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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2606: 33-40, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592306

RESUMO

Digenome-seq is a powerful approach for determining the genome-wide specificity of programmable nuclease including CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cpf1 (also known as Cas12a) and programmable deaminase including cytosine base editors (CBEs) and adenine base editors (ABEs). To define the genome-wide specificity of dLbCpf1-BE (also known as dLbCas12a-BE), genomic DNA is first incubated with dLbCpf1-BE, which induces C-to-U conversion at on-target and off-target sites, and then treated with a mixture of E. coli uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) and Endonuclease VIII, which creates single-strand breaks (SSBs) by removing uracil in vitro. Digested genomic DNA is subjected to WGS, and then sequencing reads are aligned to the reference genome, resulting in straight alignments at on-target and off-target sites. The in vitro cleavage sites related to the straight alignments can be identified using the Digenome-seq computer tool.


Assuntos
Citidina , Edição de Genes , Edição de Genes/métodos , Citidina/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , DNA/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas
2.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 16, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627271

RESUMO

APOBEC3 (A3) proteins are host-encoded deoxycytidine deaminases that provide an innate immune barrier to retroviral infection, notably against HIV-1. Low levels of deamination are believed to contribute to the genetic evolution of HIV-1, while intense catalytic activity of these proteins can induce catastrophic hypermutation in proviral DNA leading to near-total HIV-1 restriction. So far, little is known about how A3 cytosine deaminases might impact HIV-1 proviral DNA integration sites in human chromosomal DNA. Using a deep sequencing approach, we analyze the influence of catalytic active and inactive APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G on HIV-1 integration site selections. Here we show that DNA editing is detected at the extremities of the long terminal repeat regions of the virus. Both catalytic active and non-catalytic A3 mutants decrease insertions into gene coding sequences and increase integration sites into SINE elements, oncogenes and transcription-silencing non-B DNA features. Our data implicates A3 as a host factor influencing HIV-1 integration site selection and also promotes what appears to be a more latent expression profile.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Humanos , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Desaminase APOBEC-3G/metabolismo , Citosina Desaminase/genética , Citosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Antirretrovirais , Integração Viral/genética , Citidina/metabolismo , Desaminases APOBEC/genética , Desaminases APOBEC/metabolismo
3.
Bioorg Chem ; 131: 106315, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528924

RESUMO

New applications of palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira-type cross-coupling reaction between C5-halogenated 2'-deoxycytidine-5'-monophosphate and novel cyanine dyes with a terminal alkyne group have been developed. The present methodology allows to synthesize of fluorescently labeled C5-nucleoside triphosphates with different acetylene linkers between the fluorophore and pyrimidine base in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Modified 2'-deoxycytidine-5'-triphosphates were shown to be good substrates for DNA polymerases and were incorporated into the DNA by polymerase chain reaction.


Assuntos
DNA , Desoxicitidina , Citidina Trifosfato , DNA/genética , Citidina
4.
Antiviral Res ; 209: 105492, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535309

RESUMO

Molnupiravir (EIDD-2801) is a prodrug of a ribonucleoside analogue that is currently being used under a US FDA emergency use authorization for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. We evaluated molnupiravir for efficacy as an oral treatment in the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Twenty non-human primates (NHPs) were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with 75 mg/kg (n = 8) or 250 mg/kg (n = 8) of molnupiravir twice daily by oral gavage for 7 days. The NHPs were observed for 14 days post-challenge and monitored for clinical signs of disease. After challenge, all groups showed a trend toward increased respiration rates. Treatment with molnupiravir significantly reduced viral RNA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples at Days 7 and 10. Considering the mild to moderate nature of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the rhesus macaque model, this study highlights the importance of monitoring the viral load in the lung as an indicator of pharmaceutical efficacy for COVID-19 treatments. Additionally, this study provides evidence of the efficacy of molnupiravir which supplements the current ongoing clinical trials of this drug.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Macaca mulatta , Citidina/farmacologia , Citidina/uso terapêutico
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553667

RESUMO

Understanding the causes of tumorigenesis and progression in triple-receptor negative breast cancer (TNBC) can help the design of novel and personalized therapies and prognostic assessments. Abnormal RNA modification is a recently discovered process in TNBC development. TNBC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas database were categorized according to the expression level of NAT10, which drives acetylation of cytidine in RNA to N(4)-acetylcytidine (ac4C) and affects mRNA stability. A total of 703 differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were found between high- and low-expressed NAT10 groups in TNBC. Twenty of these lncRNAs were significantly associated with prognosis. Two breast cancer tissues and their paired normal tissues were sequenced at the whole genome level using acetylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (acRIP-seq) technology to identify acetylation features in TNBC, and 180 genes were significantly differentially ac4c acetylated in patients. We also analyzed the genome-wide lncRNA expression profile and constructed a co-expression network, containing 116 ac4C genes and 1080 lncRNAs. Three of these lncRNAs were prognostic risk lncRNAs affected by NAT10 and contained in the network. The corresponding reciprocal pairs were "LINC01614-COL3A1", "OIP5-AS1-USP8", and "RP5-908M14.9-TRIR". These results indicate that RNA ac4c acetylation involves lncRNAs and affects the tumor process and prognosis of TNBC. This will aid the prediction of drug targets and drug sensitivity.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Citidina/genética , Citidina/metabolismo , Prognóstico
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0273256, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441684

RESUMO

The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2 is one of the optimum targets for antiviral drug design and development. The hydroxyl groups of cytidine structures were modified with different aliphatic and aromatic groups to obtain 5´-O-acyl and 2´,3´-di-O-acyl derivatives, and then, these derivatives were employed in molecular modeling, antiviral prediction, molecular docking, molecular dynamics, pharmacological and POM studies. Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G++ level analyzed biochemical behavior and molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) of the modified cytidine derivatives. The antiviral parameters of the mutated derivatives revealed promising drug properties compared with those of standard antiviral drugs. Molecular docking has determined binding affinities and interactions between the cytidine derivatives and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. The modified derivatives strongly interacted with prime Pro620 and Lys621 residues. The binding conformation and interactions stability were investigated by 200 ns of molecular dynamics simulations and predicted the compounds to firmly dock inside the RdRp binding pocket. Interestingly, the binding residues of the derivatives were revealed in high equilibrium showing an enhanced binding affinity for the molecules. Intermolecular interactions are dominated by both Van der Waals and electrostatic energies. Finally, the pharmacokinetic characterization of the optimized inhibitors confirmed the safety of derivatives due to their improved kinetic properties. The selected cytidine derivatives can be suggested as potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2. The POM Theory supports the hypothesis above by confirming the existence of an antiviral (Oδ--O'δ-) pharmacophore site of Hits.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , SARS-CoV-2 , Citidina/farmacologia , Receptores de Droga , Antivirais/farmacologia , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA
8.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(11): 1680-1694, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36237989

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is a highly malignant tumor. Gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) are the main causes of drug resistance, metastasis, recurrence, and poor prognosis. As a secondary metabolite of lichen, Atranorin has a variety of biological effects, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and wound healing; however, its killing effect on GCSCs has not been reported. In this study, we constructed Atranorin complexes comprising superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (Atranorin@SPION). In vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed that Atranorin@SPION could significantly inhibit the proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and tumorigenicity of CD44+/ CD24+ GCSCs, and induce oxidative stress injury, Fe2+ accumulation, and ferroptosis. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and western blotting results showed that Atranorin@SPION not only reduced the expression levels of GCSC stem cell markers and cell proliferation and division markers, but also significantly inhibited the expression levels of key molecules in the cystine/glutamate transporter (Xc-)/glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET) family proteins. The results of high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and Dot blotting showed that Atranorin@SPION significantly inhibited the mRNA 5­hydroxymethylcytidine modification of GCSCs. Meanwhile, the results of RNA immunoprecipitation-PCR also indicated that Atranorin@SPIONs significantly reduced the 5-hydroxymethylcytidine modification level of GPX4 and SLC7A11 mRNA 3' untranslated region in GCSCs, resulting in a decrease in their stability, shortening their half-lives and reducing translation activity. Therefore, this study revealed that Atranorin@SPIONs induced ferroptosis of GCSCs by weakening the expression of the Xc-/GPX4 axis and the 5-hydroxymethylcytidine modification of mRNAs in the pathway, thereby achieving their therapeutic effect on gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Dioxigenases , Ferroptose , Neoplasias Gástricas , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Sistema X-AG de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistema X-AG de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sistema X-AG de Transporte de Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cistina/genética , Cistina/metabolismo , Cistina/farmacologia , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/farmacologia , Ferroptose/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos , Nanopartículas Magnéticas de Óxido de Ferro , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
9.
Science ; 378(6619): 560-565, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264825

RESUMO

Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa. In May 2022, dozens of non-endemic countries reported hundreds of monkeypox cases, most with no epidemiological link to Africa. We identified two lineages of monkeypox virus (MPXV) among two 2021 and seven 2022 US monkeypox cases: the major 2022 outbreak variant called B.1 and a minor contemporaneously sampled variant called A.2. Analyses of mutations among these two variants revealed an extreme preference for GA-to-AA mutations indicative of human APOBEC3 cytosine deaminase activity among Clade IIb MPXV (previously West African, Nigeria) sampled since 2017. Such mutations were not enriched within other MPXV clades. These findings suggest that APOBEC3 editing may be a recurrent and a dominant driver of MPXV evolution within the current outbreak.


Assuntos
Desaminases APOBEC , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Varíola dos Macacos , Edição de RNA , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/enzimologia , Varíola dos Macacos/virologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/isolamento & purificação , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Mutação , Evolução Molecular , Desaminases APOBEC/metabolismo , Adenosina/genética , Citidina/genética
10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(49): e202210652, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251179

RESUMO

5-Formylcytidine (f5 C) is one of the epigenetic nucleotides in tRNA. Despite the evident importance of f5 C in gene expression regulation, little is known about its exact amount and position. To capture this information, we developed a modification-specific functionalization with a semi-stabilized ylide. The chemical labelling exhibited a high selectivity towards f5 C and allowed distinction from similar 5-formyluridine. We realized a detection strategy based on the fluorescence signal of the cyclization product 4,5-pyridin-2-amine-cytidine paC, which exhibited a high quantum yield. The results clearly identified f5 C with a limit of detection at 0.58 nM. This method altered the hydrogen bonding activities of f5 C and modulated its reverse transcription signature in its sequencing profile. We showed that f5 C can be detected from tRNA segments with a single-base resolution. Taken together, this approach is a sensitive, antibody-free, and applicable detection and sequencing method for f5 C-containing RNA.


Assuntos
Citidina , RNA , RNA/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência
11.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 252, 2022 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36210459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite widespread searches, there are currently no validated biofluid markers for the detection of subclinical neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS). The dynamic nature of human metabolism in response to changes in homeostasis, as measured by metabolomics, may allow early identification of clinically silent neuroinflammation. Using the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) MS rat model, we investigated the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolomics profiles and neurofilament-light chain (NfL) levels, as a putative marker of neuroaxonal damage, arising from focal, clinically silent neuroinflammatory brain lesions and their discriminatory abilities to distinguish DTH animals from controls. METHODS: 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy metabolomics and NfL measurements were performed on serum and CSF at days 12, 28 and 60 after DTH lesion initiation. Supervised multivariate analyses were used to determine metabolomics differences between DTH animals and controls. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the extent of neuroinflammation and tissue damage. RESULTS: Serum and CSF metabolomics perturbations were detectable in DTH animals (vs. controls) at all time points, with the greatest change occurring at the earliest time point (day 12) when the neuroinflammatory response was most intense (mean predictive accuracy [SD]-serum: 80.6 [10.7]%, p < 0.0001; CSF: 69.3 [13.5]%, p < 0.0001). The top discriminatory metabolites at day 12 (serum: allantoin, cytidine; CSF: glutamine, glucose) were all reduced in DTH animals compared to controls, and correlated with histological markers of neuroinflammation, particularly astrogliosis (Pearson coefficient, r-allantoin: r = - 0.562, p = 0.004; glutamine: r = - 0.528, p = 0.008). Serum and CSF NfL levels did not distinguish DTH animals from controls at day 12, rather, significant differences were observed at day 28 (mean [SEM]-serum: 38.5 [4.8] vs. 17.4 [2.6] pg/mL, p = 0.002; CSF: 1312.0 [379.1] vs. 475.8 [74.7] pg/mL, p = 0.027). Neither serum nor CSF NfL levels correlated with markers of neuroinflammation; serum NfL did, however, correlate strongly with axonal loss (r = 0.641, p = 0.001), but CSF NfL did not (p = 0.137). CONCLUSIONS: While NfL levels were elevated later in the pathogenesis of the DTH lesion, serum and CSF metabolomics were able to detect early, clinically silent neuroinflammation and are likely to present sensitive biomarkers for the assessment of subclinical disease activity in patients.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Alantoína , Animais , Biomarcadores , Citidina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose , Glutamina , Humanos , Filamentos Intermediários , Esclerose Múltipla/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos , Ratos
12.
Lancet ; 400(10359): 1213-1222, 2022 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the real-world effectiveness of oral antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. We aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of two oral antiviral drugs among community-dwelling COVID-19 outpatients in Hong Kong. METHODS: In this observational study, we used data from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to identify an unselected, territory-wide cohort of non-hospitalised patients with an officially registered diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 26 and June 26, 2022, during the period in which the omicron subvariant BA.2.2 was dominant in Hong Kong. We used a retrospective cohort design as primary analysis, and a case-control design as sensitivity analysis. We identified patients with COVID-19 who received either molnupiravir (800 mg twice daily for 5 days) or nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir (nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg twice daily for 5 days, or nirmatrelvir 150 mg and ritonavir 100 mg if estimated glomerular filtration rate was 30-59 mL/min per 1·73 m2). Outpatient oral antiviral users were matched with controls using propensity score (1:10) according to age, sex, date of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and vaccination status. Study outcomes were death, COVID-19-related hospitalisation, and in-hospital disease progression (in-hospital death, invasive mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression for the primary analysis, and odds ratios in oral antiviral users compared with non-users by logistic regression for the sensitivity analysis. FINDINGS: Among 1 074 856 non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, 5383 received molnupiravir and 6464 received nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir in the community setting. Patients were followed up for a median of 103 days in the molnupiravir group and 99 days in the nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir group. Compared with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir users, those on molnupiravir were older (4758 [85·9%] vs 4418 [88.7%] aged >60 years) and less likely to have been fully vaccinated (1850 [33·4%] vs 800 [16·1%]). Molnupiravir use was associated with lower risks of death (HR 0·76 [95% CI 0·61-0·95]) and in-hospital disease progression (0·57 [0·43-0·76]) than non-use was, whereas risk of hospitalisation was similar in both groups (0·98 [0·89-1·06]). Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir use was associated with lower risks of death (0·34 [0·22-0·52]), hospitalisation (0·76 [0·67-0·86]), and in-hospital disease progression (0·57 [0·38-0·87]) than non-use was. We consistently found reduced risks of mortality and hospitalisation associated with early oral antiviral use among older patients. The findings from the case-control analysis broadly supported those from the primary analysis. INTERPRETATION: During Hong Kong's wave of SARS-CoV-2 omicron subvariant BA.2.2, among non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, early initiation of novel oral antivirals was associated with reduced risks of mortality and in-hospital disease progression. Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir use was additionally associated with a reduced risk of hospitalisation. FUNDING: Health and Medical Research Fund, Health Bureau, Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Progressão da Doença , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxilaminas , Vida Independente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5994, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220828

RESUMO

Post-transcriptional RNA editing modulates gene expression in a condition-dependent fashion. We recently discovered C-to-Ψ editing in Vibrio cholerae tRNA. Here, we characterize the biogenesis, regulation, and functions of this previously undescribed RNA editing process. We show that an enzyme, TrcP, mediates the editing of C-to-U followed by the conversion of U to Ψ, consecutively. AlphaFold-2 predicts that TrcP consists of two globular domains (cytidine deaminase and pseudouridylase) and a long helical domain. The latter domain tethers tRNA substrates during both the C-to-U editing and pseudouridylation, likely enabling a substrate channeling mechanism for efficient catalysis all the way to the terminal product. C-to-Ψ editing both requires and suppresses other modifications, creating an interdependent network of modifications in the tRNA anticodon loop that facilitates coupling of tRNA modification states to iron availability. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into an RNA editing process that likely promotes environmental adaptation.


Assuntos
Anticódon , Pseudouridina , Citidina/metabolismo , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Ferro , Pseudouridina/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo
14.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298835

RESUMO

The pharmacological management of influenza virus (IV) infections still poses a series of challenges due to the limited anti-IV drug arsenal. Therefore, the development of new anti-influenza agents effective against antigenically different IVs is therefore an urgent priority. To meet this need, host-targeting antivirals (HTAs) can be evaluated as an alternative or complementary approach to current direct-acting agents (DAAs) for the therapy of IV infections. As a contribution to this antiviral strategy, in this study, we characterized the anti-IV activity of MEDS433, a novel small molecule inhibitor of the human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH), a key cellular enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. MEDS433 exhibited a potent antiviral activity against IAV and IBV replication, which was reversed by the addition of exogenous uridine and cytidine or the hDHODH product orotate, thus indicating that MEDS433 targets notably hDHODH activity in IV-infected cells. When MEDS433 was used in combination either with dipyridamole (DPY), an inhibitor of the pyrimidine salvage pathway, or with an anti-IV DAA, such as N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC), synergistic anti-IV activities were observed. As a whole, these results indicate MEDS433 as a potential HTA candidate to develop novel anti-IV intervention approaches, either as a single agent or in combination regimens with DAAs.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Replicação Viral , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Uridina/farmacologia , Di-Hidro-Orotato Desidrogenase , Dipiridamol/farmacologia , Citidina/farmacologia
15.
Biochemistry ; 61(22): 2568-2578, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302365

RESUMO

Drug resistance is a major problem associated with anticancer chemo- and immunotherapies. Recent advances in the understanding of resistance mechanisms have revealed that enzymes of the APOBEC3 (A3) family contribute to the development of drug resistance in multiple cancers. A3 enzymes are polynucleotide cytidine deaminases that convert cytosine to uracil (C→U) in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and in this way protect humans against viruses and mobile retroelements. On the other hand, cancer cells use A3s, especially A3A and A3B, to mutate human DNA, and thus by increasing rates of evolution, cancer cells escape adaptive immune responses and resist drugs. However, as A3A and A3B are non-essential for primary metabolism, their inhibition opens up a strategy to augment existing anticancer therapies and suppress cancer evolution. To test our hypothesis that pre-shaped ssDNA mimicking the U-shape observed in ssDNA-A3 complexes can provide a better binder to A3 enzymes, a Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition was used to cross-link two distant modified nucleobases in ssDNA. The resultant cytosine-containing substrate, where the cytosine sits at the apex of the loop, was deaminated faster by the engineered C-terminal domain of A3B than a standard, linear substrate. The cross-linked ssDNA was converted into an A3 inhibitor by replacing the 2'-deoxycytidine in the preferred TCA substrate motif by 2'-deoxyzebularine, a known inhibitor of single nucleoside cytidine deaminases. This strategy yielded the first nanomolar inhibitor of engineered A3BCTD and wild-type A3A (Ki = 690 ± 140 and 360 ± 120 nM, respectively), providing a platform for further development of powerful A3 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase , Oligonucleotídeos , Humanos , Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Citidina/química , Citosina
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e938532, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181334

RESUMO

One of the most recently described clinical associations with SARS-CoV-2 infection is rebound COVID-19, which occurs between five and eight days following the cessation of antiviral treatment. Most case reports of rebound COVID-19 have been associated with cessation of treatment with the combined oral antiviral agent nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid). On 24 May 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory update for patients, healthcare providers, and public health departments on COVID-19 rebound or recurrence of COVID-19. However, population data from the US showed no significant differences in the risk of developing rebound COVID-19 between patients treated with Paxlovid and Molnupiravir. The mechanisms of rebound COVID-19 remain unclear but may involve the development of resistance to the antiviral drug, impaired immunity to the virus, or insufficient drug dosing. A further explanation may be the persistence of a high viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals who are no longer symptomatic. This Editorial aims to provide an update on what is known about rebound COVID-19 and the current public health implications.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2 , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxilaminas , Lactamas , Leucina , Nitrilas , Prolina , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(45): e202211945, 2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063071

RESUMO

The question of how RNA, as the principal carrier of genetic information evolved is fundamentally important for our understanding of the origin of life. The RNA molecule is far too complex to have formed in one evolutionary step, suggesting that ancestral proto-RNAs (first ancestor of RNA) may have existed, which evolved over time into the RNA of today. Here we show that isoxazole nucleosides, which are quickly formed from hydroxylamine, cyanoacetylene, urea and ribose, are plausible precursors for RNA. The isoxazole nucleoside can rearrange within an RNA-strand to give cytidine, which leads to an increase of pairing stability. If the proto-RNA contains a canonical seed-nucleoside with defined stereochemistry, the seed-nucleoside can control the configuration of the anomeric center that forms during the in-RNA transformation. The results demonstrate that RNA could have emerged from evolutionarily primitive precursor isoxazole ribosides after strand formation.


Assuntos
Nucleosídeos , RNA , Nucleosídeos/química , RNA/química , Isoxazóis , Citidina/química , Ureia/química
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(17): 9966-9983, 2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107771

RESUMO

RNA editing processes are strikingly different in animals and plants. Up to thousands of specific cytidines are converted into uridines in plant chloroplasts and mitochondria whereas up to millions of adenosines are converted into inosines in animal nucleo-cytosolic RNAs. It is unknown whether these two different RNA editing machineries are mutually incompatible. RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are the key factors of plant organelle cytidine-to-uridine RNA editing. The complete absence of PPR mediated editing of cytosolic RNAs might be due to a yet unknown barrier that prevents its activity in the cytosol. Here, we transferred two plant mitochondrial PPR-type editing factors into human cell lines to explore whether they could operate in the nucleo-cytosolic environment. PPR56 and PPR65 not only faithfully edited their native, co-transcribed targets but also different sets of off-targets in the human background transcriptome. More than 900 of such off-targets with editing efficiencies up to 91%, largely explained by known PPR-RNA binding properties, were identified for PPR56. Engineering two crucial amino acid positions in its PPR array led to predictable shifts in target recognition. We conclude that plant PPR editing factors can operate in the entirely different genetic environment of the human nucleo-cytosol and can be intentionally re-engineered towards new targets.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Aminoácidos , Citidina , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA/genética , RNA Mitocondrial/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Uridina/genética
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(9)2022 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140804

RESUMO

The restoration of genetic code by editing mutated genes is a potential method for the treatment of genetic diseases/disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by the point mutations of thymine (T) to cytidine (C) or guanosine (G) to adenine (A), for which gene editing (editing of mutated genes) is a promising therapeutic technique. In C-to-Uridine (U) RNA editing, it converts the base C-to-U in RNA molecules and leads to nonsynonymous changes when occurring in coding regions; however, for G-to-A mutations, A-to-I editing occurs. Editing of C-to-U is not as physiologically common as that of A-to-I editing. Although hundreds to thousands of coding sites have been found to be C-to-U edited or editable in humans, the biological significance of this phenomenon remains elusive. In this review, we have tried to provide detailed information on physiological and artificial approaches for C-to-U RNA editing.


Assuntos
Edição de RNA , Timina , Adenina , Citidina/genética , Citidina/metabolismo , Código Genético , Guanosina , Humanos , Edição de RNA/genética , RNA Nuclear Pequeno , Uridina/genética
20.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(9): e1045, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36149760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N-4 cytidine acetylation (ac4C) is an epitranscriptomics modification catalyzed by N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10); important for cellular mRNA stability, rRNA biogenesis, cell proliferation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, whether other crucial pathways are regulated by NAT10-dependent ac4C modification in cancer cells remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we explored the impact of NAT10 depletion in cancer cells using unbiased RNA-seq. METHODS: High-throughput sequencing of knockdown NAT10 in cancer cells was conducted to identify enriched pathways. Acetylated RNA immunoprecipitation-seq (acRIP-seq) and RIP-PCR were used to map and determine ac4C levels of RNA. Exogenous palmitate uptake assay was conducted to assess NAT10 knockdown cancer cells using Oil Red O staining and lipid content analysis. Gas-chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) was used to perform untargeted lipidomics. RESULTS: High-throughput sequencing of NAT10 knockdown in cancer cells revealed fatty acid (FA) metabolism as the top enriched pathway through the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis in differentially downregulated genes. FA metabolic genes such as ELOLV6, ACSL1, ACSL3, ACSL4, ACADSB and ACAT1 were shown to be stabilised via NAT10-dependent ac4C RNA acetylation. Additionally, NAT10 depletion was shown to significantly reduce the levels of overall lipid content, triglycerides and total cholesterol. Further, NAT10 depletion in palmitate-loaded cancer cells showed decrease in ac4C levels across the RNA transcripts of FA metabolic genes. In untargeted lipidomics, 496 out of 2 279 lipids were statistically significant in NAT10 depleted cancer cells, of which pathways associated with FA metabolism are the most enriched. CONCLUSIONS: Conclusively, our results provide novel insights into the impact of NAT10-mediated ac4C modification as a crucial regulatory factor during FA metabolism and showed the benefit of targeting NAT10 for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Citidina , Neoplasias , Acetiltransferases , Colesterol , Citidina/análise , Citidina/genética , Citidina/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Palmitatos , RNA/química , Transferases , Triglicerídeos
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