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1.
Science ; 377(6613): 1378-1379, 2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137049

RESUMO

Modification of cerebral vasculature helps to cushion the brains of whales and dolphins against injury.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Baleias , Animais
3.
JASA Express Lett ; 2(5): 056001, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154075

RESUMO

In long-range underwater communication, conventional time reversal processing (CTRP) is used to mitigate the distortion caused by multipath and temporal spreading. However, signals produced by marine animals can contaminate communication signals. Impulsive signals, such as dolphin sonar clicks, have wide bandwidths and short pulse durations, making it difficult to isolate the communication signal. This letter proposes a method to cancel these sounds by estimating the Green's function of marine animal clicks and applying adaptive time reversal processing (ATRP). The effectiveness of the click nulling was verified by comparing the performances of CTRP and ATRP with seagoing experimental data.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Ecolocação , Animais , Comunicação , Som , Espectrografia do Som
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 757200, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928207

RESUMO

Aspergillosis remains difficult to diagnose in animals. Laboratory-based assays are far less developed than those for human medicine, and only few studies have been completed to validate their utility in routine veterinary diagnostics. To overcome the current limitations, veterinarians and researchers have to propose alternative methods including extrapolating from human diagnostic tools and using innovative technology. In the present overview, two specific examples were complementarily addressed in penguins and dolphins to illustrate how is challenging the diagnosis of aspergillosis in animals. Specific focus will be made on the novel application of simple testing in blood based on serological assays or protein electrophoresis and on the new information garnered from metabolomics/proteomics to discover potential new biomarkers. In conclusion, while the diagnostic approach of aspergillosis in veterinary medicine cannot be directly taken from options developed for human medicine, it can certainly serve as inspiration.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Golfinhos , Spheniscidae , Animais , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/veterinária , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Proteômica
5.
Vet Rec ; 191(3): 104-105, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929686

RESUMO

Georgina Mills reports on a talk discussing the cognitive abilities of cetaceans, which are often kept in captivity.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Animais , Cognição , Baleias
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(18): 13046-13057, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031938

RESUMO

Marine mammals often accumulate high levels of environmental contaminants, even those that are globally regulated regarding usage, raising concerns about their health status. Here, we conducted the first investigation of tissue distribution, spatiotemporal trends, and potential risks of six organotin compounds (OTs) in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (n = 101) from the northern South China Sea during 2003-2021. We detected the highest level of hepatic triphenyltin in these humpback dolphins compared with the results reported in cetaceans globally, and the liver accumulated the highest OT concentrations than other analyzed tissues. Despite the downward trend of butyltins in humpback dolphins after the global ban on the use of OTs as antifouling paints, levels of phenyltins have continued to increase over the past 20 years, suggesting that the other applications of phenyltins in South China remain prevalent. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that tissue-relevant doses of OTs could induce agonistic effects on the dolphin peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ as a master regulator of lipid homeostasis and altered the dolphin fatty acid profiles. Our results highlight the lipid-disrupting effects of current OT exposure in humpback dolphins and emphasize the need for further efforts to eliminate OT contamination in South China.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , China , Estuários , Ácidos Graxos , Lipídeos , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/análise , PPAR gama , Rios , Sulfonamidas , Tolueno/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
J Neurodev Disord ; 14(1): 46, 2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurotypical individuals categorize items even during ultra-rapid presentations (20 ms; see Thorpe et al. Nature 381: 520, 1996). In cognitively able autistic adults, these semantic categorization processes may be impaired and/or may require additional time, specifically for the categorization of atypical compared to typical items. Here, we investigated how typicality structures influence ultra-rapid categorization in cognitively able autistic and neurotypical male adults. METHODS: Images representing typical or atypical exemplars of two different categories (food/animals) were presented for 23.5 vs. 82.3 ms (short/long). We analyzed detection rates, reaction times, and the event-related potential components dN150, N1, P2, N2, and P3 for each group. RESULTS: Behavioral results suggest slower and less correct responses to atypical compared to typical images. This typicality effect was larger for the category with less distinct boundaries (food) and observed in both groups. However, electrophysiological data indicate a different time course of typicality effects, suggesting that neurotypical adults categorize atypical images based on simple features (P2), whereas cognitively able autistic adults categorize later, based on arbitrary features of atypical images (P3). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that all three factors under investigation - category, typicality, and presentation time - modulated specific aspects of semantic categorization. Additionally, we observed a qualitatively different pattern in the autistic adults, which suggests that they relied on different cognitive processes to complete the task.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Golfinhos , Animais , Cognição , Masculino , Semântica , Percepção Visual
8.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 150: 17-29, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796508

RESUMO

Leptospirosis and brucellosis are zoonotic diseases with global distributions that represent severe hazards to humans and animals. We investigated exposure to Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. in samples from Amazonian manatees Trichechus inunguis, Amazon river dolphins Inia geoffrensis, and a tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis. The animals were free-ranging or undergoing in situ rehabilitation in the mid-Solimões River region, Brazilian Amazon. Serum samples from 19 Amazonian manatees were tested by microscopic agglutination test, Rose Bengal test, and 2-mercaptoethanol Brucella agglutination test. Antibodies against Leptospira spp. were detected in 63% of the manatees tested and serovar Patoc was considered the infecting serovar in all positive samples. Titers were generally low, indicating chronic exposure, but higher titers indicative of an active infection were detected in 3 animals. Anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were not detected. Tissue and/or body fluid samples from 12 Amazon river dolphins, a tucuxi, and 2 Amazonian manatees were investigated by multiplex PCR and bacteriology for Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. All samples were negative. However, Enterococcus faecalis was isolated from uterine fluid, lymph node, and lung of 3 Amazon river dolphins. Bacillus spp. were isolated from milk and synovial fluid from 2 Amazon river dolphins and from a milk sample from 1 Amazonian manatee. Knowledge of the pathogens present in Amazonian manatees, Amazon river dolphins, and tucuxis is of great relevance to species conservation and environmental health. Although no clinical signs were noted, further research is needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of infection by Leptospira sp. serovar Patoc in Amazonian aquatic mammals.


Assuntos
Brucella , Golfinhos , Leptospira , Trichechus inunguis , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano , Golfinhos/microbiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Trichechus inunguis/microbiologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12635, 2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35879404

RESUMO

Nearly two decades ago, pathologic examination results suggested that acoustic factors, such as mid-frequency active naval military sonar (MFAS) could be the cause of acute decompression-like sickness in stranded beaked whales. Acute systemic gas embolism in these whales was reported together with enigmatic cystic liver lesions (CLL), characterized by intrahepatic encapsulated gas-filled cysts, tentatively interpreted as "gas-bubble" lesions in various other cetacean species. Here we provide a pathologic reinterpretation of CLL in odontocetes. Among 1,200 cetaceans necropsied, CLL were only observed in four striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), with a low prevalence (2%, N = 179). Together, our data strongly suggest that CLL are the result of the combination of a pre-existing or concomitant hepatic vascular disorder superimposed and exacerbated by gas bubbles, and clearly differ from acute systemic gas embolism in stranded beaked whales that is linked to MFAS. Budd-Chiari-like syndrome in dolphins is hypothesized based on the present pathologic findings. Nonetheless, further researched is warranted to determine precise etiopathogenesis(es) and contributing factors for CLL in cetaceans.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Embolia Aérea , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Stenella , Animais , Baleias
10.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(6): 3573, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778211

RESUMO

Odontocetes have evolved special acoustic structures in the forehead to modulate echolocation and communication signals into directional beams to facilitate feeding and social behaviors. Whistle directivity was addressed for the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) by developing numerical models in the current paper. Directivity was first examined at the fundamental frequency 5 kHz, and simulations were then extended to the harmonics of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 kHz. At 5 kHz, the -3 dB beam widths in the vertical and horizontal planes were 149.3° and 119.4°, corresponding to the directivity indexes (DIs) of 4.4 and 5.4 dB, respectively. More importantly, we incorporated directivity of the fundamental frequency and harmonics to produce an overall beam, resulting in -3 dB beam widths of 77.2° and 62.9° and DIs of 8.2 and 9.7 dB in the vertical and horizontal planes, respectively. Harmonics can enhance the directivity of fundamental frequency by 3.8 and 4.3 dB, respectively. These results suggested the transmission system can modulate whistles into directional projection, and harmonics can improve DI.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Ecolocação , Acústica , Animais , Espectrografia do Som , Vocalização Animal
11.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270690, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834534

RESUMO

The genus Stenella is comprised of five species occurring in all oceans. Despite its wide distribution, genetic diversity information on these species is still scarce especially in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. Some features of this genus can enhance opportunities for potential introgressive hybridization, e.g. sympatric distibution along the Brazilian coast, mixed known associations among species, karyotype uniformity and genome permeability. In this study we analyzed three genes of the mitochondrial genome to investigate the genetic diversity and occurrence of genetic mixture among eighty specimens of Stenella. All species exhibited moderate to high levels of genetic diversity (h = 0.833 to h = 1.000 and π = 0.006 to π = 0.015). Specimens of S. longirostris, S. attenuata and S. frontalis were clustered into differentiated haplogroups, in contrast, haplotypes of S. coeruleoalba and S. clymene were clustered together. We detected phylogenetic structure of mixed clades for S. clymene and S. coeruleoalba specimens, in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, and also between S. frontalis and S. attenuata in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and between S. frontalis and S. longirostris in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. These specimes were morphologically identified as one species but exhibited the maternal lineage of another species, by mitochondrial DNA. Our results demonstrate that ongoing gene flow is occurring among species of the genus Stenella reinforcing that this process could be one of the reasons for the confusing taxonomy and difficulties in elucidating phylogenetic relationships within this group.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Stenella , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Golfinhos/genética , Filogenia
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(15): 10764-10774, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35861411

RESUMO

Bisphenol analogues (BPs) are ubiquitous pollutants to marine organisms as endocrine disruptive chemicals. However, the residue contamination and the trophic transfer of BPs in the apex predator nearshore dolphins are poorly studied. Here, we measured the concentrations of six BPs, including bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol P (BPP), and bisphenol S (BPS) in the liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) (n = 75) collected from the Pearl River Estuary during a period with significant dietary changes (2004-2020). BPA and BPAF were the dominant components of the residue ∑BPs in the liver, with a proportion of 80%. Sex, maturity, and stranding location had no significant effects on BP levels. The generalized additive models indicated that BPA levels in juveniles and adults decreased from 2004 to 2013 while increasing from 2013 to 2020. The temporal trend of BPA levels was likely driven by the shift of the dominant diet from Harpadon nehereus to Thryssa spp. The concurrent increase of BPA loads in calves and juveniles and adults over the recent decades suggested that the diet-mediated variations of maternal BPA levels could be redistributed to their offspring.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , China , Dieta , Estuários , Fenóis , Rios
13.
Environ Pollut ; 308: 119655, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764182

RESUMO

Trace elements bioaccumulation patterns can be an important tool to assess differences among cetaceans' populations. In this work, their use as potential chemical markers to differentiate franciscanas (Pontoporia blainvillei) populations was evaluated. Franciscanas were collected from three states in southeastern Brazil, which comprise three different Franciscana Management Areas (FMAs): Espírito Santo (FMA Ia), southern Rio de Janeiro (FMA IIa), and central São Paulo (FMA IIb). The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn and Zn were determined in the muscle, liver and kidney of the animals. Cadmium was the most valuable chemical marker to differentiate stocks, separating at least FMA IIa from the others. The higher Cd levels in FMA IIa, along with dietary information, indicate that the predominant consumption of cephalopods by this population is the main reason for the differences found. Additionally, environmental characteristics of the areas should also be considered as divergent sources of trace elements. Our findings suggest that non-essential trace elements, such as Cd, can be successful markers to differentiate populations. The Mn concentrations in FMA Ia raised concern and must be carefully monitored, as well as other elements that compose the iron ore tailings that have impacted the Espírito Santo coastal area. Additionally, this is the first study to report trace element concentration in the franciscanas from FMA IIa (southern Rio de Janeiro). Trace element concentrations found in franciscanas may represent different contamination levels in their preys and environments, which might pose specific threats to distinct populations. Therefore, our findings are important to characterize and differentiate franciscana populations and to guide precise management and conservation actions for the distinct stocks of this endangered species.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Bioacumulação , Brasil , Cádmio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10639, 2022 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739207

RESUMO

The Humboldt Current Ecosystem (HCE) is one of the most productive marine ecosystems, sustaining one of the largest fishing industries in the world. Although several species of cetaceans are known to inhabit these productive waters, quantitative assessments of their abundance and distribution patterns are scarce and patchy. Here, we present the first abundance and distribution estimates for fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), southeast Pacific blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), and common dolphin (Delphinus spp.) in the entire Chilean portion of the HCE. Line transect surveys were conducted during 2016-2021 between 18° S and 41° S and up to ~ 200 km offshore, and data were analyzed using distance sampling methods. Group counts were modelled as a function of environmental variables using single step Bayesian Binomial N-mixture model (BNMM), which allows full uncertainty propagation between model components. By using spatially explicit predictions of cetacean densities and observed vessel densities in the HCE, we provide quantitative assessments on the relative probability of cetaceans encountering vessels (RPCEV). Dusky dolphin and fin whale showed the largest distribution overlap with industrial and artisanal fishery fleets. Our results highlight areas where effort should be prioritized to address the extant but unquantified negative interactions between vessels and cetaceans in Chilean HCE.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Golfinhos , Baleia Comum , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cetáceos , Chile , Ecossistema , Cachalote
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9382, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672330

RESUMO

Ganges River dolphins echolocate, but this mechanism is inadequate for poor sonar-echoing objects such as the monofilament gillnets, causing considerable net entanglement related mortalities. Net entanglement related deaths are one of the major causes of cetacean population decline around the world. Experiments were carried out to understand the use of pingers-an acoustic deterrent, in aiding the deterrence of dolphins from fishing nets. Based on the dolphin clicks recorded, in an experimental setup spanning 36 days, a 90% deterrence was found; 22.87 ± 0.71 SE dolphin detection positive minutes per hour near non-pingered nets versus 2.20 ± 0.33 SE per hour near pingered net. Within 30 m radii of nets, visual encounters of non-calf reduced by 52% and calf by 9%, in the presence of pingers. No evidence of habituation to pingers, habitat avoidance in dolphins after pinger removal or a change in fish catch in nets because of pingers was found during the study. While the effectiveness of pingers on calves and fish catch needs further experimentation, the use of pingers to minimize net entanglement mortalities in the Ganges River dolphins seems to be the most promising solution currently available. These results have critical implications for the conservation of other species of river dolphins around the world.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Animais , Cetáceos , Ecossistema , Rios , Som
16.
Mycopathologia ; 187(4): 385-391, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672489

RESUMO

Paracoccidiodomycosis ceti (PCM-C) is a zoonotic mycosis characterized by chronic granulomatous cutaneous lesions in cetaceans. It is distributed worldwide and is caused by an unculturable fungus; Paracoccidioides cetii. On the other hand, coccidioidomycosis (CCM), caused by Coccidioides spp., is also a zoonotic and highly pathogenic fungal infection endemic in both American continents. Even though the Far East is not an endemic area of CCM, an autochthonous case has been reported in China. Although the seroprevalence against P. cetii in captive dolphins was 61.0%, there is no information on wild dolphins living in cold waters. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence against P. cetii and C. posadasii in 15 Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli) and 11 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded in Hokkaido, Japan. The seroprevalence against P. cetii in the above dolphins was 26.9% (7/26), which was recorded only in Dall's porpoises (7/15), and that against C. posadasii was 15.4% (4/26), three in Dall's porpoises and one in harbor porpoise. The present study demonstrated positive seroprevalence against P. cetii and C. posadasii in wild cetaceans living in the subarctic areas of the Far East as the first records, and would issue the warning those who live in the area were exposed to the causative agent of CCM from seawater.


Assuntos
Coccidioidomicose , Golfinhos , Paracoccidioides , Phocoena , Animais , Coccidioides , Japão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(5): 3509, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649921

RESUMO

Detecting whistle events is essential when studying the population density and behavior of cetaceans. After eight months of passive acoustic monitoring in Xiamen, we obtained long calls from two Tursiops aduncus individuals. In this paper, we propose an algorithm with an unbiased gammatone multi-channel Savitzky-Golay for smoothing dynamic continuous background noise and interference from long click trains. The algorithm uses the method of least squares to perform a local polynomial regression on the time-frequency representation of multi-frequency resolution call measurements, which can effectively retain the whistle profiles while filtering out noise and interference. We prove that it is better at separating out whistles and has lower computational complexity than other smoothing methods. In order to further extract whistle features in enhanced spectrograms, we also propose a set of multi-scale and multi-directional moving filter banks for various whistle durations and contour shapes. The final binary adaptive decisions at frame level for whistle events are obtained from the histograms of multi-scale and multi-directional spectrograms. Finally, we explore the entire data set and find that the proposed scheme achieves the highest frame-level F1-scores when detecting T. aduncus whistles than the baseline schemes, with an improvement of more than 6%.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Vocalização Animal , Algoritmos , Animais , Cetáceos , Humanos , Espectrografia do Som
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 843: 156858, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772547

RESUMO

Plastic litter is a pollutant of aquatic environments worldwide, with some of the world's highest litter densities occurring in freshwater ecosystems. Little information about the risk that plastic litter poses to aquatic wildlife is available across the world's most polluted waterways. To help assess the risk to aquatic species where empirical data is lacking, our review presents i) a risk assessment methodology for predicting plastic litter impacts on aquatic wildlife in data poor environments, ii) a case study demonstrating this risk assessment methodology for wildlife across two heavily polluted river basins in Asia, the Mekong and Ganges River Basins; and iii) a broad review summarising common trends in litter interactions and risk to freshwater fish, aquatic birds, cetaceans and raptors. This risk analysis unites a systematic review approach with risk matrices following International Standards Organization's risk assessment criteria, evaluating the risk of plastic entanglement and ingestion and the potential for harm to the animal. In the Mekong and Ganges River Basins, we found that the risk of litter entanglement is higher than litter ingestion. Four species were forecast to be at high risk of entanglement: Ganges River dolphin, Gharial, Mekong giant catfish and Irrawaddy dolphin. The eastern imperial eagle and greater spotted eagle were noted to be at moderate risk of entanglement. Both the Ganges River dolphin and Irrawaddy dolphin were predicted to have a moderate risk of plastic ingestion. Interestingly, cranes, waterfowl and wading birds were deemed at low or negligible risk from plastic litter. This risk matrix methodology can be applied to other waterways and taxa to assess the risk posed by plastic. It can also be readily updated as more information becomes available. This review enables decision makers to bridge a data gap by providing a tool for conservation and management before comprehensive empirical data is available.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Plásticos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Ecossistema , Rios
19.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119526, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623568

RESUMO

With the dramatic increase in anthropogenic threats to the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), the population size of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) has significantly decreased over the past decade. To understand the impact and potential risks of intense human activities on these dolphins, factors related to the mortality of humpback dolphins in the PRE were investigated by a detailed examination of 343 dolphin specimens stranded during 2003-2017. There was a significant (p < 0.01) increasing trend for humpback dolphin stranding, reflecting the accelerating rate of the population decline. A large proportion of strandings (35.88%) were neonates. A low recruitment rate implies slow population growth, and hence, limited capacity to resist anthropogenic stress. The most commonly diagnosed causes of death were vessel collision and net entanglement. The concentrations of trace metals, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and most of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the dolphin samples were greater than those previously reported in cetaceans globally. Furthermore, Cu, PCB77, PCB169, PCB81, PCB37, and PFASs (excluding PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHxDA, and PFODA) were the major pollutants accumulated in neonates. 67% of PCB, 78% of Cu, and 100% of perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations in the neonates exceeded the threshold for toxicological effects in marine mammals, suggesting that these compounds could be important factors contributing to the low survival rate of calves in this area. This study revealed that vessel transportation, fishing activities, and pollutant bioaccumulation are the three major causes of humpback dolphin mortality in the PRE. These results highlight the need for more efforts to restrict anthropogenic activities, especially vessel traffic, the catching of these marine animals and fishing, and pollutant discharge, in order to prevent vulnerable species from continuous population decline and further extinction.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Animais , China , Estuários , Rios
20.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(7): 942-945, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598982

RESUMO

In this study, we isolated eight strains of Candida albicans from the blowhole air cultures of eight dolphins (one Pacific white-sided dolphin and seven bottlenose dolphins) housed at the Enoshima Aquarium. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungals for these isolates were determined by conducting E-test and broth microdilution assays using the CLSI M27-A3 protocol antifungal susceptibility testing method. Only one of the eight dolphins from which Candida had been isolated had been treated with amphotericin B (AMB), and four had been treated with itraconazole (ITZ). All isolates were identified as Candida albicans, and all were resistant to both ITZ and voriconazole, though the isolates exhibited susceptibility to AMB and micafungin. Based on our findings, we suspect that the frequency of occurrence of azole-resistant Candida species is increasing in captive dolphins as well as in their aquarium environments.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Golfinhos , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida , Candida albicans , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Itraconazol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Voriconazol
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