Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 424
Filtrar
1.
DNA Res ; 30(1)2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503982

RESUMO

Kobresia species are common in meadows on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. They are important food resources for local livestock, and serve a critical foundation for ecosystem integration. Genetic resources of Kobresia species are scarce. Here, we generated a chromosome-level genome assembly for K. myosuroides (Cyperaceae), using PacBio long-reads, Illumina short-reads, and Hi-C technology. The final assembly had a total size of 399.9 Mb with a contig N50 value of 11.9 Mb. The Hi-C result supported a 29 pseudomolecules model which was in consistent with cytological results. A total of 185.5 Mb (44.89% of the genome) transposable elements were detected, and 26,748 protein-coding genes were predicted. Comparative analysis revealed that Kobresia plants have experienced recent diversification events during the late Miocene to Pliocene. Karyotypes analysis indicated that the fission and fusion of chromosomes have been a major driver of speciation, which complied with the lack of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in K. myosuroides genome. Generally, this high-quality reference genome provides insights into the evolution of alpine sedges, and may be helpful to endemic forage improvement and alpine ecosystem preservation.


Assuntos
Cyperaceae , Ecossistema , Tibet , Genoma , Cariótipo , Filogenia
2.
Cell ; 185(17): 3153-3168.e18, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926507

RESUMO

The centromere represents a single region in most eukaryotic chromosomes. However, several plant and animal lineages assemble holocentromeres along the entire chromosome length. Here, we compare genome organization and evolution as a function of centromere type by assembling chromosome-scale holocentric genomes with repeat-based holocentromeres from three beak-sedge (Rhynchospora pubera, R. breviuscula, and R. tenuis) and their closest monocentric relative, Juncus effusus. We demonstrate that transition to holocentricity affected 3D genome architecture by redefining genomic compartments, while distributing centromere function to thousands of repeat-based centromere units genome-wide. We uncover a complex genome organization in R. pubera that hides its unexpected octoploidy and describe a marked reduction in chromosome number for R. tenuis, which has only two chromosomes. We show that chromosome fusions, facilitated by repeat-based holocentromeres, promoted karyotype evolution and diploidization. Our study thus sheds light on several important aspects of genome architecture and evolution influenced by centromere organization.


Assuntos
Centrômero , Cyperaceae , Animais , Centrômero/genética , Cyperaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Cariótipo , Plantas/genética
3.
Phytochemistry ; 203: 113396, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998831

RESUMO

Prenylated and hydroxyprenylated piceatannol, resveratrol and pinosylvin derivatives were isolated from resin produced by three Australian Lepidosperma Labill. Species (Cyperaceae). From L. congestum R.Br. one known compound, 3',5'-bis-prenyl-E-resveratrol, and five undescribed compounds were isolated, 3'-O-prenyl-5'-prenyl-E-piceatannol, 5',6'-bis-prenyl-E-piceatannol, 5'-prenyl-E-piceatannol, 3',5'-bis(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-E-resveratrol and 3',5'-bis-E-hydroxyprenyl-E-resveratrol. From L. gunnii Boeckeler one undescribed compound was isolated, 3'-E-hydroxyprenyl-5'-Z-hydroxyprenyl-E-resveratrol. From L. laterale R.Br. six undescribed compounds were isolated, 3-O-prenyl-E-pinosylvin, 3-O-Z-hydroxyprenyl-E-pinosylvin, 3'-Z-hydroxyprenyl-E-resveratrol, 3-O-Z-hydroxyprenyl-E-resveratrol, 3-O-Z-hydroxyprenyl-4'-O-methyl-E-resveratrol, and 3-O-prenyl-3'-δ,δ'-dihydroxyprenyl-E-resveratrol. Compounds, including a reference compound 3-O-prenyl-3'-O-methyl-E-piceatannol, were screened in an assay for melatoninergic binding to MT1 and MT2 receptors and binding to QR2/MT3 enzyme, and for inhibition of QR2/MT3 in a functional assay. Strong binding was observed for 3-O-Z-hydroxyprenyl-E-resveratrol with a Ki of 0.022 nM and the strongest inhibition of QR2/MT3 observed was for the reference compound, 3-O-prenyl-3'-O-methyl-E-piceatannol, with an inhibition of 61% at 1 µM and 95% at 10 µM. The three most active binders and inhibitors of QR2/MT3 were found to have a common substructure corresponding to 3-O-prenylresveratrol.


Assuntos
Cyperaceae , Quinona Redutases , Estilbenos , Austrália , Neopreno , Quinona Redutases/metabolismo , Resveratrol , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/farmacologia
4.
Cell ; 185(17): 3083-3085, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985286

RESUMO

In some plants and animals, microtubules attach across the length of the chromosome in mitosis, forming a holocentromere instead of a single centromeric locus. A new study in Cell shows that in the holocentric beak sedge Rhynchospora, holocentromeres also impact genomic architecture, epigenome organization, and karyotype evolution.


Assuntos
Centrômero , Cyperaceae , Animais , Centrômero/genética , Cyperaceae/genética , Microtúbulos , Mitose , Plantas/genética
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11761, 2022 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817804

RESUMO

Carex buekii is a highly adaptive species showing a fairly wide ecological spectrum. It belongs to the group of river corridor plants which are vulnerable to any human activity directed at transformation of river valley habitats worldwide. This study was aimed at: determining the phenotypic variability of the species in the central part of its range, examining effects of soil conditions on the sedge's morphological traits, and finding out whether the phenotypic plasticity observed may have taxonomic implications. A total of 487 specimens from 26 populations were collected in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia and tested by univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods. The analysis involved 16 morphological traits and 7 soil parameters (organic matter, pH, potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, magnesium, calcium). Soil conditions were shown to affect the C. buekii morphology; particularly important was potassium, the only soil parameter that was indicated as a factor affecting intra-specific variability. Sites with lower contents of bioavailable potassium hosted C. buekii individuals which were generally smaller than those at sites showing higher soil potassium contents. The relationship held true also with respect to generative traits important in sedge taxonomy, i.e. utricle and beak lengths. Consideration of morphological differences only, without analysing relationships between morphology and soil conditions, could have resulted in distinguishing new entities at the level of species, subspecies or variety. Thus, knowledge on the range of phenotypic plasticity in field populations seems to be of a key importance in taxonomic studies.


Assuntos
Carex (Planta) , Cyperaceae , Ecossistema , Humanos , Potássio , Solo/química
6.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 177: 107588, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907594

RESUMO

Juncaceae is a cosmopolitan family belonging to the cyperid clade of Poales together with Cyperaceae and Thurniaceae. These families have global economic and ethnobotanical significance and are often keystone species in wetlands around the world, with a widespread cosmopolitan distribution in temperate and arctic regions in both hemispheres. Currently, Juncaceae comprises more than 474 species in eight genera: Distichia, Juncus, Luzula, Marsippospermum, Oreojuncus, Oxychloë, Patosia and Rostkovia. The phylogeny of cyperids has not been studied before in a complex view based on most sequenced species from all three families. In this study, most sequenced regions from chloroplast (rbcL, trnL, trnL-trnF) and nuclear (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) genomes were employed from more than a thousand species of cyperids covering all infrageneric groups from their entire distributional range. We analyzed them by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference to revise the phylogenetic relationships in Juncaceae and Cyperaceae. Our major results include the delimitation of the most problematic paraphyletic genus Juncus, in which six new genera are recognized and proposed to recover monophyly in this group: Juncus, Verojuncus, gen. nov., Juncinella, gen. et stat. nov., Alpinojuncus, gen. nov., Australojuncus, gen. nov., Boreojuncus, gen. nov. and Agathryon, gen. et stat. nov. For these genera, a new category, Juncus supragen. et stat. nov., was established. This new classification places most groups recognized within the formal Juncus clade into natural genera that are supported by morphological characters.


Assuntos
Cyperaceae , Regiões Árticas , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Cyperaceae/genética , Filogenia
7.
Genes Genet Syst ; 97(2): 93-99, 2022 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545526

RESUMO

Interspecific hybridization is a critical issue in conservation biology because it may drive small populations to extinction through direct or indirect processes. In this study, to develop a conservation strategy for an endangered rear-edge population of Carex podogyna in Ashiu, Kyoto, Japan, we performed a molecular genetic analysis of the wild population and an ex-situ population established from wild seeds. Microsatellite genotypic data revealed a complete loss of genetic diversity in the wild population, suggesting that it has long been prone to genetic drift due to isolation as a small population. In contrast, microsatellite analysis of 13 ex-situ individuals detected multiple alleles that are not harbored in the wild C. podogyna population. Sequence analysis revealed that these individuals are likely natural hybrids between C. podogyna and a co-occurring species, C. curvicollis, although established hybrids have never been found in the natural habitat. Based on our observation of variegated leaves in hybrid individuals, we propose that hybrids have been excluded by natural selection and/or interspecific competition caused by insufficient productivity of photosynthesis, although other genetic and ecological factors may also be influential. Overall, this study indicates that natural mechanisms selectively removing the hybrids have maintained the genetic purity of this rear-edge population of C. podogyna, and also emphasizes the importance of genetic assessment in ex-situ conservation programs.


Assuntos
Carex (Planta) , Cyperaceae , Carex (Planta)/genética , Cyperaceae/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Hibridização Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 182: 167-173, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504224

RESUMO

Carbohydrate reserves are an essential key to plant survival from disturbance. Therefore, studying the different storage organs and types of reserves makes it possible to understand the dynamics of singular plants such as Bulbostylis paradoxa (Spreng.) Lindm, which presents flowering triggered by fire in the Cerrado. Physiological response to fire frequency is detailed by measuring the plant's reserves after a fire disturbance and which carbohydrates are more available for its use. It was measured the concentrations of starch, amino acids, total soluble carbohydrates and soluble proteins in leaves (control), flowers (burning) and caudex of B. paradoxa, in unburned individuals (control), and burned individuals (annually and biennially, obtained 48 h and 15 days after fire). Starch concentrations increased at both fire frequencies in all parts of the plant, as did carbohydrate concentrations. In amino acids, an increase in the concentration of flowers from individuals burned biennially 48 h after fire was observed. The protein concentration showed a decrease in burned plants. Furthermore, the two burning frequencies and the days following the fire can influence the storage of such reserves.


Assuntos
Cyperaceae , Aminoácidos , Carboidratos , Plantas , Amido
9.
Phytochemistry ; 200: 113241, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597313

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigations of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of roots and rhizomes of Scirpoides holoschoenus afforded 21 stilbenes, six flavonoids, six ferulic acid derivatives and four diterpenes. Among these constituents, six stilbenes, one flavonoid, one diterpene and two ferulic acid derivatives, represent previously unreported natural products. Structure elucidation was performed by HRESI-MS, NMR, GC-MS, and ECD data evaluation. The monoprenylated flavonoid (sophoraflavanone B) and all isolated stilbene oligomers (trans-scirpusin B, scirpusin A, cassigarol E, cyperusphenol B, cyperusphenol D, passiflorinol A, cyperusphenol A and mesocyperusphenol A) showed strong inhibitory activities on spore germination of two Botrytis cinerea strains isolated from field-infected grape berries and apple fruits compared to the reference controls resveratrol, piceid, and fenhexamid at a test concentration of 2.0 mM. For sophoraflavanone B and cyperusphenol A, the EC50 values were determined by concentration response curves and resulted in values of 0.35 mM and 0.53 mM, respectively. The data suggest that stilbene oligomers but also prenylated flavonoids should be examined further to gain more information on their antimicrobial activity and might be a suitable addition to chemical fungicides on the market to combat gray mold.


Assuntos
Cyperaceae , Diterpenos , Estilbenos , Vitis , Botrytis , Flavonoides/química , Resveratrol , Estilbenos/química
10.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264419, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358191

RESUMO

A new species, Carex borealifujianica Y.F. Lu & X.F. Jin (Cyperaceae, sect. Occlusae of core Carex clade) is described and illustrated from northern Fujian, China. In addition to morphological comparisons with its relatives, comparative micromorphology of utricles and achenes of seven species in Carex sect. Occlusae was examined. Micromorphology of utricles and achenes revealed the similarity of Carex borealifujianica and C. ligulata. Morphologically, this new species is similar to Carex ligulata in having lateral spikes remote and densely flowered, as well as utricles densely hispidulous, but differs in having 2 or 3 narrowly clavate staminate spikes, leaves 2.5-5 mm wide with sheaths sparsely pilose, and achenes emarginate at the apex. The phylogenetic analysis from two nuclear DNA regions (ETS and ITS) and two chloroplast DNA regions (matK and trnL-F) of 68 taxa resolved C. borealifujianica as a distinct species.


Assuntos
Carex (Planta) , Cyperaceae , Carex (Planta)/genética , China , Cyperaceae/genética , Flores , Filogenia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4970, 2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322069

RESUMO

Kobresia plants are important forage resources on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and are essential in maintaining the ecological balance of grasslands. Therefore, it is beneficial to obtain Kobresia genome resources and study the adaptive characteristics of Kobresia plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Previously, we have assembled the genome of Carex littledalei (Kobresia littledalei), which is a diploid with 29 chromosomes. In this study, we assembled genomes of Carex parvula (Kobresia pygmaea) and Carex kokanica (Kobresia royleana) via using Illumina and PacBio sequencing data, which were about 783.49 Mb and 673.40 Mb in size, respectively. And 45,002 or 36,709 protein-coding genes were further annotated in the genome of C. parvula or C. kokanica. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Kobresia in Cyperaceae separated from Poaceae about 101.5 million years ago after separated from Ananas comosus in Bromeliaceae about 117.2 million years ago. C. littledalei and C. parvula separated about 5.0 million years ago, after separated from C. kokanica about 6.2 million years ago. In this study, transcriptome data of C. parvula at three different altitudes were also measured and analyzed. Kobresia plants genomes assembly and transcriptome analysis will assist research into mechanisms of plant adaptation to environments with high altitude and cold weather.


Assuntos
Carex (Planta) , Cyperaceae , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Tibet
12.
Mycologia ; 114(1): 89-113, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138985

RESUMO

Twenty-two Colletotrichum strains were isolated from anthracnose symptoms or leaf spots on leaves of various wild Poaceae and Cyperaceae plants collected in three provinces of Iran and tentatively identified as belonging to the Graminicola species complex based on morphology. All strains were studied via a polyphasic approach combining colony characteristics, morphology and phylogeny inferred from multi-locus sequences, including the nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS), partial sequences of the ß-tubulin (tub2), actin (act), manganese superoxide dismutase 2 (sod2), DNA lyase 2 (apn2) genes, a 200-bp intron of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), and the intergenic spacer between the apn2 gene and the mat1 idiomorph (apn2/mat1). Six species were distinguished, including three new species, namely C. caspicum, C. persicum, and C. sacchari, and three previously described species, C. cereale, C. nicholsonii and C. sublineola. Comprehensive morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided for all species. Furthermore, this study provided new insights into the distribution and host range of known species.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Cyperaceae , Irã (Geográfico) , Doenças das Plantas , Poaceae
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 820: 153060, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038508

RESUMO

Constructed wetlands (CW) are implemented to improve water quality through filtration by plants (macrophytes), which sequester nutrients and contaminants. Macrophyte beds in CWs reduce the speed of water flow, aiming to improve the water quality by sedimentation and filtration with increasing distance from the inflow. Few studies have assessed spatial distribution and accumulation concentrations of nutrients and contaminants in CW macrophytes as a performance indicator for wetland functionality and management. Macrophytes and water were analysed for nutrient and contaminant accumulation in-situ at a stormwater-fed CW and water remediation site in South Australia. During the austral summer, macrophytes were sampled at 36 sites and water at 46 sites selected by a systematic GIS produced grid covering the entire wetland, which determined distance from the inflow for each site. A total of 144 Schoenoplectus validus (stems and roots) macrophyte samples (i.e. carbon-C, nitrogen-N, Trace elements) and 183 water samples (i.e. total suspended solids-TSS, total nitrogen-TN, total carbon-TC, nitrate-NO3-/ nitrite-NO2- and ammonia-NH4+) were analysed. Concentrations of water chemistry parameters that significantly increased with distance away from inflow included; TC (P = 0.0008), TN (P = 0.0001), and NH4+ (P = 0.0001), while there was significant decrease in TSS (P = 0.0001). The macrophyte S. validus significantly decreased in height (P = 0.0001) and biomass (P = 0.03) with distance from the inflow. Spatial mapping of nutrients and contaminants with distance from inflow identified increasing TC and C characteristics from inflow to outflow and identified where TSS were removed from the water column. Through this spatial assessment approach of the Oaklands CW, management has identified problem areas with flow regimes that require further investigation to enhance macrophyte water filtration performance which can be used in CWs elsewhere in the world.


Assuntos
Cyperaceae , Áreas Alagadas , Filtração , Nitrogênio/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Qualidade da Água
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 51, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is experiencing rapid climate warming, which may further affect plant growth. However, little is known about the plant physiological response to climate change. RESULTS: Here, we select the Kobresia pygmaea, an important perennial Cyperaceae forage, to examine the physiological indices to temperature changes in different growing months. We determined the contents of malondialdehyde, proline, soluble sugars, superoxide dismutase, peroxidation, and catalase activity in leaves and roots of Kobresia pygmaea at 25℃, 10℃, 4℃ and 0℃ from June to September in 2020. The results showed that the content of osmotic adjustment substances in the leaves and roots of Kobresia pygmaea fluctuated greatly with experimental temperature in June and September. The superoxide dismutase activity in the leaves and roots of the four months changed significantly with temperatures. The peroxidation activity in the leaves was higher than that in the roots, while the catalase activity in leaves and roots fluctuates greatly during June, with a relative stable content in other months. Membership function analysis showed that higher temperatures were more harmful to plant leaves, and lower temperatures were more harmful to plant roots. The interaction of organs, growing season and stress temperature significantly affected the physiological indicators. CONCLUSIONS: The physiological indicators of Kobresia pygmaea can actively respond to temperature changes, and high temperature can reduce the stress resistance Kobresia pygmaea. Our findings suggest that the Kobresia pygmaea has high adaptability to climate warming in the future.


Assuntos
Cyperaceae/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , China , Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Estações do Ano , Tibet
15.
J Environ Manage ; 307: 114534, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065382

RESUMO

Dye is one of the pollutants found in water bodies because of the increased growth of the textile industry. In this study, Scirpus grossus was planted inside a constructed wetland to treat mixed dye (methylene blue and methyl orange)-containing wastewater under batch and continuous modes. The plants were exposed to various concentrations (0, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) of mixed dye for 72 days (with hydraulic retention time of 7 days for the continuous system). Biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, pH, temperature, ionic content, and plant growth parameters were measured. Results showed that S. grossus can withstand all the tested dye concentrations until the end of the treatment period. Color removal efficiencies of 86, 84, and 75% were obtained in batch mode, whereas 90%, 85%, and 79% were obtained in continuous mode for 50, 75, and 100 mg/L dye concentrations, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared analysis confirmed the transformation of dye compounds after treatment and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed that most of the intermediate compounds were not absorbed into plants but adsorbed onto the surface of the root structure.


Assuntos
Cyperaceae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Indústria Têxtil , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Áreas Alagadas
16.
Protoplasma ; 259(1): 141-153, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903967

RESUMO

In the present work, we study the ovule, seed, and fruit development in six Bulbostylis species in order to characterize the genus in a comparative approach and to identify the characteristics that can be used in taxonomy and phylogeny. Flowers and fruits at different developmental stages were analyzed using LM and SEM after processing according to standard techniques. The species studied have the following: anatropous and bitegmic ovules, weak crassinucellar ovules, obturator of integumentary origin, monosporic embryo sac of the Polygonum type, nuclear endosperm, hypostase formation, seed coat formed by tanniferous endotegmen and exotesta, and Bulbostylis-type embryo. On the other hand, the pericarp development constitutes the main variation within Bulbostylis since the cells of the exocarp may or may not present starch grains, and their inner periclinal walls may be slightly or deeply concave depending on the degree of development of the mesocarp sclereids. In a taxonomic context, the results herein obtained are in conflict with studies which suggest infrageneric groupings based on fruit micromorphology, and also with the relationship among the Bulbostylis species based on molecular analysis. This work contributes to a better understanding of the reproductive anatomy and embryology in Bulbostylis, and reveals the first insights about the origin of multiple embryos in Cyperaceae. Given the frequent presence of polyembryony in Bulbostylis, and the poor mention of this condition in the family, this work highlights an aspect in the anatomy of Cyperaceae that must be re-explored.


Assuntos
Cyperaceae , Óvulo Vegetal , Endosperma , Flores , Frutas
17.
Am J Bot ; 109(1): 115-129, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655478

RESUMO

PREMISE: Most of the Paleotropical flora widely distributed in the Western Palearctic became extinct during the Mio-Pliocene as a result of global geoclimatic changes. A few elements from this Cenozoic flora are believed to remain as relicts in Macaronesia, forming part of the laurel forests. Although the origins of the present species assembly are known to be heterogeneous, it is unclear whether some species should be considered climatic relicts with conserved niches. An ideal group for studying such relict characteristics is a Miocene lineage of Carex sect. Rhynchocystis (Cyperaceae), which comprises four species distributed in mainland Palearctic and Macaronesia. METHODS: We reconstructed the current and past environmental spaces for extant mainland and Macaronesian species, as well as for Pliocene fossils. We also studied the bioclimatic niche evolution. Species distribution modeling and ensemble small modeling were performed to assess the potential distribution over time. RESULTS: Climatic niche analyses and distribution modeling revealed that the ecological requirements of Macaronesian species did not overlap with those of either mainland species or with the Pliocene fossils. Conversely, the niches of mainland species displayed significant similarity and equivalence. CONCLUSIONS: Macaronesian species are not climatic relicts from the Paleotropical flora, but instead seem to have changed the ecological niche of their ancestors. By contrast, despite their ancient divergence (Late Miocene), mainland C. pendula and C. agastachys show conserved niches, with competitive exclusion likely shaping their mostly allopatric ranges.


Assuntos
Carex (Planta) , Cyperaceae , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Florestas , Fósseis , Filogenia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 149926, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543789

RESUMO

The effect of climate change on phenology and growth is less understood for belowground plant tissues than for aboveground plant tissues, particularly in high-latitude regions. Ecotypes within a species adapted to a locality may display different responses to climate change. We established two common garden plots in the Arctic tundra north of the Brooks Range in northern Alaska. Three ecotypes of Eriophorum vaginatum along a latitudinal gradient were transplanted into common gardens, and half of the transplants were warmed using open-top chambers (OTCs). Minirhizotrons were used to track the root phenology during the growing seasons of 2016 and 2017. Warming with OTCs (approximately +1 °C in air) did not affect the root biomass, root production or root phenology. The southern ecotype (from 67°16'N) of Eriophorum vaginatum transplanted northward experienced delayed startup and root production compared to two northern ecotypes (from 68°38'N and 69°25'N), although significant differences were not observed in the three ecotypes in terms of root production, root biomass and growth duration at the two sites. Our results suggest that as the climate warms, ecotypes of Eriophorum vaginatum may be able to adjust their duration of root growth and root productivity by phenotypic plasticity, although the degree of plasticity controlling the root startup time may vary between southern and northern ecotypes.


Assuntos
Cyperaceae , Ecótipo , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Tundra
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114811, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763042

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhynchospora nervosa (Vahl) Boeckeler (Cyperaceae), popularly known as "capim-estrela", is a native species widely distributed in Brazil. The whole plant has been used in local traditional medicine in the form of teas or syrups to treat inflammation, flu, nasal congestion, fever, swelling, and venereal disease. This is the first study to investigate the pharmacological properties of this species. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antinociceptive potential of the lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of R. nervosa in heterogenic Swiss mice. In addition to pharmacological studies, the total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis models. For the antinociceptive assay, the number of acetic acid-induced writhing responses in the animals was counted. Antipyretic activity was tested by yeast-induced pyrexia in mice and evaluated for 4 h. Nitric oxide (NO) concentration and leukocyte migration in the peritoneal fluid were quantified. The acute toxicity of the extract was also calculated. Quantitative analyses of total phenols and flavonoids in the extract were performed by spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: In short, the lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of R. nervosa showed low acute toxicity in the preclinical tests (LD50 = 3807 mg/kg). A significant anti-inflammatory effect was observed, with an average reduction of carrageenan-induced paw edema of 96.37%. Comparatively, indomethacin inhibited the development of the carrageenin paw edema by 97.52%. In the peritonitis test, a significant reduction in NO levels was recorded. A reduction in the number of white cells, notably monocytes, was also observed, confirming the anti-inflammatory effect. Writhing was reduced by 86.53%, which indicates antinociceptive activity. As for antipyretic activity, no positive effects of the extract were observed. The lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of R. nervosa presented a high content of phenolic compounds (322.47 µg GAE/mg) and total flavonoids (440.50 µg QE/mg). CONCLUSION: The lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of R. nervosa showed significant in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity in mice. These preliminary findings support the indication of the use of this species in folk medicine in Brazil for the treatment of inflammation.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Cyperaceae/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antipiréticos/administração & dosagem , Carragenina/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Peritonite/induzido quimicamente , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Chemosphere ; 291(Pt 3): 132952, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798103

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is one of the toxic heavy metals that pollute the environment as a result of industrial activities. This study aims to optimize Pb removal from water by using horizontal free surface flow constructed wetland (HFSFCW) planted with Scirpus grossus. Optimization was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM) under Box-Behnken design with the operational parameters of initial Pb concentration, retention time, and aeration. Optimization results showed that 37 mg/L of initial Pb concentration, 32 days of retention time, and no aeration were the optimum conditions for Pb removal by using the systems. Validation test was run under two different conditions, namely, non-bioaugmented and bioaugmented with rhizobacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, Brevibacillus choshinensis, and Rhodococcus rhodochrous). Results of the validation test showed that Pb removal in water achieved 99.99% efficiency with 0.2% error from the RSM prediction, while the adsorption of Pb by plants reached 5160.18 mg/kg with 10.6% error from the RSM prediction. The bioaugmentation of the five rhizobacterial species showed a slight improvement in Pb removal from water and Pb adsorption by plants. However, no significant improvement was achieved (p < 0.05). Overall results suggested that operating the HFSFCW under optimum conditions with no bioaugmentation might be a feasible choice for the treatment of Pb-contaminated water.


Assuntos
Cyperaceae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Chumbo , Água , Áreas Alagadas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...