinary attempt to understand how purposive action is integrated with cognition in a circular, bidirectional manner, both in life sciences and engineering. Such a 'workshop' is still open and far away from a satisfactory level of understanding, despite the current hype surrounding Artificial Intelligence (AI). The problem is that Cognition is frequently confused with Intelligence, overlooking a crucial distinction: the type of cognition that is required of a cognitive agent to meet the challenge of adaptive behavior in a changing environment is Embodied Cognition, which is antithetical to the disembodied and dualistic nature of the current wave of AI. This essay is the perspective formulation of a cybernetic framework for the representation of actions that, following Bernstein, is focused on what has long been considered the fundamental issue underlying action and motor control, namely the degrees of freedom problem. In particular, the paper reviews a solution to this problem based on a model of ideomotor/muscle-less synergy formation, namely the Passive Motion Paradigm (PMP). Moreover, it is shown how this modeling approach can be reformulated in a distributed manner based on a self-organizing neural paradigm consisting of multiple topology-representing networks with attractor dynamics. The computational implication of such an approach is also briefly analyzed looking at possible alternatives of the von Neuman paradigm, namely neuromorphic and quantum computing, aiming in perspective at a hybrid computational framework for integrating digital information, analog information, and quantum information. It is also suggested that such a framework is crucial not only for the neurobiological modeling of motor cognition but also for the design of the cognitive architecture of autonomous robots of industry 4.0 that are supposed to interact and communicate naturally with human partners.

Inteligência Artificial , Cibernética , Humanos , Metodologias Computacionais , Teoria Quântica , Cognição
Biol Cybern ; 117(1-2): 1-3, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36947172
Rev. derecho genoma hum ; (57): 255-279, July-December 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-219449


Entre las cuestiones que suscita la nueva tecnología de la IAtenemos la llamada Ética de la IA. De hecho, la reciente Resolución UE Marco de los aspectos éticos de la inteligencia artificial, la robótica y las tecnologías conexas de 20 de octubre 2020, declara que las cuestiones de carácter ético y jurídico relacionadas con la inteligencia artificial deben abordarse a través de un marco regulador del Derecho de la Unión efectivo, global y con visión de futuro que refleje los principios y valores de la Unión consagrados en los Tratados y en la Carta de los Derechos Fundamentales. Es decir, se está pidiendo una reglamentación de la ética europea dela IA. Además, se adjunta como Anexo una Propuesta de Reglamento del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo sobre los principios éticos para el desarrollo, el despliegue y el uso de la IA, en 24 artículos. Este trabajo explora el significado de esta Ética para robots, Roboética o Ciberética, distinguiendo la ética que se dirige a los seres humanosen su relación con las máquinas de la que se programa en el sistema inteligente como medida de control y seguridad. (AU)

Among the issues raised by the new AI technology we have the so-called Ethics of AI. In fact, the recent EU Resolution Framework on the ethical aspects of artificial intelligence, robotics and related technologies of October 20, 2020, declares that ethical and legal issues related to artificial intelligence must be addressed through a framework an effective, comprehensive and forward-looking regulator of Union law that reflects the principles and values of the Union enshrined in the Treaties and in the Charter of Fundamental Rights. In other words, a regulation of the European ethics of AI is being requested. In addition, a Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the ethical principles for the development, deployment and use of AI, in 24 articles, is attached as an Annex. This work explores the meaning of this Ethics for robots, Roboethics or Cyberethics, distinguishing the ethics that addresses human beings in their relationship with machines from those that are programmed in the intelligent system as a control and security measure. (AU)

Humanos , Inteligência Artificial/ética , Inteligência Artificial/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética , Cibernética/ética , Cibernética/legislação & jurisprudência , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , União Europeia , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional/ética
Cells ; 11(19)2022 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36230973


Ischemic events are associated with severe inflammation and are here referred to as ischemic inflammatory response (IIR). Recent studies identified the formation of platelet-neutrophil complexes (PNC) as key players in IIR. We investigated the role of extracellular platelet nucleotide signaling in the context of IIR and defined a cybernetic circle, including description of feedback loops. Cybernetic circles seek to integrate different levels of information to understand how biological systems function. Our study specifies the components of the cybernetic system of platelets in IIR and describes the theoretical progression of IIR passing the cybernetic cycle with positive and negative feedback loops based on nucleotide-dependent signaling and functional regulation. The cybernetic components and feedback loops were explored by cytometry, immunohistological staining, functional blocking antibodies, and ADP/ATP measurements. Using several ex vivo and in vivo approaches we confirmed cybernetic parameters, such as controller, sensor, and effector (VASP phosphorylation, P2Y12, ADORAs and GPIIb/IIIa activity), as well as set points (ADP, adenosine) and interfering control and disturbance variables (ischemia). We demonstrate the impact of the regulated platelet-neutrophil complex (PNC) formation in blood and the resulting damage to the affected inflamed tissue. Taken together, extracellular nucleotide signaling, PNC formation, and tissue damage in IIR can be integrated in a controlled cybernetic circle of platelet function, as introduced through this study.

Plaquetas , Neutrófilos , Adenosina/metabolismo , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Anticorpos Bloqueadores , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Cibernética , Humanos , Isquemia/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 300: 1-11, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36300397


Biomedical and Health Informatics (BMHI) have been essential catalysts for achievements in medical research and healthcare applications over the past 50 years. These include increasingly sophisticated information systems and data bases for documentation and processing, standardization of biomedical data, nomenclatures, and vocabularies to assist with large scale literature indexing and text analysis for information retrieval, and methods for computationally modeling and analyzing research and clinical data. Statistical and AI techniques for decision support, instrumentation integration, and workflow aids with improved data/information management tools are critical for scientific discoveries in the - omics revolutions with their related drug and vaccine breakthroughs and their translation to clinical and preventive healthcare. Early work on biomedical image and pattern recognition, knowledge-based expert systems, innovative database, software and simulation techniques, natural language processing and computational ontologies have all been invaluable for basic research and education. However, these methods are still in their infancy and many fundamental open scientific problems abound. Scientifically this is due to persistent limitations in understanding biological processes within complex living environments and ecologies. In clinical practice the modeling of fluid practitioner roles and methods as they adjust to novel cybernetic technologies present great opportunities but also the potential of unintended e-iatrogenic harms which must be constrained in order to adhere to ethical Hippocratic norms of responsible behavior. Balancing the art, science, and technologies of BMHI has been a hallmark of debates about the field's historical evolution. The present article reviews selected milestones, achievements, and challenges in BMHI education mainly, from a historical perspective, including some commentaries from leaders and pioneers in the field, a selection of which have been published online recently by the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) as the first volume of an IMIA History WG eBook. The focus of this chapter is primarily on the development of BMHI in terms of those of its educational activities which have been most significant during the first half century of IMIA, and it concentrates mainly on the leadership and contributions of John Mantas who is being honored on his retirement by the Symposia in Athens for which this chapter has been written.

Informática Médica , Informática em Enfermagem , Cibernética , Sistemas Especialistas
J Med Philos ; 47(3): 387-406, 2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926173


Although the term integration is central to the definition of brain death, there is little agreement on what it means. Through a genealogical analysis, this essay argues that there have been two primary ways of understanding integration in regard to organismal wholeness. One stems from neuroscience, focusing on the role of the brain in responding to external stimuli, which was taken up in phenomenological accounts of life. A second, arising out of cybernetics, focuses on the brain's role in homeostasis. Recent debates over brain death are largely over this cybernetic understanding of integration. However, the phenomenological understanding of organismal wholeness can be seen in arguments by the President's Council on Bioethics in favor of brain death. This essay argues that the cybernetic understanding of life is problematic and should be discarded. A phenomenological understanding of life can provide a better basis for arguments over definitions of life and death.

Bioética , Morte Encefálica , Encéfalo , Cibernética , Dissidências e Disputas , Humanos
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 40(2): 1-20, may.-ago.-2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1428005


O ciberbullying constitui uma realidade cada vez mais presente na vida dos mais jovens e desprotegidos, o que pode perturbar o seu desenvolvimento e bemestar. O presente estudo tem como objetivo explorar a associação entre o ciberbullying, a ideação suicida e a comunicação parentofilial nos adolescentes e jovens adultos. O estudo foi feito com uma amostra de 401 adolescentes e jovens adultos, com idades compreendidas entre os 15 e os 24 anos. Recorreu-se ao Questionário de Cibervitimização (cyvic), ao Questionário de Ideação Suicida (qis) e à Escala de Avaliação da Comunicação na Parentalidade (compa) para coleta dos dados. No que se refere à idade foram encontradas diferenças significati-vas relativamente à cibervitimização. Quanto ao número de horas de utilização da Internet foram encontradas diferenças em relação à cibervitimização, à ideação suicida e à comunicação parental da figura materna nomeadamente nas subescalas confiança/partilha e metacomunicação. Foram encontradas associações entre a cibervitimização, ideação suicida e a comunicação parental do pai e da mãe. Por fim, observou-se que a ideação suicida prediz a cibervitimização, enquanto a disponibilidade da mãe prediz a cibervitimização. É urgente que este problema de saúde seja multidisciplinarmente identificado e combatido ao mesmo ritmo com que a tecnologia se entrosa e é preponderante na vida das gerações mais novas.

El ciberacoso es una realidad cada vez más presente en la vida de personas jóvenes y desprotegidas, que puede trastornar su desarrollo y bienestar. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar la asociación entre el ciberacoso, la ideación suicida y la comunicación padres-hijos en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. El estudio se realizó con una muestra de 401 adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, con edades comprendidas entre los 15 y 24 años. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó el Cuestionario de Victimización Cibernética (cyvic), el Cuestionario de Ideación Suicida (qis) y la Escala de Evaluación de la Comunicación Parental (compa). En cuanto a la edad, se encontraron diferencias significativas en la cibervictimización. Respecto al número de horas de uso de Internet, se encontraron diferencias en relación con cibervictimización, ideación suicida y comunicación parental de la figura materna, concretamente en las subescalas confianza/compartir y metacomunicación. Se hallaron asociaciones entre cibervictimización, ideación suicida y comunicación parental de padre y madre. Finalmente, se observó que la ideación suicida predice cibervictimización, a la vez que la disponibilidad materna predice ciber-victimización. Es urgente que este problema de salud sea identificado y combatido de forma multidisciplinar, al mismo ritmo que la tecnología se entrelaza y es preponderante en la vida de las generaciones más jóvenes.

Cyberbullying is a reality that is increasingly present in the lives of young and unprotected people, which can disturb their development and wellbeing. This study aimed to explore the association between cyberbullying, suicidal ideation and parent-child communication in adolescents and young adults. The study was carried out with a sample of 401 adolescents and young adults aged between 15 and 24 years. Data were collected through the Cybervictimization Questionnaire (cyvic), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (qis) and the Parent-ing Communication Assessment Scale (compa-a). Considering age, significant differences were found related to cyber-victimization. Regarding the number of hours of Internet use, differences were found associated with cybervictimization, suicidal ideation and parental communication of the mother figure, namely in the trust/sharing and meta-communication subscales. Associations were found between cybervictimization, suicidal ideation and parental communication from the father and mother. Finally, it was observed that suicidal ideation and mother availability predict cybervictimization. It is urgent that this health problem be identified and fought in a multidisciplinary way at the same pace with which technology intertwines and is preponderant in the lives of the younger generations

Humanos , Pais , Poder Familiar , Comunicação , Cibernética , Cyberbullying , Uso da Internet
Soc Stud Sci ; 52(6): 829-852, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792098


The history of cybernetics has often displaced non-white actors and women from its accounts. Recentering them offers an opportunity to rearticulate the history of computing through its entanglements with labor and race/gender as network formations. In paying attention to these actors and the silences in the STS literature, this article offers an analysis of networked asymmetries, non-essential knowledge and disposability. In doing so, it redraws the boundaries of STS with race/gender integral to the field. It proposes hemispheric approaches that trouble national bounds and move us beyond the dominant sites of Europe and the United States, and that interrogate US empire. The article follows closely the role of Arturo Rosenblueth in the development of cybernetics and of Mexican women workers in computer semiconductor assembly. These stories of technoscience show the invisible work of Latina/o/es as unacknowledged and unaccounted entities in the infrastructural assemblage of cybernetics and computing.

Cibernética , Hispânico ou Latino , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Humanos , Identidade de Gênero , Europa (Continente)
Open Biol ; 12(7): 220174, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35892199


Plasticity in animal behaviour relies on the ability to integrate external and internal cues from the changing environment and hence modulate activity in synaptic circuits of the brain. This context-dependent neuromodulation is largely based on non-synaptic signalling with neuropeptides. Here, we describe select peptidergic systems in the Drosophila brain that act at different levels of a hierarchy to modulate behaviour and associated physiology. These systems modulate circuits in brain regions, such as the central complex and the mushroom bodies, which supervise specific behaviours. At the top level of the hierarchy there are small numbers of large peptidergic neurons that arborize widely in multiple areas of the brain to orchestrate or modulate global activity in a state and context-dependent manner. At the bottom level local peptidergic neurons provide executive neuromodulation of sensory gain and intrinsically in restricted parts of specific neuronal circuits. The orchestrating neurons receive interoceptive signals that mediate energy and sleep homeostasis, metabolic state and circadian timing, as well as external cues that affect food search, aggression or mating. Some of these cues can be triggers of conflicting behaviours such as mating versus aggression, or sleep versus feeding, and peptidergic neurons participate in circuits, enabling behaviour choices and switches.

Drosophila melanogaster , Neuropeptídeos , Animais , Cibernética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
Biol Cybern ; 116(4): 407-445, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678918


Cancers are complex dynamic ecosystems. Reductionist approaches to science are inadequate in characterizing their self-organized patterns and collective emergent behaviors. Since current approaches to single-cell analysis in cancer systems rely primarily on single time-point multiomics, many of the temporal features and causal adaptive behaviors in cancer dynamics are vastly ignored. As such, tools and concepts from the interdisciplinary paradigm of complex systems theory are introduced herein to decode the cellular cybernetics of cancer differentiation dynamics and behavioral patterns. An intuition for the attractors and complex networks underlying cancer processes such as cell fate decision-making, multiscale pattern formation systems, and epigenetic state-transitions is developed. The applications of complex systems physics in paving targeted therapies and causal pattern discovery in precision oncology are discussed. Pediatric high-grade gliomas are discussed as a model-system to demonstrate that cancers are complex adaptive systems, in which the emergence and selection of heterogeneous cellular states and phenotypic plasticity are driven by complex multiscale network dynamics. In specific, pediatric glioblastoma (GBM) is used as a proof-of-concept model to illustrate the applications of the complex systems framework in understanding GBM cell fate decisions and decoding their adaptive cellular dynamics. The scope of these tools in forecasting cancer cell fate dynamics in the emerging field of computational oncology and patient-centered systems medicine is highlighted.

Cibernética , Glioblastoma , Criança , Ecossistema , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Medicina de Precisão
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 172: 77-81, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487343


Norbert Wiener was the first to functionally define cybernetics as "the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine". Herein, it is shown that as a manifestation of physiology, cybernetics can be further reduced to cell-cell signaling to maintain homeostasis, bridging Newtonian 3rd Order Cybernetics with Quantum Mechanical 4th Order Cybernetics as our 'conversation with the Cosmos' based on Quantum Entanglement, constrained by non-localization. As such, cybernetics can be scientifically tested in toto from the functional to the metaphysical, rendered physical as communication for the first time. If that is correct, then the sooner we begin operating based on Quantum Mechanical principles, the sooner we will function based on predictive algorithms.

Comunicação , Cibernética , Algoritmos , Comunicação Celular , Homeostase
C R Biol ; 345(2): 135-156, 2022 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36847468


In this paper, we present some thoughts about the recent developments, made possible by technological advances and miniaturisation of connected visual prostheses, linked to the visual system, operating at different level of this one, on the retina as well as in the visual cortex. While these objects represent a great hope for people with impaired vision to recover partial vision, we show how this technology could also act on the functional vision of well sighted persons to improve or increase their visual performance. In addition to the impact on our cognitive and attentional mechanisms, such an operation when it originates outside the natural real visual field (e.g. cybernetics) raises a number of questions about the development and use of such implants or prostheses in the future.

Nous présentons dans ce compte rendu quelques réflexions liées aux développements récents, rendus possible grâce aux progrès technologiques et à la miniaturisation, de prothèses visuelles connectées, liées au système visuel et pouvant intervenir à différents endroits de celui-ci, aussi bien sur la rétine qu'au niveau du cortex visuel. Si ces objets constituent un grand espoir, pour les personnes mal, ou non-voyantes, de pouvoir récupérer une vision partielle, on montre comment cette technologie pourrait également agir sur la vision fonctionnelle de bien-voyants afin d'en améliorer ou augmenter les performances. Outre l'impact sur nos mécanismes cognitifs et attentionnels, une telle intervention lorsqu'elle trouve son origine hors du champ visuel naturel (par exemple cybernétique) pose un certain nombre de questions sur le développement et l'utilisation de tels implants ou prothèses dans le futur.

Cibernética , Próteses Visuais , Humanos , Retina , Próteses e Implantes
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e242166, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1422368


Neste trabalho, objetiva-se compreender o processo de construção de identidades ciberativistas LGBTQIA+ de criadores de conteúdo no YouTube brasileiro, tomando como referência suas concepções de ativismo e de pertencimento grupal. Para isso, realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória, desenvolvida a partir de entrevistas semiestruturadas em profundidade com quatro youtubers do segmento LGBTQIA+, sendo duas mulheres lésbicas e cisgênero, uma mulher heterossexual transgênero e um homem gay cisgênero. Para a análise das entrevistas, as transcrições foram inseridas no software Atlas.ti. Os resultados alcançados indicam que as identidades ciberativistas são permeadas pelas noções de ativismo, vivências pessoais como LGBTQIA+, pela consciência de suas pertenças sociais, bem como por estratégias de resistência e de ocupação do lugar de influenciadores sociais. Como conclusão, este trabalho apresenta o ciberativismo LGBTQIA+ no YouTube brasileiro como uma forma de criatividade social, que favorece a positivação dessas identidades sociais a partir das percepções de pertencimento e de significação grupal.(AU)

This work aims to understand the process of building LGBTQIA+ cyberactivist identities of content creators on Brazilian YouTube, taking as a reference their conceptions of activism and group belonging. To that end, a qualitative and exploratory research was carried out based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with four YouTubers from the LGBTQIA+ segment, two lesbian and cisgender women, one transgender heterosexual woman and one cisgender gay man. For the analysis of the interviews, the transcripts were inserted into the Atlas.ti software. The results found indicate that cyberactivist identities are permeated by the notions of activism, personal experiences such as LGBTQIA+, awareness of their social belongings, and strategies of resistance and occupation of the place of social influencers. In conclusion, this work presents the LGBTQIA+ cyberactivism on Brazilian YouTube as a form of social creativity, which favors the positivization of these social identities from the perceptions of belonging and group significance.(AU)

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comprender el proceso de construcción de identidad ciberactivista LGBTQIA+ de creadores de canales en YouTube en Brasil, teniendo como referencia sus concepciones de activismo y de pertenencia grupal. Para ello, se realizó un estudio cualitativo y exploratorio por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas a profundidad a cuatro youtubers del segmento LGBTQIA+, de las cuales son dos mujeres lesbianas y cisgénero, una mujer transgénero heterosexual y un hombre cisgénero gay. Para el análisis de las entrevistas, se utilizó el software Atlas.ti. Los resultados indican que las identidades ciberactivistas están constituidas por nociones de activismo, por experiencias personales como LGBTQIA+, por la conciencia de sus pertenencias sociales, así como por las estrategias de resistencia y ocupación del lugar de los influyentes sociales. Se concluye que el ciberactivismo LGBTQIA+ en YouTube en Brasil presenta una forma de creatividad social, que favorece la afirmación de estas identidades sociales desde las percepciones de pertenencia y significación grupal.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Identificação Social , Cibernética , Grupos Minoritários , Política , Psicologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Autoimagem , Justiça Social , Conscientização , Terapêutica , Violência , Software , Saúde , Entrevista , Sexualidade , Internet , Criatividade , Homofobia , Sexismo , Pessoas Transgênero , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Ativismo Político , Diversidade de Gênero , Vulnerabilidade Sexual , Pessoas Cisgênero , Representação Social , Pertencimento , Direitos Humanos
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 3583275, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545280


The technology world is developing fast with the developments made in the hardware and software areas. Considering that privacy and security of telemedicine applications are among the main necessities of this industry, as a result, there is a need to use lightweight and practical algorithms to be used in applications in the field of telemedicine, while security have the least negative impact. The distinct and contradicting components in the design and implementation of the cryptography algorithm, to achieve various objectives in medicine-based applications, have made it a complicated system. It is natural that, without identifying the components, indices, and properties of each system component, the hardware and software resources are lost and a proper algorithm cannot be designed. Accordingly, this paper presents a leveled model of cryptography algorithms using the cybernetic method. First, the main objectives and measures in the design of the cryptography algorithms are extracted using the measure reduction methods, and some of the excess and overlapping measures are eliminated. Then, three general classes of the cryptography algorithm design and implementation measures, applications of cryptography algorithms, and cryptography implementation techniques are extracted. Since the complexity of the cryptography algorithm design is relatively high, the cybernetic methodology is used to present a supermodel to make the cryptography algorithm design objective. Such design prevents examining unnecessary details and establishes a bidirectional relationship between the main design and implementation process and the support process. This relationship provides the support requirements of the main process by the support process at each step. Finally, the Q-analysis tools are used to analyse the proposed method, and the efficiency results are represented.

Segurança Computacional , Telemedicina , Algoritmos , Cibernética , Privacidade
Investig. psicol. (La Paz, En línea) ; 26: 81-100, dic. 2021. tab.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348940


El acceso a la información y al conocimiento digital, es una ventaja para el desarrollo humano, sin embargo, también es una oportunidad para su uso inadecuado y desmedido. El objetivo del estudio es describir los roles de participación de violencia escolar, en función de su participación en episodios de agresión cibernética: insultos, hostigamiento, suplantación de identidad, exclusión, denigración, desvelamiento y sonsacamiento, paliza feliz, ciber-persecución y juego sucio. La investigación fue cuantitativa con estudio descriptivo y diseño transversal. Participaron 411 estudiantes de bachillerato del Estado de México. Se emplearon dos instrumentos uno para medir violencia escolar (α=.95) y el segundo para medir nueve tipos de agresiones cibernéticas (α=.97). Se hizo un análisis multivariado k de medias (conglomerados) para describir a grupos de alumnos en función de la violencia escolar, identificándose tres grupos: víctimas, doble rol (víctima-acosador) y no involucrados en violencia escolar, a partir de la clasificación se hizo un contraste de medias (ANOVA de una vía) para describir los diferentes tipos de conductas ciber-agresivas exhibidas por los grupos identificados. La primera conclusión refiere que cuando se es víctima de violencia escolar (cara a cara), lo será también en ambientes virtuales: insultos cibernéticos, denigración, sonsacamiento, desvelamiento, paliza feliz, ciberpersecución, exclusión y hostigamiento. Se concluye también que quienes participan con doble rol en violencia escolar, participan como víctimas y acosadores, reproduciendo la violencia en ambientes virtuales, lo que debe tomarse en cuenta para programas de prevención y atención.(AU)

Access to information and digital knowledge is an advantage for human development, however, it is also an opportunity for its inappropriate and excessive use. The objective of the study is to describe the roles of participation of school violence, based on their participation in episodes of cyber aggression: Flamming, Denigration, Impersonation, Outing and Trickery, Happy Slapping, Grooming, Exclusion, Cyberstalking, and Harrassment.The research was quantitative with descriptive study and cross-sectional design. 411 high school students from the State of Mexico participated. Two instruments were used, one to measure school violence (α=.95) and the second to measure nine types of cyber aggression (α=.97). A multivariate clustering o conglomerate analysis (k-means) was done to describe groups of students based on school violence, identifying three groups: victims, doble role (victim-bully) and not involved in school violence, from the classification a contrast of means (one-way ANOVA) was made to describe the different types of cyber-aggressive behaviors exhibited by the identified groups. The first conclusion refers that when you are the victim of school violence (face to face), it will also be victims of school violence in virtual environments: flamming, denigration, impersonation, outing and trickery, ha-ppy slapping, grooming, exclusion and harassment. It is also concluded that those who participate with a doble role in school violence participate as victims and bully, reproducing violence in virtual environments, which should be taken into account for prevention and intervention program.(AU)

O acesso à informação e ao conhecimento digital é uma vantagem para o desenvolvimento humano, mas também uma oportunidade para seu uso inadequado e excessivo. O objetivo do estudo é descrever os papéis da participação na violência escolar, com base na sua participação em episódios de agressão cibernética: insultos, assédio, roubo de identidade, exclusão, difamação, divulgação e persuasão, espancamento, ciber-perseguição e groming. A investigação foi quantitativa com estudo descritivo e design transversal. Participaram 411 estudantes do ensino médio do Estado do México. Foram utilizados dois instrumentos, um para medir a violência escolar (α=,95) e o segundo para medir nove tipos de ciberataques (α=,97). Foi feita uma análise multivariada de meias (conglomerados) para descrever grupos de alunos baseados na violência escolar, identificando três grupos: vítimas, duplo papel (perseguidor de vítimas) e não envolvidos na violência escolar, desde a classificação um contraste de meias (ANOVA unidirecional) foi feito para descrever os diferentes tipos de comportamentos ciber-agressivos exibidos pelos grupos identificados.A primeira conclusão refere que quando se é vítima de violência escolar (cara a cara), também serão vítimas de violência escolar em ambientes virtuais: insultos cibernéticos, denegrir, sonsacing, desvendar, bater feliz, ciber-análise, exclusão e assédio. Conclui-se também que aqueles que participam com um duplo papel na violência escolar participam como vítimas e assediadores, reproduzindo a violência em ambientes virtuais, que devem ser tidos em conta para programas de prevenção e cuidados.(AU)

Cibernética , Acesso à Informação , Instituições Acadêmicas
Biol Cybern ; 115(1): 1-3, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528614