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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(9): e0010628, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is endemic in Palestine and transmitted by Phlebotomus sand flies. They inhabit dens of hyraxes, the reservoir animal. Control measures were implemented since 1996 but cases still occur. We estimated the effect of insecticide thermal fogging inside hyrax dens on sand fly density and leishmania infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During July-September 2019, we conducted a 12-week controlled interrupted time series study in two control and one intervention sites containing three hyrax dens each. We implemented Permethrin thermal fogging in the intervention site at week 6. We measured weekly and 36hrs post-intervention sand fly abundance inside dens using CDC light traps. We performed Next-Generation Sequencing to identify sand fly Leishmania spp. infection. We calculated the abundance reduction (AR) using Mulla's formula and negative binomial regression. Among 11427 collected sand flies, 7339 (64%) were females and 1786 (16%) were Phlebotomus spp. comprising ten species; P. sergenti was the dominant (n = 773, 43%). We report P. arabicus (n = 6) for the first time in Palestine. After fogging, Phlebotomus spp. AR was 93% at 36hrs, 18% and 38% at two and five weeks respectively and 41% during the complete post-intervention period. In the regression models, Phlebotomus spp. density in the intervention site decreased by 74% (IRR: 0.26, 95%CI: 0.11-0.57) at two weeks, 34% (IRR: 0.66, 95%CI: 0.48-0.90) at five weeks and 74% (IRR: 0.26, 95%CI: 0.12-0.59) during the complete period. The density of Leishmania infected sand flies decreased by 65% (IRR: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.26-0.48) at five weeks and 82% (IRR: 0.18, 95%CI: 0.07-0.42) for the complete period (zero infections until week two). Leishmania infection prevalence in the intervention site was 14% pre-intervention and 3.9% post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fogging hyrax dens reduced sand fly abundance and leishmania infection during the 5-week post-intervention period and especially the first two weeks suggesting it could be an effective source-reduction measure for ZCL vectors. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of fogging hyrax dens on decreasing ZCL incidence.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Inseticidas , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Feminino , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
J Parasitol ; 108(4): 366-373, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925595

RESUMO

Morphological examination was made of the larval forms of Grassenema procaviae (Cosmocercoidea: Atractidae), an autoinfective and viviparous nematode parasite in the stomach of Cape hyrax (Procavia capensis). Three different larval stages (second-, third- and fourth-stages), and the adult stage were found among the worms collected at necropsy of 3 hosts, which were reared in a zoo in Japan. Molting phases between the larval stages and the final molt to the adult stage were also observed. It was considered that the gravid female delivers the second-stage larva, which develops to the adult stage through 3 molts. The cephalic structure was identical throughout the second to adult stages; all with transparent filaments extending from the mouth. Because starch grains were frequently found attached to the filaments and the worm intestinal lumen also contained starch grains ingested, the filaments were surmised to act as nutrient catchers.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Procaviídeos , Nematoides , Animais , Feminino , Amido , Estômago
3.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 162(2): 247-256, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534401

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to assess pulp blood flow (PBF) and pulp sensibility changes in healthy and traumatized teeth undergoing maxillary expansion with a mini-implant hybrid hyrax appliance. METHODS: Forty-five patients requiring maxillary expansion either with mini-implant supported hyrax expander (MARME) or tooth-borne hyrax expander (RME) had the pulp status of their maxillary anterior teeth assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry, electric pulp testing, and thermal testing (carbon dioxide snow). The study cohort was divided into 4 groups on the basis of expansion appliance (MARME or RME) and trauma experience (trauma or nontrauma). Each patient was tested before expansion, 2 weeks after expansion, and 3 months after expansion (T3). Relationships between PBF, time interval, and trauma were evaluated using linear mixed modeling. RESULTS: Healthy teeth with RME or MARME expansion had reestablished pretreatment PBF at T3 (P >0.05). Traumatized teeth undergoing RME did not reach pretreatment PBF at T3 (P ≤0.05). There were no statistically significant changes in PBF in the MARME+Trauma group at all time intervals (P >0.05). A reduction in pulp blood flow occurred during rapid maxillary expansion from both expansion appliances; however, the relative reduction of PBF in MARME was less than with RME (P ≤0.05) 2 weeks after expansion. Most teeth across all groups (≥85%) maintained pulp sensibility at all time intervals regardless of whether there was a history of trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with transverse discrepancies and a history of trauma may benefit from MARME as evidenced by reduced changes in PBF compared with RME without affecting pulp sensibility.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Procaviídeos , Dente , Animais , Humanos , Maxila , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
J Comp Neurol ; 530(12): 2113-2131, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35434802

RESUMO

Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) exhibit expanded tactile arrays of vibrissae that are distributed not only on the face but also on the entire postfacial body. In contrast, the vibrissae of most mammals are principally restricted to the face. These facial vibrissae may be associated with central nervous system representations known as barrels in the cerebral cortex, barreloids in the thalamus, and barrelettes in the trigeminal nuclei of the brainstem. To date, vibrissae representations found within the brainstem have been principally limited to facial vibrissae representations in the trigeminal nuclei. We hypothesized that the tactile specializations of the manatee and rock hyrax would produce a unique modification of typical mammalian central nervous system organization, with postfacial vibrissae representations appearing in the cuneate and gracile nuclei as "body barrelettes." Using histological and histochemical methods, including cresyl violet, myelin, and cytochrome oxidase processing, we first delineated the rostral, middle, and caudal zones of the cuneate and gracile nuclei. Within the middle zone, divisions were present, including extensive parcellation in the cluster region, particularly in manatees. These clusters were particularly densely distributed and distinguishable in the presumptive postfacial body representations in the cuneate and gracile nuclei but otherwise shared many attributes with the barrelettes found in the trigeminal nuclei of other species. This study represents the first characterization of postfacial body vibrissae representations, or "body barrelettes," in the brainstem of any species. Previous studies have predominantly focused on facial vibrissae representations, which have served for decades as a model for sensory organization and plasticity. Our results extend what is known about vibrissae representations in the central nervous system to include expansions related to peripheral specializations of the postfacial body. Unusual somatosensory adaptations in the manatee and rock hyrax are highly informative regarding how mammalian brain organization responds to evolutionary pressures on sensory systems.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Trichechus manatus , Animais , Tato/fisiologia , Trichechus manatus/fisiologia , Núcleos do Trigêmeo , Vibrissas/fisiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6331, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428748

RESUMO

We studied a previously almost unknown nocturnal mammal, an apparently undescribed species of tree hyrax (Dendrohyrax sp.) in the moist montane forests of Taita Hills, Kenya. We used thermal imaging to locate tree hyraxes, observe their behavior, and to identify woody plants most frequently visited by the selective browsers. We also documented acoustic behavior in forest fragments of different sizes. Data on calling type and frequency were analyzed together with lidar data to estimate population densities and to identify forest stand characteristics associated with large populations. Viable populations were found only in the largest forest fragments (> 90 ha), where tree hyraxes preferred most pristine forest stands with high, multilayered canopies. The estimated population sizes in smaller forest fragments were very limited, and hyraxes were heard to call only during late night and early morning hours, presumably in order to avoid detection. While we frequently recorded tree hyrax songs in the largest forest fragments, we almost never heard songs in the small ones. All remaining subpopulations of the Taita tree hyrax are under threat of human disturbance and further habitat deterioration. Conservation efforts should include protection of all remaining habitat patches, but also reforestation of former habitat is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Árvores , Animais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos , Quênia
6.
Clin Oral Investig ; 26(1): 183-195, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the upper airway space changes after miniscrew-anchored maxillary protraction with hybrid (HH) and conventional hyrax (CH) expanders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample comprised Class III malocclusion growing patients that were randomized into two groups of miniscrew-anchored maxillary protraction. The group HH was treated with a hybrid hyrax appliance in the maxilla and two miniscrews distally to the canines in the mandible. Class III elastics were used from the maxillary first molar to the mandibular miniscrews until anterior crossbite correction. The group CH was treated with a similar protocol except for the conventional hyrax expander in the maxilla. Cone-beam computed tomography was obtained before (T1) and after 12 months of therapy (T2). The shape and size of upper airway were assessed. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: The group HH was composed of 20 patients (8 female, 12 male) with a mean age of 10.76 years. The group CH was composed of 15 patients (6 female, 9 male) with a mean age of 11.52 years. Anteroposterior and transverse increases of the upper airway were found for both groups. The oropharynx and the most constricted area increased similarly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: No differences in upper airway changes were observed using protraction anchored on hybrid or conventional hyrax expanders. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Maxillary protraction anchored on hybrid or conventional hyrax expanders may benefit patients with breathing disorders due to the increase of the upper airway volume and most constricted area. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03712007).


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle , Animais , Cefalometria , Criança , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/terapia , Mandíbula , Maxila , Técnica de Expansão Palatina
7.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 34(1): 98-101, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781790

RESUMO

Two rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), from the Chattanooga Zoo, were submitted separately for autopsy at the University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Center. The first was a 4-y-old intact female that died without premonitory signs and the second was a 10-y-old intact male that was euthanized because of severe renal disease. Microscopically, the lungs of both hyraxes had multifocal-to-coalescing, <1-mm diameter aggregates of epithelioid macrophages separated by streams of fibrous tissue. Macrophages contained intracytoplasmic, clear, acicular, birefringent crystals. Transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy findings on the lung samples were consistent with silica crystal deposition. The hyraxes had been housed together on commercially sourced play sand composed of 99-99.5% quartz, a crystalline silica polymorph. The microscopic findings, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the intrahistiocytic crystals, in addition to the history of exposure to crystalline silica, were consistent with pulmonary silicosis. Pulmonary silicosis has not been reported previously in rock hyraxes, to our knowledge.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Silicose , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Feminino , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Macrófagos , Masculino , Silicose/diagnóstico por imagem , Silicose/veterinária
8.
Prog Orthod ; 22(1): 30, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467450

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the dental effects, impact on quality of life, and pain perception of adolescents wearing Mini Hyrax and Hyrax expanders in rapid palatal expansion. METHODS: Thirty-four adolescents aged 11 to 16 years, with maxillary transverse deficiency (unilateral or bilateral posterior crossbite), were randomly allocated into two groups, Mini Hyrax group and Hyrax group (1:1 ratio). Dental effects were evaluated by digitally superimposed pretreatment and postretention three-dimensional intraoral scans on the palatal rugaes using the software 3DSlicer. Impact on quality of life was assessed with the OHIP-14 questionnaire applied in the pretreatment, posttreatment and postretention. Visual analog scale was applied 24, 48, and 72 h and 7 days after the first activation of the expander. RESULTS: Thirty of the 34 adolescents recruited completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences in dentoalveolar effects between groups. OHIP-14 scores across time among Mini Hyrax wearers were similar to those of the Hyrax wearers. The inter-group comparisons showed no difference between groups with respect to the OHIP-14 scores in posttreatment and postretention (p > 0.05). There were no differences in pain perception between groups. Considering intra-group comparison, the reduction in pain perception among adolescents in the Mini Hyrax group was gradual. Among adolescents in the Hyrax group, a statistically significant reduction between 48 and 72 h was observed. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in dental effects, impact on quality of life and pain perception between adolescents wearing Mini Hyrax and Hyrax expanders in rapid palatal expansion.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Má Oclusão , Adolescente , Animais , Humanos , Má Oclusão/terapia , Maxila , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 160(6): 774-783, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509329

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the skeletal and dental effects of miniscrew-anchored maxillary protraction (MAMP) using hybrid hyrax (HH) and conventional hyrax (CH) expanders in growing patients with Class III malocclusion. METHODS: This was a randomized, parallel, controlled trial. Forty growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency (Wits appraisal of less than -1 mm) were randomized into 2 groups. Patients were recruited at the Orthodontic Clinic of Bauru Dental School, University of São Paulo, Brazil. The HH group was composed of patients with Class III malocclusions in the late mixed or early permanent dentition treated with a HH expander with 2 miniscrews in the maxilla and 2 miniscrews in the anterior region of the mandible. Class III elastics were used from the maxillary first molars to the mandibular miniscrews placed between permanent canines and first premolars. The CH group was composed of patients treated with a similar protocol except for the use of a CH expander in the maxilla. The primary outcomes included the frequency of overjet correction and sagittal skeletal effects produced with treatment. Allocation was performed with a simple randomization process. Blinding was performed only during assessments. Data were analyzed blindly on an intention-to-treat basis. Intergroup comparison was performed using analysis of covariance. Mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained for all variables. RESULTS: The final sample for the HH group was 20 subjects (8 female, 12 male; initial age of 10.7 years), whereas the final sample for the CH group was 15 subjects (6 female, 9 male; initial age of 11.5 years). The frequency of overjet correction observed in the HH and CH groups was 94.4% and 71.4% (risk ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.93-1.88), respectively. Both groups presented similar skeletal sagittal and vertical outcomes after maxillary protraction. The maxillary length (CoA) showed a similar increase in both groups (MD, 1.12 mm; 95% CI, -0.03 to 2.27). The CH group demonstrated a greater mesial displacement of maxillary first molars after treatment than the HH group (MD, 1.22 mm; 95% CI, 0.33-2.11). HH and CH groups produced 2.88 and 1.97 overjet corrections (MD, 0.53 mm; 95% CI, -0.52 to 1.59), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MAMP using HH and CH expanders produced a frequency of overjet correction of 94.4% and 71.4%, respectively. Similar skeletal effects were observed between MAMP using HH and CH expanders. Greater control of the mesial displacement of maxillary first molar during maxillary protraction using hybrid expanders was observed. REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at http://ClinicalTrials.gov, under the identifier NCT03712007. PROTOCOL: This trial protocol was not published. FUNDING: This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001, and by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) - Grants nos. 2017/04141-9, 2017/24115-2, and 2019/03175-2.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle , Animais , Brasil , Cefalometria , Criança , Aparelhos de Tração Extrabucal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/terapia , Mandíbula , Maxila , Técnica de Expansão Palatina
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 820-826, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130431

RESUMO

In zoos, rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) are commonly maintained in groups and population control is necessary. Here we report on hydrometra prevalence in a group of rock hyraxes. Prevalence of hydrometra in this small group (4/8) far exceeds reproductive pathology prevalence previously reported for this species under managed care. Affected females were nulliparous, but had not been contracepted; instead they were maintained as a single-sex group. The first case presented as sudden death and three additional cases were diagnosed antemortem via ultrasound. Two of these underwent ovariohysterectomy to treat the severe hydrometra. The last case was a mild hydrometra and during follow-up exam was found to have spontaneously resolved. Detailed information regarding clinical presentation, diagnostics and surgical techniques are provided.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Doenças Uterinas/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Uterinas/diagnóstico , Doenças Uterinas/patologia , Doenças Uterinas/cirurgia
11.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 160(2): 266-275, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006424

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to simulate the different positions of the hyrax appliance expander screw and evaluate tooth displacement and the stress distribution standard on the periodontal ligament using the finite element method. METHODS: Part of the maxilla with anchorage teeth, periodontal ligament, midpalatal suture, and the hyrax appliance was modeled, and finite element method models were created to simulate 6 different screw positions. There were 2 vertical positions at distances of 20 mm and 15 mm from the occlusal plane. Another position was anteroposterior, the center of the screw placed between and equidistant from the mesial face of the first molar and the distal face of the first premolar, aligned to the center of the crown of the first molar, with the anterior edge of the screw aligned to the distal face of the first molar. A 1 mm activation of the expander screw was simulated. The displacement (total, vertical, and buccolingual) and the stress distribution on the periodontal ligament of supporting teeth in each model were registered. RESULTS: The model simulating the expander screw in a more occlusal and anterior position presented higher displacement values and higher stress concentration, followed by the model with the screw in a more posterior but same vertical position. With the exception of the first premolar, the teeth presented cervical-apical displacement in the vestibular face and apical-cervical displacement in palatal faces. This displacement is compatible with the vestibular inclination associated with the activation of the expander screw. The first premolar presented an atypical tendency for the mesial and lingual displacement of the vestibular surface and counterclockwise rotation. CONCLUSIONS: The supporting teeth presented a tendency for vestibular crown displacement and lingual root displacement associated with compression areas in the vestibular-cervical region and tensile strength in the linguoapical region. Placing the expander screw in a more occlusal and anterior position generated more mechanical stress transfer, resulting in greater dental displacement.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Animais , Dente Pré-Molar , Parafusos Ósseos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Maxila , Estresse Mecânico
12.
Parasitol Int ; 84: 102385, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015519

RESUMO

The superfamily Cosmocercoidea comprises three families: Cosmocericidae, Kathlaniidae and Atractidae. Information on the nucleotide sequences of the Cosmocercoidea is quite limited, and the molecular classification of the whole superfamily has been slow to progress. The genus Grassenema of the family Atractidae is a parasitic nematode group that occurs in the digestive tract of hyraxes and includes three species: Grassenema procaviae, G. dendrohyraci, and G. hyracis. The type species of the genus, G. procaviae, was isolated from the digestive tract of Cape hyraxes (Procavia capensis) and has the potential to cause gastric ulcers. Although G. procaviae is a common parasite of Cape hyraxes, no genetic information for the parasite is currently available. In this study, we obtained the first genomic sequences of G. procaviae and performed detailed morphological observations. Furthermore, molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed, and the taxonomic position of the parasite was evaluated using 18S and 28S rDNA sequences. Those data will be useful for molecular identification of G. procaviae and future phylogenetic analysis within the Atractidae.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Infecções por Rhabditida/veterinária , Rabditídios/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Japão , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Filogenia , RNA de Helmintos/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 28S/análise , Rabditídios/genética , Rabditídios/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Rhabditida/parasitologia
13.
Angle Orthod ; 91(6): 725-732, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare perceived pain and jaw function impairment during the first 4 weeks with slow maxillary expansion (SME) using quadhelix and rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using conventional banded hyrax. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients aged 10.2 to 15 years were enrolled and consecutively recruited to either the quadhelix group (QG) or hyrax group (HG). A questionnaire was used to evaluate pain, jaw function impairment, and analgesic consumption in the first 7 days, at 2 weeks, and at 4 weeks. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients (43 girls and 12 boys) completed the questionnaire at all time points (27 in the QG and 28 in the HG). Except at 4 hours, there were no significant differences between the groups regarding pain from teeth, tongue, and palate. Patients started to adapt after day 3. Patients in the HG group reported significantly higher scores for difficulty in swallowing (moderate to severe) during the first 6 days. In both groups, minimal effects were found on speech and the majority of patients did not experience difficulty in yawning or laughing. There was no significant difference in analgesic consumption between the groups. No correlations were found between age, gender, or malocclusion type and any of the investigated outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Quadhelix for SME and conventional banded hyrax for RME were well tolerated by patients after 1 week. The decision to use either appliance could be based on factors not related to patient experiences.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Má Oclusão , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila , Dor , Percepção da Dor , Técnica de Expansão Palatina
14.
Angle Orthod ; 91(4): 484-489, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the intensity of pain caused by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with two expanders: Hyrax and Haas type, in growing patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients (23 girls and 16 boys) with an average age of 9.3 years (SD = 1.39 years) were randomized into two groups and treated with Hyrax- and Haas-type expanders. In both groups, initial activation of the expander screw was one full turn on the first day followed by 2/4 of a turn two times a day (morning and night) for 7 days. Inclusion criteria were patients presenting with a posterior crossbite or maxillary atresia between 7 and 12 years old. To evaluate the intensity of pain during the active phase of the treatment, a combination of the Numerical Rating Scale and Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale was used. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the two treatment groups. RESULTS: There was significant inverse correlation between days following insertion and pain. During the expansion period, 100% of the children reported some pain. Hyrax expander subjects reported greater pain than those treated with the Haas-type expander only on the first day. The level of pain remained greater in girls throughout treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Pain was reported regardless of the type of expander and was higher in the Hyrax group only on the first day of activation.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila , Dor , Percepção da Dor
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 53, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) are of public health concern in Merti sub-County, Kenya, but epidemiological data on transmission, vector abundance, distribution, and reservoir hosts remain limited. To better understand the disease and inform control measures to reduce transmission, we investigated the abundance and distribution of sand fly species responsible for Leishmania transmission in the sub-County and their blood-meal hosts. METHODS: We conducted an entomological survey in five villages with reported cases of VL in Merti sub-County, Kenya, using CDC miniature light traps and castor oil sticky papers. Sand flies were dissected and identified to the species level using standard taxonomic keys and PCR analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. Leishmania parasites were detected and identified by PCR and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) genes. Blood-meal sources of engorged females were identified by high-resolution melting analysis of vertebrate cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene PCR products. RESULTS: We sampled 526 sand flies consisting of 8 species, Phlebotomus orientalis (1.52%; n = 8), and 7 Sergentomyia spp. Sergentomyia squamipleuris was the most abundant sand fly species (78.71%; n = 414) followed by Sergentomyia clydei (10.46%; n = 55). Leishmania major, Leishmania donovani, and Trypanosoma DNA were detected in S. squamipleuris specimens. Humans were the main sources of sand fly blood meals. However, we also detected mixed blood meals; one S. squamipleuris specimen had fed on both human and mouse (Mus musculus) blood, while two Ph. orientalis specimens fed on human, hyrax (Procavia capensis), and mouse (Mus musculus) blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings implicate the potential involvement of S. squamipleuris in the transmission of Leishmania and question the dogma that human leishmaniases in the Old World are exclusively transmitted by sand flies of the Phlebotomus genus. The presence of Trypanosoma spp. may indicate mechanical transmission, whose efficiency should be investigated. Host preference analysis revealed the possibility of zoonotic transmission of leishmaniasis and other pathogens in the sub-County. Leishmania major and L. donovani are known to cause ZCL and VL, respectively. However, the reservoir status of the parasites is not uniform. Further studies are needed to determine the reservoir hosts of Leishmania spp. in the area.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/genética , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmania major/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Trypanosoma/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Sangue/metabolismo , DNA Intergênico/genética , Entomologia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Procaviídeos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania major/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Masculino , Refeições , Camundongos , Psychodidae/classificação , Psychodidae/genética , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação
16.
Angle Orthod ; 91(2): 178-186, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of a hybrid miniscrew-supported expander versus a conventional Hyrax (CH) expander in growing patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients were randomized into two groups: a hybrid Hyrax (HH) expander group using a Hyrax expander with two miniscrews and a CH expander group. The final sample had 18 subjects (8 female, 10 male; initial age of 10.8 years) in the HH group and 14 subjects (6 female, 8 male; initial age of 11.4 years) in the CH group. Cone-beam computed tomography examinations and digital dental models were obtained before expansion and 11 months postexpansion. The primary outcomes included the orthopedic transverse effects of expansion. Intergroup comparison was performed using analysis of covariance (P < .05). RESULTS: Significantly greater increases in the nasal cavity width, maxillary width, and buccal alveolar crest width were found for the HH group. No intergroup differences were observed for dental arch width or shape changes. CONCLUSIONS: The HH group showed greater increases in the nasal cavity width, maxillary width, and buccal alveolar crest width. No differences were observed for intermolar, interpremolar, or intercanine widths; arch length; or arch perimeter. Arch size and shape showed similar changes in both groups.


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Processo Alveolar , Animais , Criança , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Arco Dental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila , Técnica de Expansão Palatina
17.
Eur J Orthod ; 43(3): 254-264, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess upper airway volume changes after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with three different expanders. TRIAL DESIGN: Three-arm parallel randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Sixty-six patients, 10-16 years old, in permanent dentition, with maxillary transverse deficiency were recruited and assigned with block randomization (1:1:1 ratio) and allocation concealment to three groups of 22 patients each (Hyrax, Hybrid-Hyrax, and Keles keyless expander). The primary outcome (overall upper airway volume change) and secondary outcomes (volume changes in the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx) were blindly assessed on the initial (T0) and final (T1, 6 months at appliance removal) cone beam computed tomography. Differences across groups were assessed with crude or adjusted for confounders (gender, age, growth stage, skeletal pattern, baseline airway volume, and amount of expansion) linear regression models. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients were analysed (19, 19, and 13 in the Hyrax, Hybrid-Hyrax, and Keles groups). Maxillary expansion resulted in considerable increases in total airway volume in the Hybrid-Hyrax group (+5902.1 mm3) and less in the Hyrax group (+2537.9 mm3) or the Keles group (+3001.4 mm3). However, treatment-induced changes for the primary and all secondary outcomes were of small magnitude and no significant difference was seen among the three expanderes in the total airway volume in either crude or adjusted analyses (P > 0.05 in all instances). Finally, among pre-peak patients (CVM 1-3), the Hybrid-Hyrax expander was associated with significantly greater increases in total airway volume compared to the Hyrax expander (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: RME resulted in relatively small increases in total upper airway volume and its separate compartments, with mostly no statistically significant differences across the Hyrax, Hybrid-Hyrax, and Keles groups. LIMITATIONS: Significantly greater attrition was found in the Keles group due to appliance failure. The current trial might possibly be under-powered to detect differences between groups, if such exist. HARMS: Keles expanders blocked during activations and required substitution for completion of treatment. PROTOCOL: The protocol was not published before trial commencement. REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12617001136392).


Assuntos
Procaviídeos , Adolescente , Animais , Austrália , Criança , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Humanos , Maxila , Nariz , Técnica de Expansão Palatina
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 276, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In eco-epidemiological studies, Leishmania detection in vectors and reservoirs is frequently accomplished by high-throughput and sensitive molecular methods that target minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). A pan-Leishmania SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay which detects the conserved spliced-leader RNA (SL RNA) sequence was developed recently. This study assessed the SL RNA assay performance combined with a crude extraction method for the detection of Leishmania in field-collected and laboratory-reared sand flies and in tissue samples from hyraxes as reservoir hosts. METHODS: Field-collected and laboratory-infected sand fly and hyrax extracts were subjected to three different qPCR approaches to assess the suitability of the SL RNA target for Leishmania detection. Nucleic acids of experimentally infected sand flies were isolated with a crude extraction buffer with ethanol precipitation and a commercial kit and tested for downstream DNA and RNA detection. Promastigotes were isolated from culture and sand fly midguts to assess whether there was difference in SL RNA and kDNA copy numbers. Naive sand flies were spiked with a serial dilution of promastigotes to make a standard curve. RESULTS: The qPCR targeting SL RNA performed well on infected sand fly samples, despite preservation and extraction under presumed unfavorable conditions for downstream RNA detection. Nucleic acid extraction by a crude extraction buffer combined with a precipitation step was highly compatible with downstream SL RNA and kDNA detection. Copy numbers of kDNA were found to be identical in culture-derived parasites and promastigotes isolated from sand fly midguts. SL RNA levels were slightly lower in sand fly promastigotes (ΔCq 1.7). The theoretical limit of detection and quantification of the SL RNA qPCR respectively reached down to 10-3 and 10 parasite equivalents. SL RNA detection in stored hyrax samples was less efficient with some false-negative assay results, most likely due to the long-term tissue storage in absence of RNA stabilizing reagents. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a crude extraction method in combination with the SL RNA qPCR assay is suitable for the detection and quantification of Leishmania in sand flies. The assay is inexpensive, sensitive and pan-Leishmania specific, and accordingly an excellent assay for high-throughput screening in entomological research.


Assuntos
DNA de Cinetoplasto/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/genética , Psychodidae/parasitologia , RNA Líder para Processamento/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Procaviídeos/parasitologia , Laboratórios , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/parasitologia
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