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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131149, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583173

RESUMO

This work studies the effect of glycerol on the chemical physics of the thermal gelatin of protein from giant squid minced meat. The presence of glycerol induced changes in the nano protein particles (NPP) self-assembled structures. These nanoscale events resulted in dramatic changes on the interactions between proteins when forming gels, with the contribution of ionic interactions increasing by 17% upon gelation, that of hydrogen bonds reducing by 50%, that of hydrophobic interactions decreasing by 45%, and that of disulphide bonding increasing by 18%. Glycerol also induced cluster formation in myofibrillar solutions. As a result, incorporation of glycerol increased springiness, resilience, and adhesiveness of the formed gels by 13%, 25%, and 370% respectively. The heating gelation of myofibrillar proteins was monitored at various temperatures via recording the elastic and storage moduli. Rheology and micro-rheology studies revealed that the presence of glycerol increased G' and G″ of thermally-gelled giant squid meat.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes , Glicerol , Animais , Géis , Reologia , Alimentos Marinhos
2.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S1): e2021274, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747386

RESUMO

A nodular lesion at the lower left pulmonary lobe was detected in a 46 years old male during a preoperative chest X-Ray for appendicitis. To further characterise the nodule, a contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) was performed showing a 20 mm vascular lesion, which was suspected to be a pseudoaneurysm. The diagnostic angiography detected a flattening of the vascular wall with a voluminous pseudoaneurysm (PSA) in the distal portion of the tributary branch of the inferior left lobe. To treat the lesion, a 2.9F microcatheter was advanced into the sac and 4 detachable coils were placed (16-18mm Penumbra Inc) to pack the PSA. To block vascular supply to the lesion, the feeding artery was embolized with an ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer agent (Squid Peri 18, Emboflu). The final angiographic control showed the exclusion of the pseudoaneurysmal sac which was confirmed by SEMAR™ reconstructed CE-CT scan after 40 days. Furthermore, no signs of pulmonary infarction were reported. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma , Embolização Terapêutica , Falso Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Falso Aneurisma/terapia , Angiografia , Animais , Decapodiformes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1188: 339203, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794580

RESUMO

The specific detection of resorcin from its isomers is a current research hotspot. Thus in our work, a ternary hierarchical porous nanoprobe has been constructed based on the combination of cuttlefish ink and bimetallic Au@Ag nanoclusters for the specific sensing of resorcin. Briefly, through electrostatic interaction, Au@Ag core-shell nanoclusters are immobilized on the surface of polydopamine extracted from cuttlefish, which is turned into nitrogen-doped porous carbon functionalized by bimetallic Au@Ag by topological transformation subsequently. Afterward, an electrochemical sensor is fabricated based on the nanoprobes for specifically determining resorcin in solution by differential pulse voltammetry, and the linear detection ranges of the sensor are 1-100 µM and 1.2-4 mM while the detection limit reaches 0.06 µM. Meanwhile, the sensing mechanism of resorcin by the pre-fabricated sensor is detailedly studied by density functional theory to obtain a clear electrochemical process. Besides, the selectivity, stability, plus reproducibility of the pre-fabricated sensor have been also tested, and the determinations for resorcin in real environmental water samples have also been performed with good recoveries, revealing the auspicious application potential in the environmental monitoring.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Decapodiformes , Limite de Detecção , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resorcinóis
4.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 27(6): 786-788, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792034

RESUMO

Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is considered the first choice treatment for hemoptysis. To our knowledge no cases of BAE using a recent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer agent (Squid) have been previously mentioned. Two cases of BAE for remitting hemoptysis using Squid and polyvinyl alcohol particles are reported in this technical note. The final angiographic control confirmed full exclusion of the target territory in both cases. Both patients felt some chest pain immediately after the embolization, not requiring any medications. No more episodes of hemoptysis occurred in the following 3 months after the procedure.


Assuntos
Artérias Brônquicas , Embolização Terapêutica , Animais , Artérias Brônquicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Decapodiformes , Hemoptise/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemoptise/terapia , Humanos , Álcool de Polivinil , Polivinil , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Food Sci ; 86(11): 4811-4827, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653262

RESUMO

Squid (Loligo forbesii and Loligo vulgaris) mantles were cooked by sous vide cooking using different temperatures (46°C, 55°C, 77°C) and times (30 s, 2 min, 15 min, 1 h, 5 h, 24 h), including samples of raw tissue. Macroscopic textural properties were characterized by texture analysis (TA) conducted with Meullenet-Owens razor shear blade and compared to analysis results from differential scanning calorimetry. The collagen content of raw tissues of squid was quantified as amount of total hydroxyproline using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Structural changes were monitored by Raman spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering and visualized by second harmonic generation microscopy. Collagen in the squid tissue was found to be highest in arms (4.3% of total protein), then fins (3.0%), and lowest in the mantle (1.5%), the content of the mantle being very low compared to that of other species of squid. Collagen was found to be the major protein responsible for cooking loss, whereas both collagen and actin were found to be key to mechanical textural changes. A significant decreased amount of cooking loss was obtained using a lower cooking temperature of 55°C compared to 77°C, without yielding significant textural changes in most TA parameters, except for TA hardness which was significantly less reduced. An optimized sous vide cooking time and temperature around 55-77°C and 0.5-5 h deserves further investigation, preferably coupled to sensory consumer evaluation. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The study provides knowledge about structural changes during sous vide cooking of squid mantle. The results may be translated into gastronomic use, promoting the use of an underutilized resource of delicious and nutritious protein (Loligo vulgaris and Loligo forbesii).


Assuntos
Culinária , Decapodiformes , Animais , Dureza , Alimentos Marinhos , Temperatura
6.
J Food Biochem ; 45(10): e13919, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486135

RESUMO

Marine pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (family Sepiidae) is regarded as an economically important class of cephalopod in the coastal Mediterranean and Asian regions. Bioassay-guided chromatographic purification of solvent extract of S. pharaonis led to the identification of a trans-decalin based spirolactone, spiropharanone, which was characterized as 1-hydroxy-7-(4'-methoxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl)-3,9,15-trimethyl-8-oxo-octahydro-5H-spiro[furan-8,9-naphtho]-8-yl-acetate by spectroscopic techniques. Spiropharanone exhibited significantly greater anti-inflammatory activity by attenuating pro-inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (IC50 1.02 mM) than the non-steroidal drug ibuprofen (IC50 4.61 mM, p ≤ .05). Superior antioxidant properties of spiropharanone against free radicals (EC50 ~1.20 mM) and other oxidants (hydroxyl [EC50 0.97 mM] and superoxide [EC50 1.47 mM] scavenging) also reinforced its promising anti-inflammatory activity. The studied spiropharanone also exhibited significant attenuation toward insulin secretion regulating enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (IC50 0.92 mM) recognizing its anti-hyperglycemic potential. Significantly higher electronic properties (topological polar surface area ~100) combined with balanced hydrophilic-lipophilic properties (partition coefficient of logarithmic octanol-water ~3) and lesser docking parameters of spiropharanone demonstrated that the compound could be utilized as an important bioactive lead against oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemic-related ailments. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Nutritionally rich edible marine pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis occupies a prominent place among seafood fisheries owing to the presence of bioactive nutrients and functional food ingredients. These marine cuttlefish are widely distributed along the Asian and Mediterranean coasts, and consumed as culinary delicacy for decades. An undescribed trans-decalin spirolactone, spiropharanone was isolated from the organic extract of S. pharaonis based on bioactivity-assisted sequential chromatographic fractionation. Spiropharanone displayed promising antioxidant potential along with attenuation properties against inducible pro-inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase and insulin secretion regulating enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4. This study established the ameliorating potential of a naturally derived marine food constituent against inflammatory and diabetic ailments, and thus anticipated as functional food lead in pharmaceutical formulations towards inflammation and maintaining glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Sepia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase , Decapodiformes , Lactonas , Lipoxigenase , Naftalenos , Alimentos Marinhos , Serina Proteases
7.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4316-4329, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519066

RESUMO

Squid are commercial marine species that have high nutritional value. This study aimed to compare the influences of vacuum frying and atmospheric frying on the physicochemical properties and protein oxidation of three main parts (ring, tentacle, and fin) of the squid Loligo chinensis. The results showed that the vacuum-fried (VF) group had lower moisture and total fat contents and looser microstructures than the atmospheric-fried (AF) group. The amino acid contents and molecular weight revealed that the proteins were well preserved during vacuum frying. Carbonyl content in the VF ring, tentacle, and fin samples increased nearly 2.53-, 1.54-, and 2.56-fold, respectively, compared to that in the corresponding fresh group, but these increases were lower than those of the corresponding AF group. In addition, the secondary structures of proteins revealed a slight decrease in the α-helix and ß-turn contents and a significant increase in the ß-sheet content during vacuum frying. Therefore, vacuum frying can be used as an efficient processing method to conserve the high nutritive quality of the product. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: As a developing alternative technology to prepare healthier fried products, vacuum frying has been the focus of recent researches. Vacuum frying produced squid products that had lower TBARS values, carbonyl contents, and Schiff base substances compared to atmospheric frying. And the protein secondary structures of the vacuum-fried group retained better. The study proved that vacuum frying could be an effective method with the advantages of high protein stability and product quality.


Assuntos
Culinária , Decapodiformes , Proteínas na Dieta , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Loligo , Animais , Decapodiformes/química , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos , Loligo/química , Oxirredução , Vácuo
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1957): 20211052, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403629

RESUMO

Episodic memory, remembering past experiences based on unique what-where-when components, declines during ageing in humans, as does episodic-like memory in non-human mammals. By contrast, semantic memory, remembering learnt knowledge without recalling unique what-where-when features, remains relatively intact with advancing age. The age-related decline in episodic memory likely stems from the deteriorating function of the hippocampus in the brain. Whether episodic memory can deteriorate with age in species that lack a hippocampus is unknown. Cuttlefish are molluscs that lack a hippocampus. We test both semantic-like and episodic-like memory in sub-adults and aged-adults nearing senescence (n = 6 per cohort). In the semantic-like memory task, cuttlefish had to learn that the location of a food resource was dependent on the time of day. Performance, measured as proportion of correct trials, was comparable across age groups. In the episodic-like memory task, cuttlefish had to solve a foraging task by retrieving what-where-when information about a past event with unique spatio-temporal features. In this task, performance was comparable across age groups; however, aged-adults reached the success criterion (8/10 correct choices in consecutive trials) significantly faster than sub-adults. Contrary to other animals, episodic-like memory is preserved in aged cuttlefish, suggesting that memory deterioration is delayed in this species.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes , Memória Episódica , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Hipocampo , Rememoração Mental
9.
Biomater Sci ; 9(17): 5951-5964, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318796

RESUMO

Melanin and its analogue polydopamine (PDA) have attracted considerable attention in biomedical science due to their surface-rich metal binding sites, excellent adhesion and good biocompatibility. Bacterial infections at the wound site and uncontrolled bleeding are associated with a high risk of death, and the prevention of wound infections remains a major challenge. On this basis, the four nanoparticles (NPs) of melanin, PDA, copper ion-loaded melanin (Cu(ii) loaded melanin) and copper ion-loaded PDA (Cu(ii) loaded PDA) were studied in terms of antibacterial and wound healing capabilities. The in vitro experiments showed that Cu(ii) loaded PDA NPs had good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity, showing the best antibacterial effect in comparison with other samples. Not only could the slow release of copper ions from the nanoparticles kill bacteria, but also the phenolic hydroxyl group and amine groups of PDA NPs played a synergistic role in bacterial death. In wound healing experiments, the Cu(ii) loaded PDA NPs could easily and tightly bind with biological tissue, demonstrating excellent hemostasis, antibacterial and wound healing capabilities. In summary, the excellent properties of Cu(ii) loaded PDA NPs made them a safe and effective drug for preventing wound infection and promoting healing.


Assuntos
Cobre , Nanopartículas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Decapodiformes , Indóis , Tinta , Íons , Melaninas , Polímeros , Cicatrização
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292948

RESUMO

The Hodgkin-Huxley model, decades after its first presentation, is still a reference model in neuroscience as it has successfully reproduced the electrophysiological activity of many organisms. The primary signal in the model represents the membrane potential of a neuron. A simple representation of this signal is presented in this paper. The new proposal is an adapted Frequency Modulated Möbius multicomponent model defined as a signal plus error model in which the signal is decomposed as a sum of waves. The main strengths of the method are the simple parametric formulation, the interpretability and flexibility of the parameters that describe and discriminate the waveforms, the estimators' identifiability and accuracy, and the robustness against noise. The approach is validated with a broad simulation experiment of Hodgkin-Huxley signals and real data from squid giant axons. Interesting differences between simulated and real data emerge from the comparison of the parameter configurations. Furthermore, the potential of the FMM parameters to predict Hodgkin-Huxley model parameters is shown using different Machine Learning methods. Finally, promising contributions of the approach in Spike Sorting and cell-type classification are detailed.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Axônios/patologia , Decapodiformes/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Animais
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253914, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288940

RESUMO

The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis Krøyer) population in the Gulf of Maine collapsed during an extreme heatwave that occurred across the Northwest Atlantic Ocean in 2012. Northern shrimp is a boreal species, and reaches its southern limit in the Gulf of Maine. Here we investigate proximate causes for the population collapse using data from fishery-independent surveys, environmental monitoring, and the commercial fishery. We first examined spatial data to confirm that the decline in population estimates was not due to a major displacement of the population, and then tested hypotheses related to fishing mortality and shifts in predation pressure. Fishing mortality may have contributed but could not explain the magnitude of the decline or the disappearance of pre-exploitable size individuals. Stomach contents analysis and biomass trends revealed no new fish predators of shrimp. However, longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii Lesueur) was unique among all species in showing time-series biomass peaks during spring, summer and fall of 2012, and spatial overlap with northern shrimp was unusually high in 2012. Longfin squid is a voracious and opportunistic predator that consumes crustaceans as well as fish. We hypothesize that the warmer temperatures of 2012 not only led to expansion of longfin squid distribution in Gulf of Maine, but had differential effects on migration phenology that further increased spatial overlap with northern shrimp. The weight of our evidence suggests that longfin squid predation was likely a significant factor in the collapse of northern shrimp in the Gulf of Maine.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Mudança Climática , Decapodiformes/fisiologia , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandalidae , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Temperatura Alta , Maine , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
12.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 60(5): 556-567, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233805

RESUMO

Cephalopods are important in biologic and biomedical research, yet relatively little objective information is available to guide researchers and veterinarians regarding the best methods for anesthetizing these animals for various experimental procedures. Recent studies demonstrate that ethyl alcohol and magnesium chloride are effective at depressing efferent and afferent neural signals in some tropical cephalopod species when measured via the pallial nerve. Here we used similar methods to test 2 temperate species (Octopus bimaculoides and Sepia officinalis) and demonstrate that (1) ethyl alcohol and magnesium chloride were effective at reversibly depressing evoked activity in the pallial nerve, (2) ethyl alcohol generally had shorter induction and recovery times compared with magnesium chloride, (3) both agents were associated with a latency between the behavioral and neural effects, and it was longer with magnesium chloride, and (4) senescent animals generally had longer induction or recovery times than young animals. Both agents successfully anesthetized both life stages; however, our data show that assessing anesthesia based solely on behavior may lead to premature commencement of invasive procedures. We conclude that temperate cephalopods can be humanely, effectively, and completely anesthetized by using these 2 agents and that the loss of neural signal we show here is consistent with true anesthesia and not merely paralysis. This relatively simple, nondestructive nerve recording technique can be applied to the study of other prospective anesthetic agents in cephalopods.


Assuntos
Anestésicos , Octopodiformes , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Decapodiformes , Etanol , Cloreto de Magnésio , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Bioinformatics ; 37(Suppl_1): i177-i186, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252958

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: The construction of the compacted de Bruijn graph from collections of reference genomes is a task of increasing interest in genomic analyses. These graphs are increasingly used as sequence indices for short- and long-read alignment. Also, as we sequence and assemble a greater diversity of genomes, the colored compacted de Bruijn graph is being used more and more as the basis for efficient methods to perform comparative genomic analyses on these genomes. Therefore, time- and memory-efficient construction of the graph from reference sequences is an important problem. RESULTS: We introduce a new algorithm, implemented in the tool Cuttlefish, to construct the (colored) compacted de Bruijn graph from a collection of one or more genome references. Cuttlefish introduces a novel approach of modeling de Bruijn graph vertices as finite-state automata, and constrains these automata's state-space to enable tracking their transitioning states with very low memory usage. Cuttlefish is also fast and highly parallelizable. Experimental results demonstrate that it scales much better than existing approaches, especially as the number and the scale of the input references grow. On a typical shared-memory machine, Cuttlefish constructed the graph for 100 human genomes in under 9 h, using ∼29 GB of memory. On 11 diverse conifer plant genomes, the compacted graph was constructed by Cuttlefish in under 9 h, using ∼84 GB of memory. The only other tool completing these tasks on the hardware took over 23 h using ∼126 GB of memory, and over 16 h using ∼289 GB of memory, respectively. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Cuttlefish is implemented in C++14, and is available under an open source license at https://github.com/COMBINE-lab/cuttlefish. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes , Genômica , Algoritmos , Animais , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software
14.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 819, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188187

RESUMO

Bobtail and bottletail squid are small cephalopods with striking anti-predatory defensive mechanisms, bioluminescence, and complex morphology; that inhabit nektobenthic and pelagic environments around the world's oceans. Yet, the evolution and diversification of these animals remain unclear. Here, we used shallow genome sequencing of thirty-two bobtail and bottletail squids to estimate their evolutionary relationships and divergence time. Our phylogenetic analyses show that each of Sepiadariidae, Sepiolidae, and the three subfamilies of the Sepiolidae are monophyletic. We found that the ancestor of the Sepiolinae very likely possessed a bilobed light organ with bacteriogenic luminescence. Sepiolinae forms a sister group to Rossinae and Heteroteuthinae, and split into Indo-Pacific and Atlantic-Mediterranean lineages. The origin of these lineages coincides with the end of the Tethys Sea and the separation of these regions during the Eocene and the beginning of the Oligocene. We demonstrated that sepiolids radiated after the Late Cretaceous and that major biogeographic events might have shaped their distribution and speciation.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes/genética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Animais , Decapodiformes/classificação , Luminescência
15.
Food Chem ; 364: 130374, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147869

RESUMO

Neon flying squid (OB) and jumbo squid (DG) mantles were evaluated to reveal the similarities and differences in their physicochemical features and protein abundances. Microstructural results indicated that the OB mantle exhibited numerous myofibril fragments and disordered microstructures after frozen storage compared with DG tissues. Chemical analysis suggested that freezing resulted in a rapid decrease in myofibrillar protein (MP) content, Ca2+-ATPase activity, and total sulfhydryl content, and promoted the increase in carbonyl content of MPs in both OB and DG. While, DG presented better MP stability than OB muscle after 120 days of frozen storage. Label-free proteomic analysis detected 24 down- and 33 up-regulated differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) in OB and DG mantles. Identified DAPs including isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme initiated a rapid decrease in the MP properties in OB samples. Moreover, DAPs were related to cytoskeleton function, including paramyosin, tropomyosin, and troponin C, which improved the stability of DG in response to freezing-induced changes.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares , Proteômica , Animais , Decapodiformes , Neônio , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
16.
Behav Res Ther ; 143: 103849, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102409

RESUMO

According to the analytical rumination hypothesis, depression is an evolved adaptation (like pain or anxiety) that served in our ancestral past to keep people focused on complex interpersonal problems until they could arrive at a resolution (spontaneous remission). If this is true, then those clinical treatments that most facilitate the functions that depression evolved to serve are likely to be more advantageous in the long run than others that simply relieve distress. For example, antidepressant medications may be efficacious in the treatment of depression but only work for so long as they are taken. They may also have an iatrogenic effect that prolongs the duration of the underlying episode. Cognitive and behavioral interventions are as efficacious as medications in terms of reducing acute distress and also appear to have an enduring effect that protects against the return of subsequent symptoms. However, the bulk of the evidence for this effect comes from comparisons to prior medication treatment and it remains unclear whether these psychosocial interventions are truly preventative, or antidepressant medications iatrogenic. A study is described that could resolve this issue and test evolutionary theory with respect to the purported role of rumination in bringing about spontaneous remission.


Assuntos
Bass , Animais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade , Decapodiformes , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
17.
Food Funct ; 12(11): 4783-4796, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100500

RESUMO

Some chronic diseases such as cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) and obesity are associated with the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) that stimulates excess lipolysis in adipocytes. Our previous studies have shown that docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids (DHA-PL) and eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids (EPA-PL) ameliorated CAC and obesity-related metabolic disorders. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved, we examined the impact and the associated signaling pathways of DHA-PL and EPA-PL on TNF-α-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present results revealed that DHA-PL and EPA-PL inhibited the TNF-α-induced increase of glycerol release and protected lipid droplets. In addition, DHA-PL and EPA-PL increased DHA and EPA contents in the phospholipid fraction of adipocytes, respectively. Moreover, DHA-PL and EPA-PL enhanced sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity and its protein expression. By activating SIRT1, DHA-PL and EPA-PL upregulated the G0/G1 switch gene 2 protein level to inhibit adipose triglyceride lipase activity, activate AMP-activated protein kinase to reverse the downregulation of perilipin expression and phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) at Ser565 and prevent the phosphorylation of HSL at Ser660. Furthermore, DHA-PL and EPA-PL improved glucose uptake and glucose transporter type 4 translocation to the plasma membrane in TNF-α-treated adipocytes. Thus, it was concluded that DHA-PL and EPA-PL inhibit TNF-α-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by activating the SIRT1 pathways.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Caquexia/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Decapodiformes , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Pepinos-do-Mar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo
18.
Integr Comp Biol ; 61(4): 1511-1516, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160621

RESUMO

Cephalopods, including squid, octopus, and cuttlefish, can rapidly camouflage in different underwater environments by employing multiple optical effects including light scattering, absorption, reflection, and refraction. They can do so with exquisite control and within a fraction of a second-two features that indicate distributed, intra-dermal sensory, and signaling components. However, the fundamental biochemical, electrical, and mechanical controls that regulate color and color change, from discrete elements to interconnected modules, are still not fully understood despite decades of research in this space. This perspective highlights key advancements in the biochemical analysis of cephalopod skin and discusses compositional connections between cephalopod ocular lenses and skin with features that may also facilitate signal transduction during camouflage.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Animais , Decapodiformes , Olho , Visão Ocular
19.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 19(10): 654-665, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089008

RESUMO

As our understanding of the human microbiome progresses, so does the need for natural experimental animal models that promote a mechanistic understanding of beneficial microorganism-host interactions. Years of research into the exclusive symbiosis between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri have permitted a detailed understanding of those bacterial genes underlying signal exchange and rhythmic activities that result in a persistent, beneficial association, as well as glimpses into the evolution of symbiotic competence. Migrating from the ambient seawater to regions deep inside the light-emitting organ of the squid, V. fischeri experiences, recognizes and adjusts to the changing environmental conditions. Here, we review key advances over the past 15 years that are deepening our understanding of these events.


Assuntos
Aliivibrio fischeri/fisiologia , Decapodiformes/microbiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Simbiose , Animais , Decapodiformes/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Molecular , Hawaii , Água do Mar/microbiologia
20.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 19(10): 666-679, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089010

RESUMO

For more than 30 years, the association between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri has been studied as a model system for understanding the colonization of animal epithelia by symbiotic bacteria. The squid-vibrio light-organ system provides the exquisite resolution only possible with the study of a binary partnership. The impact of this relationship on the partners' biology has been broadly characterized, including their ecology and evolutionary biology as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms of symbiotic dynamics. Much has been learned about the factors that foster initial light-organ colonization, and more recently about the maturation and long-term maintenance of the association. This Review synthesizes the results of recent research on the light-organ association and also describes the development of new horizons for E. scolopes as a model organism that promises to inform biology and biomedicine about the basic nature of host-microorganism interactions.


Assuntos
Aliivibrio fischeri/fisiologia , Decapodiformes/microbiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Simbiose , Aliivibrio fischeri/genética , Animais , Decapodiformes/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Hawaii , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Masculino , Simbiose/genética , Simbiose/fisiologia
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