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1.
Virology ; 596: 110123, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805805

RESUMO

Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD), a poxvirus disease affecting cattle, emerged in India in 2019 and intensified in 2022, resulting in significant economic losses for dairy farmers. There was unusual shift in mortality and morbidity patterns during the second wave. A comprehensive genetic study conducted, analyzing samples from 2019 to 2022 revealed circulation of two distinct subclades (subclade 1.2a and 1.2b) in India, with the latter showing a different pattern in morbidity and mortality. Notably, the Ankyrin repeats gene-based analysis could differentiate animals with varying clinical scores. Genetic variations were significant, with unique deletions identified, including a 12-nucleotide deletion in the GPCR gene in virus isolates collected during 2022 outbreaks, not reported earlier in Indian LSDV strains. A crucial finding was a significant 95-nucleotide deletion in the Functional Resolution Sequence (FRS) repeats of LSDV genomes from 2022 outbreaks, absent in 2019 samples. These deletions may have influenced the virus's virulence in India.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Filogenia , Índia/epidemiologia , Animais , Doença Nodular Cutânea/virologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/patogenicidade , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/isolamento & purificação , Virulência/genética , Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 40(2): 261-276, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811129

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a contagious non-zoonotic viral disease of cattle. The disease raises great concern due to the recent rapid spread toward free countries and reoccurrence in countries where control and preventive measures had achieved eradication. Deep nodules involving skin, subcutaneous tissue, and occasionally muscles are localized mostly in the head, neck, perineum, genitalia, udder, and limbs. LSD can cause large economic losses mainly because of the decline in milk production and the decrease in hide value, in addition to the ban of movement of animals and animal products.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Doença Nodular Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Feminino
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(5): 167, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761254

RESUMO

Ticks can transmit viruses, bacteria, and parasites to humans, livestock, and pet animals causing tick-borne diseases (TBDs) mechanically or biologically in the world. Lumpy skin disease virus, Anaplasma marginale, and Theileria annulata inflict severe infections in cattle, resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. The study investigated the potential transmissions of LSDV, A. marginale, and T. annulata through male Hyalomma anatolicum ticks in cattle calves. Two 6-month-old Holstein crossbred calves designated as A and B were used. On day 1, 15 uninfected female ticks (IIa) and infected batch of 40 male ticks (I) were attached on calf A for 11 days. Filial transmission of the infections was observed in female ticks (IIb) collected from calf A, where 8 female ticks had been co-fed with infected male ticks. The blood sample of calf B was found positive through PCR for the infections. The larvae and egg pools obtained from the infected ticks were also tested positive in PCR. The study confirmed the presence of these mixed pathogens and potential intra-stadial and transovarial transmissions of A. marginale, T. annulata, and LSDV in male and female ticks of H. anatolicum and experimental calves to establish the feasibility of infections through an in vivo approach.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale , Anaplasmose , Ixodidae , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Theileria annulata , Theileriose , Animais , Bovinos , Masculino , Anaplasma marginale/isolamento & purificação , Ixodidae/virologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Theileria annulata/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/fisiologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Anaplasmose/transmissão , Theileriose/transmissão , Doença Nodular Cutânea/transmissão , Doença Nodular Cutânea/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Larva/virologia
4.
Viruses ; 16(5)2024 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38793643

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease is one of the fast-spreading viral diseases of cattle and buffalo that can potentially cause severe economic impact. Lesotho experienced LSD for the first time in 1947 and episodes of outbreaks occurred throughout the decades. In this study, eighteen specimens were collected from LSD-clinically diseased cattle between 2020 and 2022 from Mafeteng, Leribe, Maseru, Berea, and Mohales' Hoek districts of Lesotho. A total of 11 DNA samples were analyzed by PCR and sequencing of the extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) glycoprotein, G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR), 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit (RPO30), and B22R genes. All nucleotide sequences of the above-mentioned genes confirmed that the PCR amplicons of clinical samples are truly LSDV, as they were identical to respective LSDV isolates on the NCBI GenBank. Two of the elevem samples were further characterized by whole-genome sequencing. The analysis, based on both CaPV marker genes and complete genome sequences, revealed that the LSDV isolates from Lesotho cluster with the NW-like LSDVs, which includes the commonly circulating LSDV field isolates from Africa, the Middle East, the Balkans, Turkey, and Eastern Europe.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Filogenia , Animais , Bovinos , Doença Nodular Cutânea/virologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Genoma Viral
5.
Acta Trop ; 254: 107205, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579960

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is a transboundary viral disease in cattle and water buffaloes. Although this Poxvirus is supposedly transmitted by mechanical vectors, only a few studies have investigated the role of local vectors in the transmission of LSDV. This study examined the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates of LSDV in Aedes aegypti, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and Culex quinquefasciatus following artificial membrane feeding of 102.7, 103.7, 104.7 TCID50/mL LSDV in sheep blood. The results demonstrated that these mosquito species were susceptible to LSDV, with Cx tritaeniorhynchus exhibiting significantly different characteristics from Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. These three mosquito species were susceptible to LSDV. Ae. aegypti showed it as early as 2 days post-infection (dpi), indicating swift dissemination in this particular species. The extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of LSDV in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus was 8 and 14 dpi, respectively. Ingestion of different viral titers in blood did not affect the infection, dissemination, or transmission rates of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. All rates remained consistently high at 8-14 dpi for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. In all three species, LSDV remained detectable until 14 dpi. The present findings indicate that, Ae. aegypti, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus may act as vectors during the LSDV outbreak; their involvement may extend beyond being solely mechanical vectors.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Culex/virologia , Aedes/virologia , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/fisiologia , Ovinos , Doença Nodular Cutânea/transmissão , Doença Nodular Cutânea/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Feminino
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(5): 210, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592503

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating viral disease of cattle. It is caused by Lumpy Skin Disease Virus (LSDV) belonging to the genus Capripoxvirus and family Poxviridae. The origin of lumpy skin disease has been traced to Zambia, (an African nation) in Southern part during the year 1929. The first reported case of LSD besides Africa was from Israel, a Middle Eastern nation, thus proving inter-continental spread. Subsequently, the disease entered Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia with numerous outbreaks in the recent years. LSD has emerged as a significant concern in the Indian sub-continent, due to outbreaks reported in countries such as Bangladesh, India, China in 2019. In the following years, other South and East Asian countries like Taipei, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Bhutan, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Pakistan, Indonesia and Singapore also faced severe outbreaks. At present, LSD is considered to be an emerging disease in the Indian sub-continent due to the recent status of disease. Considering the global scenario, LSDV is changing its transmission dynamics as evidenced by a shift in its epidemiology. As a result of high morbidity and mortality rate among cattle, the current outbreaks have been a major cause of socio-economic catastrophe. This contagious viral disease has eminent repercussions as the estimated monetary damage incurred is quite high. Despite having networked surveillance and comprehensive databases, the recurring outbreaks have raised major concern among researchers. Therefore, this review offers brief insights into the emergence of LSDV by amalgamating the newest literature related to its biology, transmission, clinico-pathology, epidemiology, prevention strategies, and economic consequences. Additionally, we have also provided the epidemiological insights of the recent outbreaks with detailed state wise studies.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Bovinos , Animais , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , China , Índia/epidemiologia
7.
Viruses ; 16(4)2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38675899

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is a member of the capripoxvirus (CPPV) genus of the Poxviridae family. LSDV is a rapidly emerging, high-consequence pathogen of cattle, recently spreading from Africa and the Middle East into Europe and Asia. We have sequenced the whole genome of historical LSDV isolates from the Pirbright Institute virus archive, and field isolates from recent disease outbreaks in Sri Lanka, Mongolia, Nigeria and Ethiopia. These genome sequences were compared to published genomes and classified into different subgroups. Two subgroups contained vaccine or vaccine-like samples ("Neethling-like" clade 1.1 and "Kenya-like" subgroup, clade 1.2.2). One subgroup was associated with outbreaks of LSD in the Middle East/Europe (clade 1.2.1) and a previously unreported subgroup originated from cases of LSD in west and central Africa (clade 1.2.3). Isolates were also identified that contained a mix of genes from both wildtype and vaccine samples (vaccine-like recombinants, grouped in clade 2). Whole genome sequencing and analysis of LSDV strains isolated from different regions of Africa, Europe and Asia have provided new knowledge of the drivers of LSDV emergence, and will inform future disease control strategies.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/classificação , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doença Nodular Cutânea/virologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Bovinos , África Central/epidemiologia , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças
8.
J Virol Methods ; 326: 114916, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479589

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is a rapidly emerging pathogen in China. Screening suitable cells for LSDV replication is vital for future research on pathogenic mechanisms and vaccine development. Previous comparative studies have identified that the rodent-derived BHK21 is a highly susceptible cell model to LSDV infection. Using western blot, indirect immune-fluorescence assay, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy methods, this study is the first to identify the murine osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 as a novel permissive cell model for LSDV infection. The establishment of MC3T3-E1 as a suitable infectious cell model enhances our understanding of the species range and cell types of the permissive cells and nonpermissive that support LSDV replication. It is helpful to accelerate future research on the pathogenesis, clinical application, and vaccine development of LSDV.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Bovinos , Animais , Camundongos , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , China
9.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 33, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493160

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) infection is a major socio-economic issue that seriously threatens the global cattle-farming industry. Here, a recombinant virus LSDV-ΔTK/EGFP, expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was constructed with a homologous recombination system and applied to the high-throughput screening of antiviral drugs. LSDV-ΔTK/EGFP replicates in various kidney cell lines, consistent with wild-type LSDV. The cytopathic effect, viral particle morphology, and growth performance of LSDV-ΔTK/EGFP are consistent with those of wild-type LSDV. High-throughput screening allowed to identify several molecules that inhibit LSDV-ΔTK/EGFP replication. The strong inhibitory effect of theaflavin on LSDV was identified when 100 antiviral drugs were screened in vitro. An infection time analysis showed that theaflavin plays a role in the entry of LSDV into cells and in subsequent viral replication stages. The development of this recombinant virus will contribute to the development of LSDV-directed antiviral drugs and the study of viral replication and mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Bovinos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/veterinária , Replicação Viral , Linhagem Celular
10.
Arch Virol ; 169(3): 65, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451344

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a disease of cattle that is also known to cause mild infection in buffaloes. To date, there have been no reports of LSD in mithun (Bos frontalis), a bovine species distributed in Northeast India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and parts of China. In the present study, the presence of typical clinical signs, virus isolation, PCR amplification, sequence analysis, and the demonstration of antibodies in serum by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum neutralization test, confirmed the occurrence of LSD in mithun for the first time in India. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length RPO30 and P32 genes of LSD virus from mithun and cattle revealed 100% sequence identity, indicating circulation of the same strain in both species in India and the possibility of spillover between species.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea , Bovinos , Animais , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Anticorpos , Bangladesh , Búfalos , Índia/epidemiologia
11.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543831

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral disease of cattle and water buffalo characterized by cutaneous nodules, biphasic fever, and lymphadenitis. LSD is endemic in Africa and the Middle East but has spread to different Asian countries in recent years. The disease is well characterized in cattle while little is known about the disease in buffaloes in which no experimental studies have been conducted. Six buffaloes and two cattle were inoculated with an Albanian LSD virus (LSDV) field strain and clinically monitored for 42 days. Only two buffaloes showed fever, skin nodules, and lymphadenitis. All samples collected (blood, swabs, biopsies, and organs) were tested in real-time PCR and were negative. Between day 39 and day 42 after inoculation, anti-LSDV antibodies were detected in three buffaloes by ELISA, but all sera were negative by virus neutralization test (VNT). Cattle showed severe clinical signs, viremia, virus shedding proven by positive real-time PCR results, and seroconversion confirmed by both ELISA and VNT. Clinical findings suggest that susceptibility in buffaloes is limited compared to in cattle once experimentally infected with LSDV. Virological results support the hypothesis of buffalo resistance to LSD and its role as an accidental non-adapted host. This study highlights that the sensitivity of ELISA and VNT may differ between animal species and further studies are needed to investigate the epidemiological role of water buffalo.


Assuntos
Bison , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Linfadenite , Animais , Bovinos , Búfalos
12.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399948

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has recently undergone rapid spread, now being reported from more than 80 countries, affecting predominantly cattle and to a lesser extent, water buffalo. This poxvirus was previously considered to be highly host-range restricted. However, there is an increasing number of published reports on the detection of the virus from different game animal species. The virus has not only been shown to infect a wide range of game species under experimental conditions, but has also been naturally detected in oryx, giraffe, camels and gazelle. In addition, clinical lumpy skin disease has previously been described in springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), an African antelope species, in South Africa. This report describes the characterization of lumpy skin disease virus belonging to cluster 1.2, from field samples from springbok, impala (Aepyceros melampus) and a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in South Africa using PCR, Sanger and whole genome sequencing. Most of these samples were submitted from wild animals in nature reserves or game parks, indicating that the disease is not restricted to captive-bred animals on game farms or zoological gardens. The potential role of wildlife species in the transmission and maintenance of LSDV is further discussed and requires continuing investigation, as the virus and disease may pose a serious threat to endangered species.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Girafas , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Bovinos , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens , África do Sul , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária
13.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 20(1): 21, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethnoveterinary studies are important to maintain the sustainability of livestock health and support people's livelihoods through the provision of food, maintaining livestock health, and other biological resources. This study was carried out in Soro District, southern Ethiopia, to identify, document and analyse plant species with ethnoveterinary uses along with the associated indigenous and local knowledge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Informants were selected using purposive (key informants) and systematic random sampling (general informants) methods. Data on ethnoveterinary plants and their uses were collected through semi-structured interviews, guided field walks, 13 focus group discussions with five to seven members in each and participant observation. Informant consensus factor and fidelity level were computed to identify the most common livestock ailment categories and the best plant species with ethnoveterinary use, respectively. Preference ranking methods were used to identify the potentially effective ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the most frequently reported livestock ailments. The use diversity of multipurpose plants with ethnoveterinary importance was analysed using the analytical methods of ethnobotany including priority ranking, comparisons and important indices. The T-test statistic was used to compare knowledge differences among different social groups. RESULTS: A total of 132 plant species in 120 genera and 61 families were reported by informants as having ethnoveterinary uses. The plants are said to be used by the local communities in various ways to treat 50 livestock health problems. Higher number of informants (23.77%) cited Momordica foetida for the treatment of 16 livestock ailments. The highest informant consensus value for this species is associated with its use for treating blackleg in cattle; Nicotiana tabacum was cited for the treatment of 15 livestock ailments mainly recommended for the Lumpy Skin Disease/Ailment of bovines; Croton macrostachyus for treatment of 13 livestock ailments including wooden tongue, FMD in bovines; and Gymnanthemum amygdalinum for nine ailments mainly diarrhoea of all livestock types. Achyranthes aspera is claimed to provide the most effective treatment for Aspiration pneumonia (severe coughing in bovines, sheep and goats) alone, while Croton macrostachyus, Ximenia americana, Allium sativum and Juniperus procera were indicated as potential plant species to treat Lumpy Skin Disease in bovines in the order given. The fidelity level analysis showed that Datura stramonium, Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustifolia and Asparagus africanus were potential medicinal plant species to treat the respective ailments of rabies, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and evil eye/spirit. Multipurpose plant species including Prunus africanus, Combretum molle and Afrocarpus falcatus have been highly threatened as indicated by direct matrix ranking mainly due to collection of fuel wood, construction materials and making household utensils, and farm implements rather than for other uses. CONCLUSION: Soro District has rich and diversified livestock herbal medicinal resources, and indigenous knowledge of remedy preparations and applications is transmitted through generation lines. This resource faces anthropogenic threats with deforestation being the leading factor. Consequently, ethnoveterinary medicinal plants continue to decline before adequate and proper scientific documentation and testing are made. There is a dire need for planning and implementation of appropriate in situ and ex situ conservation strategies and to strive towards ensuring the survival and sustainable utilization of such important plant resources of Soro District. This must be supported by further documentation of the associated indigenous knowledge and pharmacological testing of the key promising species including Balanites aegyptiaca (novel species/NS to treat specific ailment), Brugmansia suaveolens (novel species/NS reported first to treat Livestock ailments/LsAs), Euclea divinorum (NS to treat specific ailments), Grevillea robusta (NS), Hagenia abyssinica (NS for the reported specific ailment), Pentanema confertiflorum (NS), Juniperus procera (NS), Maesa lanceolata (NS), Millettia ferruginea (NS for reported specific ailments), Schrebera alata/NS, Securidaca longepedunculata, Spiniluma oxyacantha/NS, Vepris nobilis (novel species reported first to treat LsAs), Zanthoxylum asiaticum /NS and Ximenia americana (NS for specific ailments). This ethnoveterinary study attempted to fill part of the gaps concerning the prevalent livestock health problems and the associated indigenous and local knowledge in the area.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Ligas Metalo-Cerâmicas , Plantas Medicinais , Titânio , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Etiópia , Etnobotânica/métodos , Gado , Cabras
14.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 196, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373902

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) belongs to the genus Capripoxvirus and family Poxviridae. LSDV was endemic in most of Africa, the Middle East and Turkey, but since 2015, several outbreaks have been reported in other countries. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing approach to investigate the origin of the outbreak and understand the genomic landscape of the virus. Our study showed that the LSDV strain of 2022 outbreak exhibited many genetic variations compared to the Reference Neethling strain sequence and the previous field strains. A total of 1819 variations were found in 22 genome sequences, which includes 399 extragenic mutations, 153 insertion frameshift mutations, 234 deletion frameshift mutations, 271 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 762 silent SNPs. Thirty-eight genes have more than 2 variations per gene, and these genes belong to viral-core proteins, viral binding proteins, replication, and RNA polymerase proteins. We highlight the importance of several SNPs in various genes, which may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of LSDV. Phylogenetic analysis performed on all whole genome sequences of LSDV showed two types of variants in India. One group of the variant with fewer mutations was found to lie closer to the LSDV 2019 strain from Ranchi while the other group clustered with previous Russian outbreaks from 2015. Our study highlights the importance of genomic characterization of viral outbreaks to not only monitor the frequency of mutations but also address its role in pathogenesis of LSDV as the outbreak continues.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Bovinos , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Filogenia , Genômica , Surtos de Doenças
15.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 24(5): e150124225632, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231058

RESUMO

The novel bovine viral infection known as lumpy skin disease is common in most African and Middle Eastern countries, with a significant likelihood of disease transfer to Asia and Europe. Recent rapid disease spread in formerly disease-free zones highlights the need of understanding disease limits and distribution mechanisms. Capripox virus, the causal agent, may also cause sheeppox and Goatpox. Even though the virus is expelled through several bodily fluids and excretions, the most common causes of infection include sperm and skin sores. Thus, vulnerable hosts are mostly infected mechanically by hematophagous arthropods such as biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. As a result, milk production lowers, abortions, permanent or temporary sterility, hide damage, and mortality occur, contributing to a massive financial loss for countries that raise cattle. These illnesses are economically significant because they affect international trade. The spread of Capripox viruses appears to be spreading because to a lack of effectual vaccinations and poverty in rural areas. Lumpy skin disease has reached historic levels; as a consequence, vaccination remains the only viable option to keep the illness from spreading in endemic as well as newly impacted areas. This study is intended to offer a full update on existing knowledge of the disease's pathological characteristics, mechanisms of spread, transmission, control measures, and available vaccinations.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Doença Nodular Cutânea/virologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/terapia , Bovinos , Gado/virologia , Fazendeiros , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Humanos , Vacinação/veterinária , Capripoxvirus
16.
Aust Vet J ; 102(4): 200-214, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220215

RESUMO

We quantified the sensitivity of surveillance for lumpy skin disease (LSD) and foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. We monitored producer and veterinary activity with cattle for 3 years commencing January 2020. Each year, ~274,000 cattle of 685,540 present on 92 pastoral leases (stations) were consigned to other stations, live export or slaughter. Veterinarians examined 103,000 cattle on the stations, 177,000 prior to live export, and 10,000 prior to slaughter. Detection probabilities for the disease prior to transport or during veterinary procedures and inspections were elicited by survey of 17 veterinarians working in Northern Australia. The veterinarians estimated the probabilities that they would notice, recognise, and submit samples from clinical cases of LSD and FMD, given a 5% prevalence of clinical signs in the herd. We used scenario tree methodology to estimate monthly surveillance sensitivity of observations made by producers and by veterinarians during herd management visits, pre-export inspections, and ante-mortem inspections. Average monthly combined sensitivities were 0.49 for FMD and 0.37 for LSD. Sensitivity was high for both diseases during the dry season and low in the wet season. We estimated the confidence in freedom from the estimated surveillance sensitivity given one hypothetically infected herd, estimated probability of introduction, and prior confidence in freedom. This study provided assurance that the Kimberley is free of these diseases and that routine producer and veterinary interactions with cattle are adequate for the timely detection of the disease should they be introduced.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Febre Aftosa , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Bovinos , Febre Aftosa/diagnóstico , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/diagnóstico , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia
17.
Arch Virol ; 169(2): 23, 2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193946

RESUMO

In 2018, the molecular epidemiology of lumpy skin disease in Russia was characterized by a surge in novel recombinant vaccine-like strains causing outbreaks along the southern border, spreading in an easterly direction. Currently, five distinct novel recombinant vaccine-like lineages have been described, designated as clusters 2.1 to 2.5. Based on the complete genome sequence analysis of the causative lumpy skin disease virus (Kurgan/Russia/2018), obtained from an eponymous outbreak, the genome was shown to be composed of a Neethling vaccine strain virus as the dominant parental strain and KSGPO vaccine virus as its minor parental strain. These features are similar to those of Saratov/Russia/2017 and Tyumen/Russia/2018, representing clusters 2.1 and 2.4, respectively. However, Kurgan/Russia/2018 has 16 statistically significant recombination events unique to this sequence, contributing to the phylogenetic clustering of Kurgan/Russia/2018 in yet another cluster designed cluster 2.6, based on analysis involving the complete genome sequences.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Bovinos , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Filogenia , Vacinas Sintéticas , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças
18.
Microb Pathog ; 186: 106485, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38052279

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging transboundary viral disease of livestock animals which was first reported in 1929 in Zambia. Although LSD is a neglected disease of economic importance, it extends a direct impact on the international trade and economy in livestock-dependent countries. Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has been endemic in African countries, where several outbreaks have been reported previously. However, the virus has spread rapidly across the Middle East in the past two decades, reaching Russia and, recently, the Asian subcontinent. With unprecedented cluster outbreaks being reported across Asian countries like India, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, LSDV is certainly undergoing an epidemiological shift and expanding its geographical footprint worldwide. Due to high mortality among livestock animals, the recent LSD outbreaks have gained attention from global regulatory authorities and raised serious concerns among epidemiologists and veterinary researchers. Despite networked global surveillance of the disease, recurrent LSD cases pose a threat to the livestock industry. Hence, this review provides recent insights into the LSDV biology by augmenting the latest literature associated with its pathogenesis, transmission, current intervention strategies, and economic implications. The review critically examines the changing epidemiological footprint of LSDV globally, especially in relation to developing countries of the Asian subcontinent. We also speculate the possible reasons contributing to the ongoing LSD outbreaks, including illegal animal trade, climate change, genetic recombination events between wild-type and vaccine strains, reversion of vaccine strains to virulent phenotype, and deficiencies in active monitoring during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Doença Nodular Cutânea , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Comércio , Pandemias , Internacionalidade , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea/genética , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas , Paquistão , Filogenia
19.
Vaccine ; 42(2): 369-374, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38057206

RESUMO

Vaccination is the most effective control measure for Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD). The Bakirköy strain-derived sheep pox vaccine (SPPV) has been used against LSD in Türkiye since 2013. In this study, a cattle herd was vaccinated with SPPV and 35 cattle, of which 9 and 26 received 10 and 5 sheep doses, respectively, were followed for 200 days for humoral immune responses. Additionally, maternal antibodies in colostrum-fed calves were investigated. The humoral immune responses of naive and previously vaccinated cattle were compared to determine the effects of annual re-vaccination. Furthermore, the compatibility of the VNT and ELISA tests was analyzed. According to the results, on day 30 post-vaccination, 19 and 13 out of 35 cattle were positive for VNT and ELISA, respectively. The number of seropositive cattle was higher in the group that had been vaccinated in previous years than in naive cattle. No significant differences were observed in the number of positive cattle between the groups vaccinated with the 5- and 10- doses. In colostrum-fed calves grouped according to age, the seropositivity rate was 87 % (41/47) in the one-week-old group, while this rate was only 18 % (3/16) in the 3-month-old group. It was determined that vaccination at different stages in the last four months of pregnancy did not cause any difference in the number of seropositive calves in one-week-old calves fed with colostrum. The concordance between VNT and ELISA tests was lower in 5-dose vaccinated group than 10-dose vaccinated and colostrum-fed calves groups. This study provides insights into the effect of the vaccination strategy followed by Türkiye during its combat of LSD and revealed that annual repeated vaccination using heterologous vaccine has significant positive effects on humoral immun response at the herd level.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Infecções por Poxviridae , Vacinas Virais , Feminino , Gravidez , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos , Imunidade Humoral , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinação/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle
20.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0291692, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37967138

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is one of the most important notifiable transboundary diseases affecting cattle in many parts of the world. In Thailand, LSD outbreaks in cattle farming areas have been reported in 69 out of 77 provinces, indicating a serious nationwide situation. Understanding the dynamics of spatial and temporal LSD epidemic patterns can provide important information on disease transmission and control. This study aims to identify spatial and temporal clusters in the first LSD outbreaks in dairy farming areas with a high degree of aggregation in Northern Thailand using spatio-temporal models. The data were obtained from an official LSD outbreak investigation conducted between June and August 2021 on dairy farms (n = 202). The outbreak of LSD was confirmed by employing clinical observations and laboratory analysis. The spatio-temporal models including space-time permutation (STP), Poisson, and Bernoulli were applied to the outbreak data with the settings of 10%, 25%, and 50%, respectively, for the maximum reported cluster size (MRCS). Overall, the number of most likely and secondary clusters varied depending on the model and MRCS settings. All MRCS settings in the STP model detected the most likely clusters in the same area and the Poisson models in different areas, with the largest being defined by a 50% MRCS. Although the sizes of the most likely clusters identified by the Bernoulli models were different, they all had the same cluster period. Based on the sizes of the detected clusters, strict LSD insect-vector control should be undertaken within one kilometer of the outbreak farm in areas where no LSD vaccination has been administered. This study determines the sizes and patterns of LSD outbreak clusters in the dairy farming area with a high degree of farm aggregation. The spatio-temporal study models used in this study, along with multiple adjusted MRCS, provide critical epidemiological information. These models also expand the options for assisting livestock authorities in facilitating effective LSD prevention and control programs. By prioritizing areas for resource allocation, these models can help improve the efficiency of such programs.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Doença Nodular Cutânea , Animais , Bovinos , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Fazendas , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária
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