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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2576: 307-316, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152198

RESUMO

The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are not only metabolized by serine hydrolases, such as fatty acid amide hydrolase, monoacylglycerol lipase, and α,ß-hydrolases 6 and 12, but they also serve as substrates for cyclooxygenases, cytochrome P450s, and lipoxygenases. These enzymes oxygenate the 1Z,4Z-pentadiene system of the arachidonic acid backbone of endocannabinoids, thereby giving rise to an entirely new array of bioactive lipids. Hereby, a protocol is provided for the enzymatic synthesis, purification, and characterization of various oxygenated metabolites of anandamide generated by lipoxygenases, which enables the biological study and detection of these metabolites.


Assuntos
Alcadienos , Endocanabinoides , Ácido Araquidônico , Ácidos Araquidônicos , Citocromos , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Lipoxigenases , Monoacilglicerol Lipases , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Serina
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 129927, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152545

RESUMO

Biochar can act as a shuttle to accelerate the extracellular electron transfer (EET) by exoelectrogens. However, it is poorly understood how the persistent free radicals (PFRs) in biochar affected EET and the redox reaction. Herein, the effects of the biochar and chitosan modified biochar (CBC) on the Cr(VI) bioreduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1) was investigated. Kinetic study indicated that the Cr(VI) bioreduction rate constant by MR-1 was increased by 1.8-33.7 folds in the presence of biochar, and by 2.7-60.2 folds in the presence of CBC, respectively. Moreover, Cr(VI) bioreduction rates increased with the decreasing pH. Results suggested that the electrostatic attraction between Cr(VI) and redox-active particles could accelerate the EET by c-cytochrome due to the promotion of the Cr(VI) migration from aqueous phase to biochar or CBC. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis suggested that the PFRs affected the electron transfer from the ·O2- generated by MR-1 to Cr(VI) and accelerate the Cr(VI) bioreduction. Remarkably, in the presence of PFRs, this electron shuttling process was dependent on the non-metal-reducing respiratory pathway. Our results offer new insights that free radicals may be widely involved in the EET and strongly impact on the redox reaction in the environment.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Shewanella , Elétrons , Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Shewanella/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Citocromos/metabolismo
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 508, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited failure to produce functional pollen that most commonly results from expression of novel, chimeric mitochondrial genes. In Zea mays, cytoplasmic male sterility type S (CMS-S) is characterized by the collapse of immature, bi-cellular pollen. Molecular and cellular features of developing CMS-S and normal (N) cytoplasm pollen were compared to determine the role of mitochondria in these differing developmental fates. RESULTS: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling revealed both chromatin and nuclear fragmentation in the collapsed CMS-S pollen, demonstrating a programmed cell death (PCD) event sharing morphological features with mitochondria-signaled apoptosis in animals. Maize plants expressing mitochondria-targeted green fluorescent protein (GFP) demonstrated dynamic changes in mitochondrial morphology and association with actin filaments through the course of N-cytoplasm pollen development, whereas mitochondrial targeting of GFP was lost and actin filaments were disorganized in developing CMS-S pollen. Immunoblotting revealed significant developmental regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in both CMS-S and N mito-types. Nuclear and mitochondrial genome encoded components of the cytochrome respiratory pathway and ATP synthase were of low abundance at the microspore stage, but microspores accumulated abundant nuclear-encoded alternative oxidase (AOX). Cytochrome pathway and ATP synthase components accumulated whereas AOX levels declined during the maturation of N bi-cellular pollen. Increased abundance of cytochrome pathway components and declining AOX also characterized collapsed CMS-S pollen. The accumulation and robust RNA editing of mitochondrial transcripts implicated translational or post-translational control for the developmentally regulated accumulation of mitochondria-encoded proteins in both mito-types. CONCLUSIONS: CMS-S pollen collapse is a PCD event coincident with developmentally programmed mitochondrial events including the accumulation of mitochondrial respiratory proteins and declining protection against mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Biogênese de Organelas , Zea mays , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Citocromos/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética
4.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 170, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geothermal systems have contributed greatly to both our understanding of the functions of extreme life and the evolutionary history of life itself. Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are ecological intermediates of deep-sea systems and terrestrial springs, harboring unique and complexed ecosystems, which are well-lit and present physicochemical gradients. The microbial communities of deep-sea and terrestrial geothermal systems have been well-studied at the population genome level, yet little is known about the communities inhabiting the shallow-sea hydrothermal systems and how they compare to those inhabiting other geothermal systems. RESULTS: Here, we used genome-resolved metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches to probe into the genetic potential and protein expression of microorganisms from the shallow-sea vent fluids off Kueishantao Island. The families Nautiliaceae and Campylobacteraceae within the Epsilonbacteraeota and the Thiomicrospiraceae within the Gammaproteobacteria were prevalent in vent fluids over a 3-year sampling period. We successfully reconstructed the in situ metabolic modules of the predominant populations within the Epsilonbacteraeota and Gammaproteobacteria by mapping the metaproteomic data back to metagenome-assembled genomes. Those active bacteria could use the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle or Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle for autotrophic carbon fixation, with the ability to use reduced sulfur species, hydrogen or formate as electron donors, and oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor via cytochrome bd oxidase or cytochrome bb3 oxidase. Comparative metagenomic and genomic analyses revealed dramatic differences between submarine and terrestrial geothermal systems, including microbial functional potentials for carbon fixation and energy conversion. Furthermore, shallow-sea hydrothermal systems shared many of the major microbial genera that were first isolated from deep-sea and terrestrial geothermal systems, while deep-sea and terrestrial geothermal systems shared few genera. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic machinery of the active populations within Epsilonbacteraeota and Gammaproteobacteria at shallow-sea vents can mirror those living at deep-sea vents. With respect to specific taxa and metabolic potentials, the microbial realm in the shallow-sea hydrothermal system presented ecological linkage to both deep-sea and terrestrial geothermal systems. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Epsilonproteobacteria , Gammaproteobacteria , Fontes Hidrotermais , Microbiota , Citocromos/genética , Citocromos/metabolismo , Epsilonproteobacteria/genética , Formiatos/metabolismo , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Gammaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fontes Hidrotermais/microbiologia , Oxirredutases , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , Enxofre/metabolismo
5.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(41): 8140-8154, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205931

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a major global health concern. The increased use of herbicides may lead to multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Conventional techniques for diagnosing antibiotic resistance are laborious, time-intensive, expensive, and lack information about antibiotic susceptibility. On the other hand, Raman spectroscopy is a rapid, label-free, noninvasive alternative to traditional techniques to detect antibiotic resistance. In this study, two popular herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) were used to study their effects on the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Escherichia coli wild-type (WT) MG1655 strain and two isogenic mutants, Δlon and ΔacrB, were used together with Raman spectroscopy. The WT E. coli is sensitive to antibiotics, but exposure to both herbicides induces antibiotic resistance. Using an excitation wavelength of 785 nm, the intensity ratios (e.g., I740/I785, I740/I1003, I1480/I1445, I2934/I2868, and I2934/I2845) were identified as biomarkers to study the induction of antibiotic resistance in bacteria but not NaCl-mediated stress. Using an excitation wavelength of 633 nm, the peak intensity at 740 cm-1 assigned to cytochrome bd decreases under antibiotic stress but increases upon exposure to both herbicides and antibiotics, indicating the development of resistance. Thus, this study can be applied to monitor antibiotic resistance using Raman spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Herbicidas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Análise Espectral Raman , Ácido Acético , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/farmacologia , Citocromos
6.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 83(3): 284-294, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190544

RESUMO

With chemical analysis, it is impossible to qualify and quantify the toxic potency of especially hydrophilic bioactive contaminants. In this study, we applied the nematode C. elegans as a model organism for detecting the toxic potency of whole influent wastewater samples. Gene expression in the nematode was used as bioanalytical tool to reveal the presence, type and potency of molecular pathways induced by 24-h exposure to wastewater from a hospital (H), nursing home (N), community (C), and influent (I) and treated effluent (E) from a local wastewater treatment plant. Exposure to influent water significantly altered expression of 464 genes, while only two genes were differentially expressed in nematodes treated with effluent. This indicates a significant decrease in bioactive pollutant-load after wastewater treatment. Surface water receiving the effluent did not induce any genes in exposed nematodes. A subset of 209 genes was differentially expressed in all untreated wastewaters, including cytochromes P450 and C-type lectins related to the nematode's xenobiotic metabolism and immune response, respectively. Different subsets of genes responded to particular waste streams making them candidates to fingerprint-specific wastewater sources. This study shows that gene expression profiling in C. elegans can be used for mechanism-based identification of hydrophilic bioactive compounds and fingerprinting of specific wastewaters. More comprehensive than with chemical analysis, it can demonstrate the effective overall removal of bioactive compounds through wastewater treatment. This bioanalytical tool can also be applied in the process of identification of the bioactive compounds via a process of toxicity identification evaluation.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Citocromos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lectinas Tipo C , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Xenobióticos
7.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235091

RESUMO

Triticonazole is a fungicide used to control diseases in numerous plants. The commercial product is a racemate containing (R)- and (S)-triticonazole and its residues have been found in vegetables, fruits, and drinking water. This study considered the effects of triticonazole on soil microorganisms and enzymes and human health by taking into account the enantiomeric structure when applicable. An experimental method was applied for assessing the effects of triticonazole on soil microorganisms and enzymes, and the effects of the stereoisomers on soil enzymes and human health were assessed using a computational approach. There were decreases in dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities and an increase in urease activity when barley and wheat seeds treated with various doses of triticonazole were sown in chernozem soil. At least 21 days were necessary for the enzymes to recover the activities. This was consistent with the diminution of the total number of soil microorganisms in the 14 days after sowing. Both stereoisomers were able to bind to human plasma proteins and were potentially inhibitors of human cytochromes, revealing cardiotoxicity and low endocrine disruption potential. As distinct effects, (R)-TTZ caused skin sensitization, carcinogenicity, and respiratory toxicity. There were no significant differences in the interaction energies of the stereoisomers and soil enzymes, but (S)-TTZ exposed higher interaction energies with plasma proteins and human cytochromes.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Fungicidas Industriais , Poluentes do Solo , Ciclopentanos , Citocromos , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Humanos , Oxirredutases , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triazóis , Urease
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17769, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273015

RESUMO

Net-casting spiders (Deinopidae) comprise a charismatic family with an enigmatic evolutionary history. There are 67 described species of deinopids, placed among three genera, Deinopis, Menneus, and Asianopis, that are distributed globally throughout the tropics and subtropics. Deinopis and Asianopis, the ogre-faced spiders, are best known for their giant light-capturing posterior median eyes (PME), whereas Menneus does not have enlarged PMEs. Molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed discordance between morphology and molecular data. We employed a character-rich ultra-conserved element (UCE) dataset and a taxon-rich cytochrome-oxidase I (COI) dataset to reconstruct a genus-level phylogeny of Deinopidae, aiming to investigate the group's historical biogeography, and examine PME size evolution. Although the phylogenetic results support the monophyly of Menneus and the single reduction of PME size in deinopids, these data also show that Deinopis is not monophyletic. Consequently, we formally transfer 24 Deinopis species to Asianopis; the transfers comprise all of the African, Australian, South Pacific, and a subset of Central American and Mexican species. Following the divergence of Eastern and Western deinopids in the Cretaceous, Deinopis/Asianopis dispersed from Africa, through Asia and into Australia with its biogeographic history reflecting separation of Western Gondwana as well as long-distance dispersal events.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Filogenia , Austrália , Citocromos , Oxirredutases , Evolução Molecular , Teorema de Bayes
9.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(5): H941-H948, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206053

RESUMO

Electronic cigarette use has increased globally prompting calls for improved understanding of nicotine's cardiovascular health effects. Our group has previously demonstrated that chronic, inhaled nicotine induces pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular (RV) remodeling in male mice, but not female mice, suggesting sex differences in nicotine-related pathology. Clinically, biological females develop pulmonary hypertension more often but have less severe disease than biological males, likely because of the cardiopulmonary protective effects of estrogen. Nicotine is also metabolized more rapidly in biological females because of differences in cytochrome-P450 activity, which are thought to be mediated by female sex hormones. These findings led us to hypothesize that female mice are protected against nicotine-induced pulmonary hypertension by an ovarian hormone-dependent mechanism. In this study, intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice were exposed to chronic, inhaled nicotine or room air for 12 h/day for 10-12 wk. We report no differences in serum cotinine levels between intact and OVX mice. In addition, we found no structural (RV or left ventricular dimensions and Fulton index) or functional (RV systolic pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac output, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening) evidence of cardiopulmonary dysfunction in intact or OVX mice. We conclude that ovarian hormones do not mediate cardiopulmonary protection against nicotine-induced pulmonary hypertension. Due to profound sex differences in clinical pulmonary hypertension pathogenesis and nicotine metabolism, further studies are necessary to elucidate mechanisms underlying protection from nicotine-induced pathology in female mice.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The emergence of electronic cigarettes poses a threat to cardiovascular and pulmonary health, but the direct contribution of nicotine to these disease processes is largely unknown. Our laboratory has previously shown that chronic, inhaled nicotine induces pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular remodeling in male mice, but not female mice. This study using a bilateral ovariectomy model suggests that the cardiopulmonary protection observed in nicotine-exposed female mice may be independent of ovarian hormones.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Remodelação Ventricular , Nicotina/farmacologia , Função Ventricular Direita , Cotinina/efeitos adversos , Artéria Pulmonar , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Citocromos/farmacologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/prevenção & controle
10.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 119, 2022 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic analyses for plant pathogenic fungi explore many questions on diversities, relationships, origins, and divergences of populations from different sources such as species, host, and geography. This information is highly valuable, especially from a large global sampling, to understand the evolutionary paths of the pathogens worldwide. Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa are two important fungal pathogens of stone fruits that cause the widespread disease commonly known as brown rot. Three nuclear genes (Calmodulin, SDHA, TEF1α) and three mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome_b, NAD2, and NAD5) of the two pathogen species from a worldwide collection including five different countries from four different continents were studied in this work. RESULTS: Both Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches were applied to the data sets, and in addition, Maximum Parsimony based approaches were used for the regions having indel polymorphisms. Calmodulin, SDHA, NAD2, and NAD5 regions were found phylogenetically informative and utilized for phylogenetics of Monilinia species for the first time. Each gene region presented a set of haplotypes except Cytochrome_b, which was monomorphic. According to this large collection of two Monilinia species around the world, M. fructicola showed more diversity than M. laxa, a result that should be carefully considered, as M. fructicola is known to be a quarantine pathogen. Moreover, the other two mitochondrial genes (NAD2 and NAD5) did not have any substitution type mutations but presented an intron indel polymorphism indicating the contribution of introns as well as mobile introns to the fungal diversity and evolution. Based on the concatenated gene sets, nuclear DNA carries higher mutations and uncovers more phylogenetic clusters in comparison to the mitochondrial DNA-based data for these fungal species. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the most comprehensive knowledge on the phylogenetics of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes of two prominent brown rot pathogens, M. fructicola and M. laxa. Based on the regions used in this study, the nuclear genes resolved phylogenetic branching better than the mitochondrial genes and discovered new phylogenetic lineages for these species.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Doenças das Plantas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Calmodulina/genética , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Citocromos
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 941834, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36263327

RESUMO

Although ovarian sex steroids could have protective roles against colorectal cancer (CRC) in women, little is currently known about their potential anti-tumorigenic effects in men. Hence, this study measured the therapeutic effects of 17ß-oestradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4) against azoxymethane-induced CRC in male mice that were divided into (n = 10 mice/group): negative (NC) and positive (PC) controls, E2 (580 µg/Kg/day; five times/week) and P4 (2.9 mg/Kg/day; five times/week) monotherapies, and concurrent (EP) and sequential (E/P) co-therapy groups. Both hormones were injected intraperitoneally to the designated groups for four consecutive weeks. Similar treatment protocols with E2 (10 nM) and/or P4 (20 nM) were also used in the SW480 and SW620 human male CRC cell lines. The PC group showed abundant colonic tumours alongside increased colonic tissue testosterone levels and androgen (AR) and oestrogen (ERα) receptors, whereas E2 and P4 levels with ERß and progesterone receptor (PGR) decreased significantly compared with the NC group. E2 and P4 monotherapies equally increased ERß/PGR with p21/Cytochrome-C/Caspase-3, reduced testosterone levels, inhibited ERα/AR and CCND1/survivin and promoted apoptosis relative to the PC group. Both co-therapy protocols also revealed better anti-cancer effects with enhanced modulation of colonic sex steroid hormones and their receptors, with E/P the most prominent protocol. In vitro, E/P regimen showed the highest increases in the numbers of SW480 (2.1-fold) and SW620 (3.5-fold) cells in Sub-G1 phase of cell cycle. The E/P co-therapy also disclosed the lowest percentages of viable SW480 cells (2.8-fold), whilst both co-therapy protocols equally showed the greatest SW620 apoptotic cell numbers (5.2-fold) relative to untreated cells. Moreover, both co-therapy regimens revealed maximal inhibitions of cell cycle inducers, cell survival markers, and AR/ERα alongside the highest expression of cell cycle suppressors, pro-apoptotic molecules, and ERß/PGR in both cell lines. In conclusion, CRC was associated with abnormal levels of colonic sex steroid hormones alongside aberrant protein expression of their receptors. While the anti-cancer effects of E2 and P4 monotherapies were equal, their combination protocols showed boosted tumoricidal actions against CRC in males, possibly by promoting ERß and PGR-mediated androgen deprivation together with inhibition of ERα-regulated oncogenic pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Progesterona/farmacologia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Survivina , Androgênios , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Caspase 3 , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Testosterona/farmacologia , Azoximetano , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Citocromos
12.
Nature ; 610(7933): 731-736, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261517

RESUMO

Anaerobic methane oxidation exerts a key control on greenhouse gas emissions1, yet factors that modulate the activity of microorganisms performing this function remain poorly understood. Here we discovered extraordinarily large, diverse DNA sequences that primarily encode hypothetical proteins through studying groundwater, sediments and wetland soil where methane production and oxidation occur. Four curated, complete genomes are linear, up to approximately 1 Mb in length and share genome organization, including replichore structure, long inverted terminal repeats and genome-wide unique perfect tandem direct repeats that are intergenic or generate amino acid repeats. We infer that these are highly divergent archaeal extrachromosomal elements with a distinct evolutionary origin. Gene sequence similarity, phylogeny and local divergence of sequence composition indicate that many of their genes were assimilated from methane-oxidizing Methanoperedens archaea. We refer to these elements as 'Borgs'. We identified at least 19 different Borg types coexisting with Methanoperedens spp. in four distinct ecosystems. Borgs provide methane-oxidizing Methanoperedens archaea access to genes encoding proteins involved in redox reactions and energy conservation (for example, clusters of multihaem cytochromes and methyl coenzyme M reductase). These data suggest that Borgs might have previously unrecognized roles in the metabolism of this group of archaea, which are known to modulate greenhouse gas emissions, but further studies are now needed to establish their functional relevance.


Assuntos
Methanosarcinales , Aminoácidos/genética , Anaerobiose , Citocromos/genética , Citocromos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Methanosarcinales/classificação , Methanosarcinales/genética , Methanosarcinales/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Solo
13.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 721, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homalodisca vitripennis Germar, the glassy-winged sharpshooter, is an invasive insect in California and a critical threat to agriculture through its transmission of the plant pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa. Quarantine, broad-spectrum insecticides, and biological control have been used for population management of H. vitripennis since its invasion and subsequent proliferation throughout California. Recently wide-spread neonicotinoid resistance has been detected in populations of H. vitripennis in the southern portions of California's Central Valley. In order to better understand potential mechanisms of H. vitripennis neonicotinoid resistance, we performed RNA sequencing on wild-caught insecticide-resistant and relatively susceptible sharpshooters to profile their transcriptome and population structure. RESULTS: We identified 81 differentially expressed genes with higher expression in resistant individuals. The significant largest differentially expressed candidate gene linked to resistance status was a cytochrome P450 gene with similarity to CYP6A9. Furthermore, we observed an over-enrichment of GO terms representing functions supportive of roles in resistance mechanisms (cytochrome P450s, M13 peptidases, and cuticle structural proteins). Finally, we saw no evidence of broad-scale population structure, perhaps due to H. vitripennis' relatively recent introduction to California or due to the relatively small geographic scale investigated here. CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of insecticide-resistant and susceptible H. vitripennis and identified candidate genes that may be involved in resistance mechanisms for this species. Future work should seek to build on the transcriptome profiling performed here to confirm the role of the identified genes, particularly the cytochrome P450, in resistance in H. vitripennis. We hope this work helps aid future population management strategies for this and other species with growing insecticide resistance.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Citocromos/genética , Citocromos/metabolismo , Hemípteros/genética , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Transcriptoma
14.
Planta ; 256(6): 102, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282353

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Novel cytochrome P450s, CYP81B140 and CYP81B141 from Plumbago zeylanica were functionally characterized to understand their involvement in polyketide plumbagin biosynthesis. Further, we propose 3-methyl-1-8-naphthalenediol and isoshinanolone as intermediates for plumbagin biosynthesis. Plumbago zeylanica L. (P. zeylanica) is a medicinally important plant belonging to the family Plumbaginaceae. It comprises the most abundant naphthoquinone plumbagin having anti-cancer activity. Only the polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme has been identified from the biosynthetic pathway which catalyzes iterative condensation of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA molecules. The plumbagin biosynthesis involves hydroxylation, oxidation, hydration and dehydration of intermediate compounds which are expected to be catalyzed by cytochrome P450s (CYPs). To identify the CYPs, co-expression analysis was carried out using PKS as a candidate gene. Out of the eight identified CYPs, CYP81B140 and CYP81B141 have similar expression with PKS and belong to the CYP81 family. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that CYP81B140 and CYP81B141 cluster with CYPs from CYP81B, CYP81D, CYP81E and CYP81AA subfamilies which are known to be involved in the hydroxylation and oxidation reactions. Moreover, artificial microRNA-mediated transient individual silencing and co-silencing of CYP81B140 and CYP81B141 significantly reduced plumbagin and increased the 3-methyl-1-8-naphthalenediol and isoshinanolone content. Based on metabolite analysis, we proposed that 3-methyl-1-8-naphthalenediol and isoshinanolone function as intermediates for plumbagin biosynthesis. Transient silencing, over-expression and docking analysis revealed that CYP81B140 is involved in C-1 oxidation, C-4 hydroxylation and [C2-C3] hydration of 3-methyl-1-8-naphthalenediol to form isoshinanolone, whereas CYP81B141 is catalyzing [C2-C3] dehydration and C-4 oxidation of isoshinanolone to form plumbagin. Our results indicated that both CYP81B140 and CYP81B141 are promiscuous and necessary for plumbagin biosynthesis. This is the first report of identification and functional characterization of P. zeylanica-specific CYPs involved in plumbagin biosynthetic pathway and in general hexaketide synthesis in plants.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Naftoquinonas , Plumbaginaceae , Policetídeos , Plumbaginaceae/genética , Plumbaginaceae/metabolismo , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Filogenia , Acetilcoenzima A , Desidratação , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Naftoquinonas/metabolismo , Genômica , Citocromos
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142240

RESUMO

For the design of next-generation tuberculosis chemotherapy, insight into bacterial defence against drugs is required. Currently, targeting respiration has attracted strong attention for combatting drug-resistant mycobacteria. Q203 (telacebec), an inhibitor of the cytochrome bcc complex in the mycobacterial respiratory chain, is currently evaluated in phase-2 clinical trials. Q203 has bacteriostatic activity against M. tuberculosis, which can be converted to bactericidal activity by concurrently inhibiting an alternative branch of the mycobacterial respiratory chain, cytochrome bd. In contrast, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium smegmatis, show only very little sensitivity to Q203. In this report, we investigated factors that M. smegmatis employs to adapt to Q203 in the presence or absence of a functional cytochrome bd, especially regarding its terminal oxidases. In the presence of a functional cytochrome bd, M. smegmatis responds to Q203 by increasing the expression of cytochrome bcc as well as of cytochrome bd, whereas a M. smegmatisbd-KO strain adapted to Q203 by increasing the expression of cytochrome bcc. Interestingly, single-cell studies revealed cell-to-cell variability in drug adaptation. We also investigated the role of a putative second cytochrome bd isoform postulated for M. smegmatis. Although this putative isoform showed differential expression in response to Q203 in the M. smegmatisbd-KO strain, it did not display functional features similar to the characterised cytochrome bd variant.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Citocromos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imidazóis , Mycobacterium smegmatis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Piperidinas , Piridinas , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142441

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known and effective antineoplastic agent of the anthracycline family. But, multiple organ toxicities compromise its invaluable therapeutic usage. Among many toxicity types, nephrotoxicity is one of the major concerns. In recent years many approaches, including bioactive agents of natural origin, have been explored to provide protective effects against chemotherapy-related complications. α-Bisabolol is a naturally occurring monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol identified in the essential oils of various aromatic plants and possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, cardioprotective, antibiotic, anti-irritant, and anticancer activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of α-Bisabolol on DOX-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar male albino rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats by injecting a single dose of DOX (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and the test compound, α-Bisabolol (25 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally along with DOX as a co-treatment daily for 5 days. DOX-injected rats showed reduction in body weight along with a concomitant fall in antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation in the kidney. DOX-injection also increased levels/expressions of proinflammatory cytokines namely tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and inflammatory mediators like inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling in the kidney tissues. DOX also triggered apoptotic cell death, evidenced by the increased expression of pro-apoptotic markers like BCL2-Associated X Protein (Bax), cleaved caspase-3, caspase- 9, and cytochrome-C) and a decrease in the expressions of anti-apoptotic markers namely B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) in the kidney. These biochemical alterations were additionally supported by light microscopic findings, which revealed structural alterations in the kidney. However, treatment with α-Bisabolol prevented body weight loss, restored antioxidants, mitigated lipid peroxidation, and inhibited the rise in proinflammatory cytokines, as well as favorably modulated the expressions of NF-κB/MAPK signaling and apoptosis markers in DOX-induced nephrotoxicity. Based on the results observed, it can be concluded that α-Bisabolol has potential to attenuate DOX-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation mediated activation of NF-κB/MAPK signaling alongwith intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in rats. The study findings are suggestive of protective potential of α-Bisabolol in DOX associated nephrotoxicity and this could be potentially useful in minimizing the adverse effects of DOX and may be a potential agent or adjuvant for renal protection.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocromos/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Mediadores da Inflamação/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
17.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145089

RESUMO

Melanogenesis is the process of melanin synthesis to protect the skin against ultraviolet radiation and other external stresses. The loss of skin pigmentation is closely related to depigmented skin disorders. The melanogenic effects of pinostrobin, an active flavanone found in honey, were evaluated. B16F10 cells were used for melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and the expression of melanogenesis-related markers. Moreover, computational simulations were performed to predict docking and pharmacokinetics. Pinostrobin increased melanin levels and tyrosinase activity by stimulating the expression of melanogenic regulatory factors including tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) 1 and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF). Specifically, the phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) involved in the MITF activation was augmented by pinostrobin. Moreover, the compound upregulated the ß-catenin by cAMP/PKA-mediated GSK-3ß inactivation. Co-treatment with a PKA inhibitor, inhibited melanin production, tyrosinase activity, and expression of MITF, p-CREB, p-GSK-3ß and p-ß-catenin, demonstrating that pinostrobin-stimulated melanogenesis was closely related to cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Furthermore, the combination of pinostrobin and a specific p38 inhibitor, showed that MITF upregulation by pinostrobin was partly associated with the p38 signaling pathway. Docking simulation exhibited that the oxygen group at C-4 and the hydroxyl group at C-5 of pinostrobin may play an essential role in melanogenesis. In silico analysis revealed that pinostrobin had the optimal pharmacokinetic profiles including gastrointestinal absorption, skin permeability, and inhibition of cytochrome (CYP) enzymes. From the present results, it might be suggested that pinostrobin could be useful as a potent and safe melanogenic agent in the depigmentation disorder, vitiligo.


Assuntos
Flavanonas , Melaninas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocromos/metabolismo , Citocromos/farmacologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Raios Ultravioleta , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
18.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080381

RESUMO

Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. The causative of the most severe forms of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has developed resistances against all the available antimalarial drugs. In the present study, the phytochemical investigation of the green seaweed Halimeda macroloba has afforded two new compounds 1-2, along with 4 known ones 3-6. The structures of the compounds had been confirmed using 1& 2D-NMR and HRESIMS analyses. Extensive machine-learning-supported virtual-screening suggested cytochrome-C enzyme as a potential target for compound 2. Docking, absolute-binding-free-energy (ΔGbinding) and molecular-dynamics-simulation (MDS) of compound 2 revealed the strong binding interaction of this compound with cytochrome-C. In vitro testing for crude extract and isolated compounds revealed the potential in vitro inhibitory activity of both extract and compound 2 against P. falciparum. The crude extract was able to inhibit the parasite growth with an IC50 value of 1.8 ± 0.35 µg/mL. Compound 2 also showed good inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 3.2 ± 0.23 µg/mL. Meanwhile, compound 6 showed moderate inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 19.3 ± 0.51 µg/mL. Accordingly, the scaffold of compound 2 can be considered as a good lead compound for the future development of new antimalarial agents.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Alga Marinha , Antimaláricos/química , Citocromos , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plasmodium falciparum
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010840, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166467

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis causes giardiasis, a major diarrheal disease in humans worldwide whose treatment relies mainly on metronidazole (MTZ) and albendazole (ABZ). The emergence of ABZ resistance in this parasite has prompted studies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. G. duodenalis trophozoites convert ABZ into its sulfoxide (ABZSO) and sulfone (ABZSOO) forms, despite lacking canonical enzymes involved in these processes, such as cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs). This study aims to identify the enzyme responsible for ABZ metabolism and its role in ABZ resistance in G. duodenalis. We first determined that the iron-containing cofactor heme induces higher mRNA expression levels of flavohemoglobin (gFlHb) in Giardia trophozoites. Molecular docking analyses predict favorable interactions of gFlHb with ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSOO. Spectral analyses of recombinant gFlHb in the presence of ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSOO showed high affinities for each of these compounds with Kd values of 22.7, 19.1 and 23.8 nM respectively. ABZ and ABZSO enhanced gFlHb NADH oxidase activity (turnover number 14.5 min-1), whereas LC-MS/MS analyses of the reaction products showed that gFlHb slowly oxygenates ABZ into ABZSO at a much lower rate (turnover number 0.01 min-1). Further spectroscopic analyses showed that ABZ is indirectly oxidized to ABZSO by superoxide generated from the NADH oxidase activity of gFlHb. In a similar manner, the superoxide-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase was able to produce ABZSO in the presence of xanthine and ABZ. Interestingly, we find that gFlHb mRNA expression is lower in albendazole-resistant clones compared to those that are sensitive to this drug. Furthermore, all albendazole-resistant clones transfected to overexpress gFlHb displayed higher susceptibility to the drug than the parent clones. Collectively these findings indicate a role for gFlHb in ABZ conversion to its sulfoxide and that gFlHb down-regulation acts as a passive pharmacokinetic mechanism of resistance in this parasite.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Giardia lamblia , Albendazol/química , Albendazol/farmacocinética , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Biotransformação , Cromatografia Líquida , Citocromos/metabolismo , Flavinas/metabolismo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/metabolismo , Heme/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sulfonas , Sulfóxidos/metabolismo , Superóxidos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Trofozoítos/metabolismo , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo , Xantinas
20.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(8): 720-730, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171653

RESUMO

Cytochrome bd-II is one of the three terminal quinol oxidases of the aerobic respiratory chain of Escherichia coli. Preparations of the detergent-solubilized untagged bd-II oxidase isolated from the bacterium were shown to scavenge hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with high rate producing molecular oxygen (O2). Addition of H2O2 to the same buffer that does not contain enzyme or contains thermally denatured cytochrome bd-II does not lead to any O2 production. The latter observation rules out involvement of adventitious transition metals bound to the protein. The H2O2-induced O2 production is not susceptible to inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide (the sulfhydryl binding compound), antimycin A (the compound that binds specifically to a quinol binding site), and CO (diatomic gas that binds specifically to the reduced heme d). However, O2 formation is inhibited by cyanide (IC50 = 4.5 ± 0.5 µM) and azide. Addition of H2O2 in the presence of dithiothreitol and ubiquinone-1 does not inactivate cytochrome bd-II and apparently does not affect the O2 reductase activity of the enzyme. The ability of cytochrome bd-II to detoxify H2O2 could play a role in bacterial physiology by conferring resistance to the peroxide-mediated stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Antimicina A/metabolismo , Azidas/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Cianetos/metabolismo , Grupo dos Citocromos b/metabolismo , Citocromos/metabolismo , Detergentes , Ditiotreitol/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Etilmaleimida/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidroquinonas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
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