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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2829: 267-270, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951342

RESUMO

There are many methods that can be used to determine the infectious titer of your baculovirus stock. The TCID50 method is a simple end-point dilution method that determines the amount of baculovirus virus needed to produce a cytopathic effect or kill 50% of inoculated insect cells. Serial dilutions of baculovirus stock are added to Sf9 cells cultivated in 96-well plates and 3-5 days after infection, cells are monitored for cell death or cytopathic effect. The titer can then be calculated by the Reed-Muench method as described in this method.


Assuntos
Baculoviridae , Baculoviridae/genética , Animais , Células Sf9 , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Spodoptera/virologia , Carga Viral/métodos , Linhagem Celular
2.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(8): 345, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976047

RESUMO

Neurological complications, both acute and chronic, are reported commonly in COVID-19 affected individuals. In this context, the understanding of pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in specific cells of central nervous system (CNS) origin is relevant. The present study explores infection biology of a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 in human cell lines of neural origin such as the glioblastoma (U87-MG), neuroblastoma (SHSY5Y) and microglia (C20). Despite showing clear evidence of infection by immunofluorescence with an anti-spike protein antibody, all the three neural cell lines were observed to be highly restrictive to the replication of the infecting virus. While the U87-MG glioblastoma cells demonstrated no cytopathic effects and a low viral titre with no signs of replication, the SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells exhibited cytopathic effects with bleb formation but no evidence of viable virus. The C20 microglial cells showed neither signs of cytopathic effects nor viable virus. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated intracellular virions in infected neural cells. The presence of lipid droplets in infected SHSY5Y cells suggested an impact on host cell metabolism. The decrease in viral RNA levels over time in all the neural cell lines suggested restricted viral replication. In conclusion, this study highlights the limited susceptibility of neural cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This reduced permissibility of neural cell lines to SARS-CoV-2 may point to their inherent lower expression of receptors that support viral entry in addition to the intracellular factors that potently inhibit viral replication. The study findings prompt further investigation into the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection of neural cells.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microglia , Neuroglia , Neurônios , SARS-CoV-2 , Replicação Viral , Humanos , Microglia/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Neurônios/virologia , COVID-19/virologia , Neuroglia/virologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linhagem Celular , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2813: 117-123, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38888774

RESUMO

The emergence of zoonotic viruses like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 have significantly impacted global health and economy. The discovery of other viruses in wildlife reservoir species present a threat for future emergence in humans and animals. Therefore, assays that are less reliant on virus-specific information, such as neutralization assays, are crucial to rapidly develop diagnostics, understand virus replication and pathogenicity, and assess the efficacy of therapeutics against newly emerging viruses. Here, we describe the discontinuous median tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) assay to quantitatively determine the titer of any virus that can produce a visible cytopathic effect in infected cells.


Assuntos
Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Animais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , COVID-19/virologia , Células Vero , Replicação Viral , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos
4.
Arch Virol ; 169(6): 133, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829449

RESUMO

Akabane virus (AKAV), Aino virus, Peaton virus, Sathuperi virus, and Shamonda virus are arthropod-borne viruses belonging to the order Elliovirales, family Peribunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. These viruses cause or may cause congenital malformations in ruminants, including hydranencephaly, poliomyelitis, and arthrogryposis, although their pathogenicity may vary among field cases. AKAV may cause relatively severe congenital lesions such as hydranencephaly in calves. Furthermore, strains of AKAV genogroups I and II exhibit different disease courses. Genogroup I strains predominantly cause postnatal viral encephalomyelitis, while genogroup II strains are primarily detected in cases of congenital malformation. However, the biological properties of AKAV and other orthobunyaviruses are insufficiently investigated in hosts in the field and in vitro. Here, we used an immortalized bovine brain cell line (FBBC-1) to investigate viral replication efficiency, cytopathogenicity, and host innate immune responses. AKAV genogroup II and Shamonda virus replicated to higher titers in FBBC-1 cells compared with the other viruses, and only AKAV caused cytopathic effects. These results may be associated with the severe congenital lesions in the brain caused by AKAV genogroup II. AKAV genogroup II strains replicated to higher titers in FBBC-1 cells than AKAV genogroup I strains, suggesting that genogroup II strains replicated more efficiently in fetal brain cells, accounting for the detection of the latter strains mainly in fetal infection cases. Therefore, FBBC-1 cells may serve as a valuable tool for investigating the virulence and tropism of the orthobunyaviruses for bovine neonatal brain tissues in vitro.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Orthobunyavirus , Replicação Viral , Animais , Bovinos , Orthobunyavirus/patogenicidade , Orthobunyavirus/genética , Orthobunyavirus/fisiologia , Orthobunyavirus/classificação , Encéfalo/virologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Feto/virologia , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Imunidade Inata
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5112, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879641

RESUMO

Virus infectivity is traditionally determined by endpoint titration in cell cultures, and requires complex processing steps and human annotation. Here we developed an artificial intelligence (AI)-powered automated framework for ready detection of virus-induced cytopathic effect (DVICE). DVICE uses the convolutional neural network EfficientNet-B0 and transmitted light microscopy images of infected cell cultures, including coronavirus, influenza virus, rhinovirus, herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, and adenovirus. DVICE robustly measures virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPE), as shown by class activation mapping. Leave-one-out cross-validation in different cell types demonstrates high accuracy for different viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 in human saliva. Strikingly, DVICE exhibits virus class specificity, as shown with adenovirus, herpesvirus, rhinovirus, vaccinia virus, and SARS-CoV-2. In sum, DVICE provides unbiased infectivity scores of infectious agents causing CPE, and can be adapted to laboratory diagnostics, drug screening, serum neutralization or clinical samples.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Microscopia , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Microscopia/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Animais , Vaccinia virus/fisiologia , Vaccinia virus/patogenicidade , Saliva/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Vero , Rhinovirus/patogenicidade , Rhinovirus/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1380736, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716191

RESUMO

Introduction: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is associated with acute clinical manifestations and chronic joint inflammation. CHIKV has emerged as a significant causative agent of central nervous system (CNS) complications, including encephalitis and related sequelae. Microglial cells, crucial for immune responses and tissue repair in the CNS, play a vital role in the host response to viral infections, with their activation potentially leading to either protection or pathology. In this study, the infection biology of CHIKV in the C20 human microglial cell line was investigated. Methods: The permissiveness of C20 cells to CHIKV infection was assessed, and viral replication kinetics were compared to Vero E6 cells. Cytopathic effects of CHIKV infection on C20 cells were examined, along with ultrastructural changes using transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, apoptosis induction, mitochondrial membrane potential, and alterations in cell surface marker expression were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results: CHIKV infection demonstrated permissiveness in C20 cells, similar to Vero cells, resulting in robust viral replication and cytopathic effects. Ultrastructural analysis revealed viral replication, mature virion formation, and distinctive cytoplasmic and nuclear changes in infected C20 cells. CHIKV infection induced significant apoptosis in C20 cells, accompanied by mitochondrial membrane depolarization and altered expression of cell surface markers such as CD11c, CD14, and HLA-DR. Notably, decreased CD14 expression was observed in CHIKV-infected C20 cells. Discussion: The study findings suggest that CHIKV infection induces apoptosis in C20 microglial cells via the mitochondrial pathway, with significant alterations in cell surface marker expression, particularly CD14 that is linked with apoptosis induction. These observations provide valuable insights into the role of human microglial cells in the host response to CHIKV infection and contribute to the knowledge on the neuropathogenesis of this virus.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Microglia , Mitocôndrias , Replicação Viral , Microglia/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animais , Células Vero , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral
7.
Virol J ; 21(1): 120, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) has caused significant economic losses in the global swine industry. As a potential drug for treating diarrhea, the antiviral properties of attapulgite deserve further study. METHODS: In this study, various methods such as RT-qPCR, Western blot, viral titer assay, Cytopathic Effect, immunofluorescence analysis and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect the antiviral activity of attapulgite and to assess its inhibitory effect on PEDV. RESULTS: When exposed to the same amount of virus, there was a significant decrease in the expression of the S protein, resulting in a viral titer reduction from 10-5.613 TCID50/mL to 10-2.90 TCID50/mL, which represents a decrease of approximately 102.6 folds. Results of cytopathic effect and indirect immunofluorescence also indicate a notable decrease in viral infectivity after attapulgite treatment. Additionally, it was observed that modified materials after acidification had weaker antiviral efficacy compared to powdered samples that underwent ultrasonic disintegration, which showed the strongest antiviral effects. CONCLUSION: As a result, Attapulgite powders can trap and adsorb viruses to inhibit PEDV in vitro, leading to loss of viral infectivity. This study provides new materials for the development of novel disinfectants and antiviral additives.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Compostos de Silício , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Compostos de Silício/farmacologia , Compostos de Silício/química , Chlorocebus aethiops , Compostos de Magnésio/farmacologia , Suínos , Células Vero , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
8.
Virol J ; 21(1): 95, 2024 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a major threat to pig production and the lack of effective vaccines underscores the need to develop robust antiviral countermeasures. Pathologically, a significant elevation in pro-inflammatory cytokine production is associated with ASFV infection in pigs and there is high interest in identifying dual-acting natural compounds that exhibit antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. METHODS: Using the laboratory-adapted ASFV BA71V strain, we screened a library of 297 natural, anti-inflammatory compounds to identify promising candidates that protected Vero cells against virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE). Virus yield reduction, virucidal, and cell cytotoxicity experiments were performed on positive hits and two lead compounds were further characterized in dose-dependent assays along with time-of-addition, time-of-removal, virus entry, and viral protein synthesis assays. The antiviral effects of the two lead compounds on mitigating virulent ASFV infection in porcine macrophages (PAMs) were also tested using similar methods, and the ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production during virulent ASFV infection was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The screen identified five compounds that inhibited ASFV-induced CPE by greater than 50% and virus yield reduction experiments showed that two of these compounds, tetrandrine and berbamine, exhibited particularly high levels of anti-ASFV activity. Mechanistic analysis confirmed that both compounds potently inhibited early stages of ASFV infection and that the compounds also inhibited infection of PAMs by the virulent ASFV Arm/07 isolate. Importantly, during ASFV infection in PAM cells, both compounds markedly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in disease pathogenesis while tetrandrine had a greater and more sustained anti-inflammatory effect than berbamine. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings support that dual-acting natural compounds with antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties hold promise as preventative and therapeutic agents to combat ASFV infection by simultaneously inhibiting viral replication and reducing virus-induced cytokine production.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antivirais , Animais , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/fisiologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Suínos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Vero , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/virologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Virol ; 98(2): e0188023, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38226812

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the family Flaviviridae and includes two biotypes in cell culture: cytopathic (CP) or non-cytopathic (NCP) effects. Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death that contributes to inflammatory diseases. However, whether BVDV induces ferroptosis and the role of ferroptosis in viral infection remain unclear. Here, we provide evidence that both CP and NCP BVDV can induce ferroptosis in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells at similar rate. Mechanistically, biotypes of BVDV infection downregulate cytoplasmic and mitochondrial GPX4 via Nrf2-GPX4 pathway, thereby resulting in lethal lipid peroxidation and promoting ferroptosis. In parallel, BVDV can degrade ferritin heavy chain and mitochondrial ferritin via NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy to promote the accumulation of Fe2+ and initiate ferroptosis. Importantly, CP BVDV-induced ferroptosis is tightly associated with serious damage of mitochondria and hyperactivation of inflammatory responses. In contrast, mild or unapparent damage of mitochondria and slight inflammatory responses were detected in NCP BVDV-infected cells. More importantly, different mitophagy pathways in response to mitochondria damage by both biotypes of BVDV are involved in inflammatory responses. Overall, this study is the first to show that mitochondria may play key roles in mediating ferroptosis and inflammatory responses induced by biotypes of BVDV in vitro.IMPORTANCEBovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) threatens a wide range of domestic and wild cattle population worldwide. BVDV causes great economic loss in cattle industry through its immunosuppression and persistent infection. Despite extensive research, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BVDV remains elusive. Our data provide the first direct evidence that mitochondria-mediated ferroptosis and mitophagy are involved in inflammatory responses in both biotypes of BVDV-infected cells. Importantly, we demonstrate that the different degrees of injury of mitochondria and inflammatory responses may attribute to different mitophagy pathways induced by biotypes of BVDV. Overall, our findings uncover the interaction between BVDV infection and mitochondria-mediated ferroptosis, which shed novel light on the physiological impacts of ferroptosis on the pathogenesis of BVDV infection, and provide a promising therapeutic strategy to treat this important infectious disease with a worldwide distribution.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Ferroptose , Mitocôndrias , Animais , Bovinos , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/patologia , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia
10.
Subcell Biochem ; 106: 197-210, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38159228

RESUMO

The cytopathic effect comprises the set of cellular alterations produced by a viral infection. It is of great relevance since it constitutes a direct marker of infection. Likewise, these alterations are often virus-specific which makes them a phenotypic marker for many viral species. All these characteristics have been used to complement the study of the dynamics of virus-cell interactions through the kinetic study of the progression of damage produced by the infection. Various approaches have been used to monitor the cytopathic effect, ranging from light microscopy, immunofluorescence assays, and direct labeling with fluorescent dyes, to plaque assay for the characterization of the infection over time. Here we address the relevance of the study of cytopathic effect and describe different experimental alternatives for its application.


Assuntos
Vírus , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(16)2023 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37629202

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative genetic disorder caused by an expanded polyglutamine-coding (CAG) trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. HD behaves as a highly penetrant dominant disorder likely acting through a toxic gain of function by the mutant huntingtin protein. Widespread cellular degeneration of the medium spiny neurons of the caudate nucleus and putamen are responsible for the onset of symptomology that encompasses motor, cognitive, and behavioural abnormalities. Over the past 150 years of HD research since George Huntington published his description, a plethora of pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed with key themes including excitotoxicity, dopaminergic imbalance, mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic defects, disruption of proteostasis, transcriptional dysregulation, and neuroinflammation. Despite the identification and characterisation of the causative gene and mutation and significant advances in our understanding of the cellular pathology in recent years, a disease-modifying intervention has not yet been clinically approved. This review includes an overview of Huntington's disease, from its genetic aetiology to clinical presentation and its pathogenic manifestation. An updated view of molecular mechanisms and the latest therapeutic developments will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Heredodegenerativos do Sistema Nervoso , Doença de Huntington , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/genética , Doença de Huntington/terapia , Núcleo Caudado , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Dopamina , Proteínas Mutantes
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2682: 87-92, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37610575

RESUMO

Spillovers of Nipah virus (NiV) from its pteropid bat reservoir into the human population continue to cause near-annual outbreaks of fatal encephalitis and respiratory disease in Bangladesh and India since its emergence in Malaysia over 20 years ago. The current lack of effective antiviral therapeutics against NiV merits further testing of compound libraries against NiV using rapid quantitative antiviral assays. The development of recombinant henipaviruses expressing reporter fluorescence and/or luminescence proteins has facilitated the screening of such libraries. In this chapter, we provide a basic protocol for both types of reporter viruses. Utilizing these live NiV-based reporter assays requires modest instrumentation and sidesteps the labor-intensive steps associated with traditional cytopathic effect or viral antigen-based assays.


Assuntos
Henipavirus , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Surtos de Doenças
13.
J Med Virol ; 95(7): e28911, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37394805

RESUMO

Mpox (previously known as Monkeypox) has recently re-emerged, primarily through human-to-human transmission in non-endemic countries including India. Virus isolation is still considered as the gold standard for diagnosis of viral infections. Here, the qPCR positive skin lesion sample from a patient was inoculated in Vero E6 cell monolayer. Characteristic cytopathic effect exhibiting typical cell rounding and detachment was observed at passage-02. The virus isolation was confirmed by qPCR. The replication kinetics of the isolate was determined that revealed maximum viral titre of log 6.3 PFU/mL at 72 h postinfection. Further, whole genome analysis through next generation sequencing revealed that the Mpox virus (MPXV) isolate is characterized by several unique SNPs and INDELs. Phylogenetically, it belonged to A.2 lineage of clade IIb, forming a close group with all other Indian MPXV along with few from USA, UK, Portugal, Thailand and Nigeria. This study reports the first successful isolation and phenotypic and genotypic characterization of MPXV from India.


Assuntos
Monkeypox virus , Humanos , Povo Asiático , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Genótipo , Índia , Monkeypox virus/genética , Monkeypox virus/isolamento & purificação , Monkeypox virus/patogenicidade , População do Sul da Ásia , Mpox/diagnóstico , Mpox/genética , Mpox/fisiopatologia , Mpox/virologia
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 847106, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911725

RESUMO

Within the family Herpesviridae, sub-family ß-herpesvirinae, and genus Roseolovirus, there are only three human herpesviruses that have been described: HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7. Initially, HHV-6A and HHV-6B were considered as two variants of the same virus (i.e., HHV6). Despite high overall genetic sequence identity (~90%), HHV-6A and HHV-6B are now recognized as two distinct viruses. Sequence divergence (e.g., >30%) in key coding regions and significant differences in physiological and biochemical profiles (e.g., use of different receptors for viral entry) underscore the conclusion that HHV-6A and HHV-6B are distinct viruses of the ß-herpesvirinae. Despite these viruses being implicated as causative agents in several nervous system disorders (e.g., multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and chronic fatigue syndrome), the mechanisms of action and relative contributions of each virus to neurological dysfunction are unclear. Unresolved questions regarding differences in cell tropism, receptor use and binding affinity (i.e., CD46 versus CD134), host neuro-immunological responses, and relative virulence between HHV-6A versus HHV-6B prevent a complete characterization. Although it has been shown that both HHV-6A and HHV-6B can infect glia (and, recently, cerebellar Purkinje cells), cell tropism of HHV-6A versus HHV-6B for different nerve cell types remains vague. In this study, we show that both viruses can infect different nerve cell types (i.e., glia versus neurons) and different neurotransmitter phenotypes derived from differentiated human neural stem cells. As demonstrated by immunofluorescence, HHV-6A and HHV-6B productively infect VGluT1-containing cells (i.e., glutamatergic neurons) and dopamine-containing cells (i.e., dopaminergic neurons). However, neither virus appears to infect GAD67-containing cells (i.e., GABAergic neurons). As determined by qPCR, expression of immunological factors (e.g., cytokines) in cells infected with HHV-6A versus HHV6-B also differs. These data along with morphometric and image analyses of infected differentiated neural stem cell cultures indicate that while HHV-6B may have greater opportunity for transmission, HHV-6A induces more severe cytopathic effects (e.g., syncytia) at the same post-infection end points. Cumulatively, results suggest that HHV-6A is more virulent than HHV-6B in susceptible cells, while neither virus productively infects GABAergic cells. Consistency between these in vitro data and in vivo experiments would provide new insights into potential mechanisms for HHV6-induced epileptogenesis.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Humano 6 , Células-Tronco Neurais , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Herpesvirus Humano 6/fisiologia , Humanos , Internalização do Vírus
15.
Virol J ; 19(1): 134, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) of the pestivirus genus is an economically crippling virus in the cattle industry; this positive RNA virus causes mucosal disease resulting in reproductive losses and other disease syndromes. The pathogenesis mechanism of the disease caused by BVDV infection is not well understood; for a better understanding of in vivo host BVDV-1 interactions, we conducted a transcriptomic study of infected cells at different times post-infection. METHODS: We compared the permissiveness and cellular response of a BVDV-1 cytopathogenic strain on Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells (MDBK) and bovine lung primary cells, a model closer to in vivo infection. Then a RNAseq analysis was realized on the infected bovine lung primary cells, at 10 hpi and 30 hpi (hours post-infection), to identify transcriptomic signatures. RESULTS: RNAseq analysis on BVDV-1 infected bovine primary cells showed 2,759 and 5,376 differentially expressed genes at respectively 10 hpi and 30 hpi with an absolute Fold Change ≥ 2. Among the different pathways deregulated, data analysis revealed a deregulation of Wnt signaling pathway, a conserved process that play a critical role in embryogenesis, cellular proliferation, and differentiation as well as in viral responses against viruses such as Influenza or Hepatitis C. We demonstrated here that the deregulation of the Wnt/ßcatenin signaling pathway plays a role in viral replication of BVDV cp strain. Interestingly, we showed that the inhibition of this Wnt pathway using two inhibitors, FZM1 and iCRT14, induced a delay in onset of the establishment of a cytopathic effect of primary cells. CONCLUSIONS: Thereby, this study highlighted a role of the Wnt signaling pathway in the BVDV-1 viral replication in bovine cells, suggesting an interesting option to explore as a new therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Animais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/genética , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/genética , Replicação Viral/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
16.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746627

RESUMO

In-vitro viral studies are still fundamental for biomedical research since studying the virus kinetics on cells is crucial for the determination of the biological properties of viruses and for screening the inhibitors of infections. Moreover, testing potential viral contaminants is often mandatory for safety evaluation. Nowadays, viral cytopathic effects are mainly evaluated through end-point assays requiring dye-staining combined with optical evaluation. Recently, optical-based automatized equipment has been marketed, aimed at the real-time screening of cell-layer status and obtaining further insights, which are unavailable with end-point assays. However, these technologies present two huge limitations, namely, high costs and the possibility to study only cytopathic viruses, whose effects lead to plaque formation and layer disruption. Here, we employed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (Pedot:Pss) organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) for the real-time, electrical monitoring of the infection of cytolytic viruses, i.e., encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and non-cytolytic viruses, i.e., bovine coronavirus (B-CoV), on cells. OECT data on EMCV were validated using a commercially-available optical-based technology, which, however, failed in the B-CoV titration analysis, as expected. The OECTs proved to be reliable, fast, and versatile devices for viral infection monitoring, which could be scaled up at low cost, reducing the operator workload and speeding up in-vitro assays in the biomedical research field.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral
17.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746747

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the Flaviviridae family and the Pestivirus genus. Infection with BVDV causes a disease with a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, most often mild, although infections with this virus constitute a serious economic problem all over the world. The virus is characterized by a high genetic variability, while the accumulation of single mutations leads to the formation of its new variants. The aim of this study was to better understand the complicated pathogenesis of this disease at the molecular level via the analysis of the transcriptome of cells infected with this virus. The bovine kidney cell line (MDBK), the cytopathic (cp) reference strain, and two non-cytopathic (ncp) BVD virus field strains were used in transcriptomic studies. The cell transcriptome was tested 24 and 72 h after infection. The results of the microarray analysis revealed changes in the expression levels of numerous genes. Genes with changed expression as a result of infection with the cp strain caused changes in the expression levels of a large number of genes and enriched a number of pathways. Genes with increased expression levels were enriched among other pathways involved in the cell cycle, while genes with reduced expression levels enriched pathways mostly related to metabolism. Genes with increased expression levels as a result of infection with ncp strains enriched a much smaller number of pathways, among them, pathways related to signaling activity 24 h post-infection and serine biosynthetic pathways both 24 and 72 h post-infection. Pathways enriched by genes with reduced expression levels were related to the innate immune response (72 h post-infection) or metabolism (24 and 72 h post-infection). The results of microarray studies can help us to better understand the host's response to BVDV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1 , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Diarreia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/genética , Humanos , Transcriptoma
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 131-146, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554905

RESUMO

A number of viral quantification methods are used to measure the concentration of infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While the traditional plaque-based assay allows for direct enumeration of replication competent lytic virions and remains the gold standard for the quantification of infectious virus, the 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) endpoint dilution assay allows for a more rapid, large-scale analysis of experimental samples. In this chapter, we describe a well-established TCID50 assay protocol to measure the SARS-CoV-2 infectious titer in viral stocks, in vitro cell or organoid models, and animal tissue. We also present alternative assays for scoring the cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture and comparable methods to calculate the 50% endpoint by serial dilution.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Animais , Bioensaio/métodos , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458434

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) clinical manifestations include the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting around 10% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected children. In the present work, the consequence of a short time of viral absorption (5, 15, 30 and 60 min) was tested on the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line. Our findings show that Caco-2 cells are highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even after 5 min of viral inoculation at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1. No cytopathic effect was evident during the subsequent 7 days of monitoring; nevertheless, the immunofluorescence staining for the viral nucleocapsid confirmed the presence of intracellular SARS-CoV-2. Our findings highlight the very short time during which SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect these cells in vitro.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Células CACO-2 , Criança , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1178, 2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246509

RESUMO

Recently emerged variants of SARS-CoV-2 contain in their surface spike glycoproteins multiple substitutions associated with increased transmission and resistance to neutralising antibodies. We have examined the structure and receptor binding properties of spike proteins from the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.351 (Beta) variants to better understand the evolution of the virus in humans. Spikes of both variants have the same mutation, N501Y, in the receptor-binding domains. This substitution confers tighter ACE2 binding, dependent on the common earlier substitution, D614G. Each variant spike has acquired other key changes in structure that likely impact virus pathogenesis. The spike from the Alpha variant is more stable against disruption upon binding ACE2 receptor than all other spikes studied. This feature is linked to the acquisition of a more basic substitution at the S1-S2 furin site (also observed for the variants of concern Delta, Kappa, and Omicron) which allows for near-complete cleavage. In the Beta variant spike, the presence of a new substitution, K417N (also observed in the Omicron variant), in combination with the D614G, stabilises a more open spike trimer, a conformation required for receptor binding. Our observations suggest ways these viruses have evolved to achieve greater transmissibility in humans.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/ultraestrutura , Sítios de Ligação/genética , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral/genética , Evolução Molecular , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
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