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1.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 22(3): 16-24, sep.-dic. 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-396

RESUMO

Attention is a very important aspect for school and physic performance and, regular breakfast consumption has been associated with better student performance. In addition, adequate glycemia levels are related to better quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of breakfast consumption andglycemia levels on concentrated and distributed attention levels of high school students. This is a quantitative and cross-sectional research. The sample was composed by 54 students with average ages of 16±0.89, regularly enrolled in high school at an institution of the public school system. For this research we used the following data collection instruments: I) food records; II) capillary blood glucose testing with electronic device; III) Toulouse-Piéron's concentrated attention test, and; IV) Grid-type test. The data was collected on visits to the research site from 8:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. The sample was divided into fed group (who had breakfast) and fasting group (who had no breakfast). The fed group showed statistically better results for glycemia levels (87.25±14.76 mg/dl), concentrated attention (116.21±36.49 points), and distributed attention (20.89±4.08 points). Mild correlations between the glycemia and attention levels were found. The results suggest a positive association between breakfast consumption and glycemia levels adequate to health with concentrated and distributed attention levels. (AU)


La atención es un aspecto muy importante para el desempeño escolary,el consumo regular de desayuno se ha asociado con un mejor desempeño de los estudiantes. Además, los niveles adecuados de glucemia están relacionados con una mejor calidad de vida. Por lo tanto, el propósito de este estudio es analizar los efectos del consumo de desayuno y los niveles de glucemia en los niveles de atención concentrada y distribuida de los estudiantes de secundaria. Se trata de una investigación cuantitativa y transversal. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 54 estudiantes con edad promedio de 16 ± 0.89, matriculadosregularmente en la escuela secundaria en una institución del sistema escolar público. Para esta investigación utilizamos los siguientes instrumentos de recolección de datos: I) registros de alimentos; II) prueba de glucosa en sangre capilar con dispositivo electrónico; III) Prueba de atención concentrada de Toulouse-Piéron, y; IV) Ensayo tipo cuadrícula. Los datos se recolectaron en visitas al sitio de investigación de 8:00 a.m. a 9:00 a.m. La muestra se dividió en grupo alimentado (que desayunó) y grupo en ayunas (que no desayunó). El grupo alimentado mostró estadísticamente mejores resultados para los niveles de glucemia (87,25 ± 14,76 mg / dl), atención concentrada (116,21 ± 36,49 puntos) y atención distribuida (20,89 ± 4,08 puntos). Se encontraron levescorrelaciones entre la glucemia y los niveles de atención. Los resultados sugieren una asociación positiva entre el consumo de desayuno y los niveles de glucemia adecuados a la salud con los niveles de atención concentrada y distribuida. (AU)


A atenção é um aspecto bastante relevante para o rendimento físico e escolar, do mesmo modo, o consumo regular do café da manhã tem sido associado ao melhor desempenho de estudantes. Em complemento, índices adequados de glicemia estão relacionados a melhor qualidade de vida. Portanto, a presente pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar o impacto do consumo do café da manhã e dos índices de glicemia nos níveis de atenção concentrada e distributiva de escolares do ensino médio. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como quantitativa e transversal. A amostra foi composta por 54 escolares com idade média de 16±0,89, regularmente matriculados no ensino médio de uma instituição da rede pública de ensino. Foram utilizados como instrumentos de coleta de dados: I) recordatório alimentar; II) teste de glicemia capilar por dispositivo eletrônico; III) teste de atenção concentrada de Toulouse-Piéron e; IV) teste do tipo Grelha. Os dados foram coletados em visitas ao local de pesquisaentre às 08h00min e 09h00min. A amostra foi dicotomizada em grupo alimentado (que consumiu café da manhã) e grupo jejum (sem consumo de café da manhã). O grupo alimentado apresentou resultados estatisticamente melhores de índice de glicemia (87,25±14,76 mg/dl), atenção concentrada (116,21±36,49 pontos) e atenção distributiva (20,89±4,08 pontos). Foram identificadas correlações leves entre o índice de glicemia e os níveis de atenção. Os resultados sugerem uma associação positiva entre o consumo do café da manhã e índices de glicemia adequados à saúde com os níveis de atenção concentrada e distributiva. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Desjejum , Atenção , Estudantes , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Brasil , Jejum
2.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079754

RESUMO

(1) Background: Dietary intake may have a remarkable effect on sleep because skipping breakfast and having a late dinner affects many sleep parameters. Breakfast is the most important meal of the day for children and adults to maintain morning chronotype. We examine whether breakfast style is associated with nutrient intake and sleep factors. (2) Methods: This cross-sectional analysis, with a large sample size of 2671 (766 men and 1805 women aged 20-60 years after data brush-up), was based on data obtained from an online survey. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman's rank correlation test. The Kruskal-Wallis's test followed by post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison test was used to evaluate the interaction between sleep factors and breakfast categories. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with multiple confounding factors. Dietary data were analyzed using approximately one-month average dietary records from the application. The basic characteristics of the participants (age, sex, and BMI) and other lifestyle-related factors (sleep and physical activity) were obtained accordingly. Sleep parameters including the timing of weekday sleep onset, weekday wake-up, weekend (free day) sleep onset, weekend wake-up, sleep, and midpoints of sleep phase were calculated for each participant. We categorized participants' breakfast types into five groups: (1) Japanese meal, where breakfast may contain Japanese ingredients such as rice; (2) Western meal, where breakfast may contain bread; (3) alternating eating patterns of Japanese and Western meals; (4) cereals and supplements, where breakfast may contain cereals or supplements and energy bars; and (5) skipped breakfast (no breakfast). (3) Results: The midpoint values of the sleep phase on weekends adjusted for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc) related to chronotype were higher in women, suggesting that they may prefer eveningness. Participants with obesity, young age, and low physical activity preferred eveningness with longer sleep durations. Intake of Japanese-style breakfast was significantly associated with early wake-up time on both weekdays and weekends. Cereal-style breakfast intake was significantly associated with late wake-up on both weekdays and weekends. Intake of macronutrients such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, and sodium at breakfast time was positively and strongly associated with the intake of Japanese breakfast, whereas macronutrients were negatively associated with the intake of cereal breakfast. Among micronutrients, vitamin K was positively correlated with Japanese breakfast and negatively correlated with cereal breakfast; (4) Conclusions: Japanese-style breakfast is associated not only with morning preference but also with high intake of macro- and micronutrients.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Ritmo Circadiano , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Sono
3.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079769

RESUMO

In May 2020, the European Commission announced a proposal for a mandatory front-of-pack label (FoPL) for all European Union (EU) countries. Indeed, FoPLs have been recognized by several public institutions as a cost-effective measure to guide consumers toward nutritionally favorable food products. The aim of this study was to compare the performance and consumer preference of two FoPLs currently proposed or implemented in EU countries, the interpretive format Nutri-Score and the non-interpretive format NutrInform Battery, among Italian consumers. The experimental study was conducted in 2021 on a representative sample of 1064 Italian adults (mean age = 46.5 ± 14.1 years; 48% men). Participants were randomized to either Nutri-Score or NutrInform and had to fill out an online questionnaire testing their objective understanding of the FoPL on three food categories (breakfast products, breakfast cereals and added fats) as well as purchase intention, subjective understanding and perception. Multivariable logistic regressions and t-tests were used to analyze the answers. In terms of the capacity of participants to identify the most nutritionally favorable products, Nutri-Score outperformed NutrInform in all food categories, with the highest odds ratio being observed for added fats (OR = 21.7 [15.3-31.1], p < 0.0001). Overall, with Nutri-Score, Italian participants were more likely to intend to purchase nutritionally favorable products than with NutrInform (OR = 5.29 [4.02-6.97], p < 0.0001). Focusing on olive oil, participants of the Nutri-Score group had higher purchase intention of olive oil compared to those in the NutrInform group (OR = 1.92 [1.42-2.60], p < 0.0001) after manipulating the label. The interpretive format Nutri-Score appears to be a more efficient tool than NutrInform for orienting Italian consumers towards more nutritionally favorable food choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Adulto , Desjejum , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Azeite de Oliva
4.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the associations between dietary patterns (breakfast, egg, dairy products, and sugared beverage intake frequencies) and physical fitness among Chinese children and adolescents in Shaanxi Province. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). The study ultimately included 7305 participants (48.4% male, 51.6% female) aged 6-22 in Shaanxi Province, China. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association of the frequency of breakfast, egg, dairy product, and sugared beverage intakes with physical fitness. RESULTS: The frequency of breakfast, egg, and dairy product intakes were all independently and positively associated with the level of physical fitness. The frequency of sugared beverage intake was negatively associated with the level of physical fitness. CONCLUSION: Healthier dietary patterns (i.e., higher breakfast, egg, and dairy product intakes and lower sugared beverage intake) were associated with greater physical fitness. Specifically, maintaining a healthy dietary pattern of breakfast, egg, and dairy product intakes can positively affect the strength and endurance performance of children and adolescents. Increased dairy product intake plays a crucial part in boosting the physical fitness total scores of children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Criança , China , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física
5.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 381, 2022 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of the present trial was to assess the difference in pharmacokinetics (PK) of an oral test preparation containing 4 mg drospirenone (DRSP) under fasting conditions compared to PK upon food intake after single dose administration. METHODS: Open label, single centre, two-treatment, two-sequence, crossover study in 24 healthy female volunteers, with duration of 1 day per sequence and with a real wash-out period of 14 days to investigate the relative bioavailability of DRSP with both forms of administration. The 90% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the intra-individual ratio (test with food vs. without food) of the PK endpoints Area under the curve; 0-72 h [AUC(0-72 h)] and maximal plasma concentration [Cmax] of DRSP. RESULTS: The 90% CI calculated by analysis of variance using logistic transformation (ANOVA-log) for the endpoint, intra-individual ratio (Test 'A' = with food intake) vs. Test 'B' = without food intake) of AUC(0-72 h) of drospirenone was between 104.72 and 111.36%. The 90% CI calculated by means of ANOVA- log for the endpoint intra-individual ratio (Test 'A' vs. Test 'B') of Cmax of DRSP was between 118.58 and 141.10%. The mean relative bioavailability of the test with food 'A' compared to the Test without food 'B' after single dose administration based on the endpoints AUC(0-72 h) was 107.99%; for the endpoint Cmax it was 129.35%. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of absorption, based on the endpoint Cmax of DRSP was increased by about 30% under fed conditions. With respect to consumer habits, this may represent a relevant benefit for contraceptive safety, as the time span between food consumption and pill intake does not play a role. IMPLICATIONS: Our results suggest that the food intake has no impact on the absorption of 4 mg DRSP in the management of contraception. This increases the contraceptive efficacy as no interference with food is expected when consuming the oral formulation under real life conditions. TRAIL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: EudraCT-No: 2012-004,309-28.


Assuntos
Androstenos , Desjejum , Anticoncepcionais , Gorduras na Dieta , Androstenos/farmacocinética , Desjejum/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticoncepcionais/farmacocinética , Estudos Cross-Over , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(10): 4051-4062, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134810

RESUMO

The aim is to estimate the prevalence and evaluate the association of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors with skipping breakfast among Brazilian adolescent students. A cross-sectional study carried out with adolescent ninth-graders from Brazilian public and private schools participating in the 2015 National School Health Survey. The prevalence of skipping breakfast (less than five days/week) and its respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated and stratified by gender according to demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors, self-perceived body image, and attitudes towards weight. A three-block hierarchical Poisson regression, considering the complex sample design. The prevalence of skipping breakfast was 35.6%, higher among girls than boys. In both genders, skipping breakfast was positively associated with the highest socioeconomic level, morning school shift, paid work, regular consumption of alcoholic beverages, living only with the mother, the father or neither, the irregular consumption of school food and meals with parents, considering oneself too fat/fat and trying to lose weight. In general, skipping breakfast was associated with socioeconomic factors and lifestyle behaviors harmful to health among adolescent students.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 916374, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060962

RESUMO

Background: Proteinuria is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Several studies reported the association between skipping breakfast and the prevalence of proteinuria. Furthermore, skipping breakfast was associated with an increased risk of obesity. Although proteinuria is highly prevalent in obese individuals, the association between the prevalence of proteinuria and low body mass index (BMI) was reported in a previous cross-sectional study in asymptomatic individuals without known kidney diseases. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the clinical impact of BMI on the association between skipping breakfast and the prevalence of proteinuria in normal renal function subjects. Methods: The present study included 26,888 subjects (15,875 males and 11,013 females) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and no history of kidney disease who underwent a health checkup in Sumitomo Hospital. The association between skipping breakfast and the prevalence of proteinuria (defined as dipstick proteinuria of ≥1+) was assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for clinically relevant factors. Results: Skipping breakfast was reported in 3,306 males (20.8%) and 1,514 females (13.8%). Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models showed that skipping breakfast was significantly associated with the prevalence of proteinuria above 1+. This association was evident in lower BMI subjects, even after adjusting for clinically relevant factors (adjusted odds ratios of males and females were 1.67 [1.17-2.38] and 1.92 [1.31-2.82], respectively), whereas this association was not evident in higher BMI subjects. Conclusion: Lower BMI subjects with proteinuria might need to be careful about skipping breakfast.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Comportamento Alimentar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Proteinúria/complicações , Proteinúria/etiologia , Redução de Peso
8.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(2): 163-171, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appetite regulation is integral to food intake and is modulated by complex interactions between internal and external stimuli. Hormonal mechanisms which stimulate or inhibit intake have been characterized, but the physiologic effects of serum levels of such hormones in short-term appetite regulation have received little attention. AIM: To evaluate whether fasting levels of orexigenic/anorexigenic hormones were associated with energy intake at breakfast, served soon after drawing a fasting blood sample, in a group of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anthropometry, body composition and fasting blood levels of leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and orexin-A were measured in 655 Chilean adolescents aged 16.8 ± 0.3 years (52% males). Energy intake was measured at a semi-standardized breakfast. Associations between hormone levels and energy intake were studied using multivariate linear models. RESULTS: Thirty nine percent of participants were overweight/ obese. After an overnight fast, median values for leptin, insulin, ghrelin and orexin-A were 7.3 ng/mL, 6.7 IU/dL, 200.8 pg/mL, and 16.1 pg/mL, respectively. Participants ate on average 637 ± 239 calories at breakfast. In multivariable models, insulin levels were inversely and independently associated with caloric intake at breakfast (ß = -18.65; p < 0.05), whereas leptin, ghrelin and orexin-A levels were positively and independently associated with intake: ß= 5.56, ß = 0.34 and ß = 8.40, respectively, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting leptin, ghrelin and orexin-A were positively associated with energy intake during breakfast provided soon after the blood draw. Insulin was negatively associated with energy intake. Modifiable factors influencing levels of appetite regulating hormones could be a potential target for influencing food intake.


Assuntos
Apetite , Desjejum , Adolescente , Apetite/fisiologia , Chile , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Jejum , Feminino , Grelina , Humanos , Insulina , Leptina , Masculino , Orexinas
9.
J Food Sci ; 87(9): 4188-4202, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998111

RESUMO

Breakfast cereals are popular grain foods and sources of polyphenols. Malting alters polyphenol content and activity; however, effects are varied. The total polyphenol content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and polyphenol profile were analyzed in unmalted and malted grains (wheat, barley, and sorghum) and breakfast cereals (wheat, barley) by Folin Ciocalteu Reagent (FCR), % inhibition of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl, and high performance liquid chromatography. Higher TPC was observed in all malted grains and breakfast cereals compared with unmalted samples (p < 0.05). Higher RSA was also observed in all malted samples compared to unmalted samples (p < 0.05) except for wheat grain to malted wheat grain. In this study, malting induced additional polyphenols and antioxidant activity in grains and cereal products. Malted grain breakfast cereals may be practical sources of polyphenol antioxidants. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study utilized malting in a unique way to investigate potential health benefits of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in grains (wheat, barley, and sorghum) and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (wheat and barley). This study found that grains and breakfast cereals are important sources of antioxidant polyphenols, and these were significantly increased in malted varieties. Understanding this is important as grains and breakfast cereals are widely consumed staple foods. Consuming healthier grain products may be a practical strategy in reducing the risk of noncommunicable diseases such as colorectal cancer and type-2 diabetes, where wholegrain consumption may be important in prevention.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Hordeum , Sorghum , Antioxidantes/análise , Desjejum , Grão Comestível/química , Hordeum/química , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Sorghum/química , Triticum/química
10.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956290

RESUMO

This paper discusses the effect of chrononutrition on the regulation of circadian rhythms; in particular, that of chocolate on the resynchronization of the human internal biological central and peripheral clocks with the main external synchronizers, light-dark cycle and nutrition-fasting cycle. The desynchronization of internal clocks with external synchronizers, which is so frequent in our modern society due to the tight rhythms imposed by work, social life, and technology, has a negative impact on our psycho-physical performance, well-being, and health. Taking small amounts of chocolate, in the morning at breakfast at the onset of the active phase, helps speed up resynchronization time. The high flavonoid contents in chocolate promote cardioprotection, metabolic regulation, neuroprotection, and neuromodulation with direct actions on brain function, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and mood. Although the mechanisms of action of chocolate compounds on brain function and mood as well as on the regulation of circadian rhythms have yet to be fully understood, data from the literature currently available seem to agree in suggesting that chocolate intake, in compliance with chrononutrition, could be a strategy to reduce the negative effects of desynchronization. This strategy appears to be easily implemented in different age groups to improve work ability and daily life.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Relógios Circadianos , Desjejum , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Jejum , Humanos , Fotoperíodo
11.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 52, 2022 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of foods taken during breakfast could contribute in shaping diet quality. This study determined the regularity of breakfast consumption and breakfast quality based on the food, energy and nutrient intakes of Filipinos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the 2018 Expanded National Nutrition Survey (ENNS) was extracted for analysis. There were 63,655 individuals comprising about 14,013 school-aged children (6-12 years old), 9,082 adolescents (13-18 years old), 32,255 adults (19-59 years old), and 8,305 elderly (60 years old and above). Two-day non-consecutive 24-h food recalls were used to measure food and nutrient intakes. Diet quality was measured using Nutrient-Rich Food Index (NRF) 9.3. The sample was stratified by age group and NRF9.3 tertiles. RESULTS AND FINDINGS: Results showed that 96 - 98% Filipinos across age groups were consuming breakfast. Children age 6-12 years have the highest NRF9.3 average score (417), followed by the elderly (347), adolescents (340), and adults (330). These scores were very low in comparison with the maximum possible NRF score which is 900. The essential nutrient intakes of respondents were significantly higher among those with the healthiest breakfast diet (Tertile 3) compared to those with the poorest breakfast diet (Tertile 1). However, participants in the healthiest breakfast diet did not meet 20% of the recommendations for calcium, fiber, vitamin C, and potassium. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: This study revealed that majority of the population are regular breakfast consumers. However, the breakfast consumed regularly by Filipinos were found to be nutritionally inadequate. And even those classified under Tertile 3 which were assumed as having a better quality of breakfast were still found to have nutrient inadequacies. Thus, the study suggests that Filipinos must consume a healthy breakfast by including nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fresh meat, and milk to provide at least 20-25% of the daily energy and nutrient intakes.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Ingestão de Energia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Filipinas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 141: 104824, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963545

RESUMO

The effect of breakfast glycaemic load (GL) on cognition was systematically examined. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials were identified using PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library (up to May 2022). 15 studies involving adults (aged 20 - 80 years) were included. Studies had a low risk, or some concerns, of bias. A random-effects meta-analysis model revealed no effect of GL on cognition up to 119 min post-consumption. However, after 120 min, immediate episodic memory scores were better following a low-GL compared to a high-GL (SMD = 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.00 to 0.32, p = 0.05, I2 = 5%). Subgroup analyses indicated that the benefit was greater in younger adults (<35 years) and those with better GT. A qualitative synthesis of 16 studies involving children and adolescents (aged 5 - 17 years) suggested that a low-GL breakfast may also benefit episodic memory and attention after 120 min. Methodological practises were identified which could explain a failure to detect benefits in some studies. Consequently, guiding principles were developed to optimise future study design.


Assuntos
Carga Glicêmica , Memória Episódica , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Desjejum , Criança , Cognição , Humanos
13.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807842

RESUMO

Frequency of alcohol drinking is a potential predictor of binge drinking of alcohol, a serious social problem for university students. Although previous studies have identified skipping breakfast as a predictor of various health-compromising behaviors and cardiometabolic diseases, few studies have assessed the association between skipping breakfast and the incidence of frequent alcohol drinking. This retrospective cohort study included 17,380 male and 8799 female university students aged 18-22 years admitted to Osaka universities between 2004 and 2015. The association between breakfast frequency (eating every day, skipping occasionally, and skipping often/usually) and the incidence of frequent alcohol drinking, defined as drinking ≥4 days/week, was assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. During the median observational period of 3.0 years, 878 (5.1%) men and 190 (2.2%) women engaged in frequent alcohol drinking. Skipping breakfast was significantly associated with the incidence of frequent alcohol drinking (adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence interval] of eating every day, skipping occasionally, and skipping often/usually: 1.00 [reference], 1.02 [0.84-1.25], and 1.48 [1.17-1.88] in men; 1.00 [reference], 1.60 [1.03-2.49], and 3.14 [1.88-5.24] in women, respectively). University students who skipped breakfast were at a higher risk of frequent alcohol drinking than those who ate breakfast every day.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Comportamento Alimentar , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudantes , Universidades
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e060512, 2022 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This survey aimed to assess the status of a range of health-related behaviours 1 year after the coronavirus outbreak was declared a pandemic in adults living with disabilities comparative with those with no disabilities. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study reports findings from an online survey conducted in March 2021. Mann-Whitney U and Χ2 tests were used to compare a range of health behaviours including time spent self-isolating, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise frequency and diet in adults with and without disabilities. SETTING: A convenience sample of UK adults was recruited through the researchers' personal and professional networks including UK-based sight loss sector charities, social media platforms and professional forums. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 123 UK participants completed the survey. OUTCOME MEASURES: COVID-19 diagnosis, time spent self-isolating, alcohol consumption frequency, exercise frequency, change in smoking habit and eating habits. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in alcohol consumption, smoking, water intake, breakfast, or fruit and vegetable intake. There were statistically significant differences in the time spent self-isolating (U=2061, p=0.001), exercise frequency (U=1171.5, p=0.005) and the amount of food eaten (χ2 (2)=9.60, p=0.008, Cramer's V=0.281). Although the majority in both groups reported exercising three to four times per week and eating what they should, those with disabilities were more likely to eat less than they should, not exercise at all and to have been self-isolating for over 6 months than participants with no disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: The data in this study present some key differences between the two groups, with those living with disabilities being more likely to report that they had been self-isolating for prolonged periods of time, not exercising at all, and not eating as much as they should . This raises concerns for the health and well-being of individuals with disabilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas com Deficiência , Adulto , Desjejum , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886352

RESUMO

Families are a key provider of support that may encourage positive weight-related behaviors. Yet little is known about the relation of family support to children's performance of weight-related behaviors. Mothers (N = 524) who completed an online survey were categorized as having low, moderate, or high family support for fruit/vegetable intake, breakfast intake, limiting sugar-sweetened beverage intake, physical activity, limiting sedentary screentime, and sleep. ANOVA revealed that children in families with high support for breakfast ate this meal significantly more often. Additionally, children in families with low support for limiting sugar-sweetened beverages had significantly greater intake. Surprisingly, families with moderate support for physical activity and sleep tended to have children with lower physical activity level, sleep duration, and sleep quality, and fewer days/week with set bedtimes than those with low and high support. Binomial logistic regression revealed that high family support for eating breakfast, limiting sugar-sweetened beverages, and getting sufficient sleep had greater odds of meeting recommendations for these behaviors. Findings suggest that greater family support for healthy weight-related behaviors tends to be associated with children's performance of these behaviors. Future interventions should further examine the impact of different types of family support on weight-related behaviors to better understand this complex interplay.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas , Desjejum , Criança , Dieta , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Apoio Social
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(7): e35898, 2022 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein intake plays an important role in the synthesis and maintenance of skeletal muscles for the prevention of health risks. It is also widely known that physical activity influences muscle function. However, no large-scale studies have examined the relationship between daily dietary habits, especially the timing of protein intake, and daily physical activity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate how protein intake and composition (involving the 3 major nutrients protein, fat, and carbohydrate) in the 3 traditional meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) are associated with physical activity. METHODS: Using daily dietary data accumulated in the smartphone food log app "Asken" and a web-based cross-sectional survey involving Asken users (N=8458), we analyzed nutrient intake and composition, as well as daily activity levels. As very few individuals skipped breakfast (1102/19,319 responses, 5.7%), we analyzed data for 3 meals per day. RESULTS: Spearman rank correlation analysis revealed that breakfast and lunch protein intakes had higher positive correlations with daily physical activity among the 3 major macronutrients (P<.001). These findings were confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis with confounding factors. Moreover, participants with higher protein intake and composition at breakfast or lunch tended to exhibit significantly greater physical activity than those with higher protein intake at dinner (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among the 3 macronutrients, protein intake during breakfast and lunch was closely associated with daily physical activity.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Refeições , Desjejum , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos
17.
Nutrition ; 102: 111749, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Missed nutrients from skipped meals affect diet quality. However, the extent to which breakfast skipping affects the inflammatory potential of a diet, as indicated by Children's Dietary Inflammatory Index (C-DII) score, remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between breakfast skipping and C-DII score, and investigate the presence of interaction with sociodemographic factors and sedentary behavior. METHODS: This representative cross-sectional study enrolled 378 children ages 8 and 9 y from Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil in 2015. We collected sociodemographic data (sex, age, race, and household per-capita income) and screen time using a semistructured questionnaire. Dietary intake and breakfast skipping were evaluated by three 24-h dietary recalls from which energy-adjusted C-DII scores were calculated. We performed linear regression models to test the associations and possible interactions. RESULTS: The prevalence of breakfast skipping and sedentary behavior were 20.1% and 47.6%, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation of the C-DII scores was 0.60 ± 0.94, and ranged from -2.16 (most anti-inflammatory diet) to 2.75 (most proinflammatory diet). Breakfast skipping was associated with a higher intake of lipids, monounsaturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat, as well as lower carbohydrate, calcium, and magnesium intake (P < 0.05). After adjustment, breakfast skippers had higher C-DII scores (ß = 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.54). This association was more pronounced in children with sedentary behavior (ß = 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Breakfast skipping was associated with a more proinflammatory diet in school-age children, and there was significant interaction with sedentary behavior. Early childhood interventions encouraging the habit of eating a breakfast and engaging in physical activity may help reduce the dietary inflammatory potential and prevent related cardiometabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Comportamento Sedentário , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos
18.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684046

RESUMO

A significant increase in the prevalence of short sleep among children has been observed. Short sleep may be associated with unhealthy breakfast and snacking behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to explore the associations of short sleep with breakfast and snacking behaviors among children. Data were obtained from the 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance (CNNHS). A total of 5254 children aged 6 to 17 years were included. Sleep duration was classified into three categories: moderate sleep, slightly short sleep, and severely short sleep. Breakfast behaviors included skipping breakfast, food diversity, intake of energy and macronutrients, and their proportion of daily total intake. Snack behaviors included snack consumption rate/frequency, types, intake of energy and macronutrients, and proportion of daily total intake. Multiple linear regression and multivariate logistic regression were used for analysis, with models adjusted for the potential effects of gender, age, region, and family income level. The bootstrapping method was used to calculate the 95% confidence intervals of the model statistics. Results showed that slightly short sleep (OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.33)) and severely short sleep (OR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.77) was related to higher rates of skipping breakfast compared to moderate sleep. Severely short sleep was associated with higher energy (ß = 28.44, 95%CI: 31.97, 44.70), carbohydrate (ß = 6.62, 95%CI: 8.29, 8.84) and protein (ß = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.44, 1.70) intake at breakfast and breakfast accounted for a higher proportion of total daily energy (ß = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.48, 2.52), protein (ß = 2.26, 95%CI: 3.16, 5.84) and carbohydrate (ß = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.07, 3.41). Severely short sleep was associated with higher energy (ß = 27.4, 95%CI: 18.64, 69.41), protein (ß = 0.8, 95%CI: 0.48, 2.40), and fat (ß = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.21, 3.16) intake at snacks and snacks accounted for a higher proportion of total daily protein intake (ß = 1.23, 95%CI: 0.71, 3.58) and fat intake (ß = 2.74, 95%CI: 3.13, 6.09). Slightly short sleep was associated with higher energy (ß = 7.28, 95%CI: 0.15, 28.13) and carbohydrate (ß = 1.67, 95%CI: 0.86, 5.73) intake at snacks and snacks accounted for a higher proportion of total daily carbohydrate intake. Children with severely short sleep were more likely to choose sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) as snacks (16.5%) and intake them more frequently, at a daily consumption of 204.7 g and 26.7 g per night. Overall, short sleep was associated with unhealthy breakfast patterns and snack behaviors among children. Children with short sleep had higher intake of energy and macronutrients at breakfast and snacks compared with those with moderate sleep. Promoting adequate sleep among children may have a positive effect on developing healthy eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Lanches , Carboidratos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Sono
19.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684120

RESUMO

Children from low-income households and minority families have high cardiometabolic risk. Although breakfast consumption is known to improve cardiometabolic health in children, limited randomized control trials (RCT) have explored this association in low-income and racial/ethnic U.S. minority families. This study conducted secondary analyses from TX Sprouts, a school-based gardening, cooking, and nutrition education RCT, to examine the intervention effect on breakfast consumption and how changes in breakfast consumption impact cardiometabolic risk in predominately low-income, multi-ethnic children. TX Sprouts consisted of 16 schools (8 intervention; 8 control) in greater Austin, TX. A total of 18 lessons were taught, including topics on breakfast consumption benefits and choosing healthy food options at school. Children completed clinical measures (e.g., anthropometrics, body composition via bioelectrical impedance), and the number of breakfast occasions (BO) per week (at home and school) was captured via validated survey at baseline and post-intervention. Post-study-Baseline changes in breakfast consumption were used to categorize students as: maintainers (BO -1 to 1 day/week), decreasers (BO ≤-2 day/week), and increasers (BO ≥2 day/week). Optional fasting blood draws were performed on a subsample. Generalized weighted linear mixed modeling tested differences between intervention and control, with schools as random clusters. Analysis of covariance and linear regression examined changes in breakfast consumption on cardiometabolic outcomes, controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, free and reduced-price school meal participation (FRL), school site, breakfast location, physical activity, baseline cardiometabolic measures, and BMI z-score. This study included 1417 children (mean age 9 years; 53% male; 58% Hispanic, 63% FRL; breakfast consumption patterns: 63% maintainers, 16% decreasers, and 21% increasers). There was no intervention effect on changes in breakfast consumption. Compared to decreasers, increasers had an increase in insulin (-0.3 µIU/mL vs. +4.1 µIU/mL; p = 0.01) and a larger increase in HOMA-IR (+0.4 vs. +1.5; p < 0.01). Every one-day increase in breakfast consumption decreased fasting insulin by 0.44 µIU/mL, HOMA-IR by 0.11, and hemoglobin A1c by 0.01% (p ≤ 0.03). Increased breakfast consumption was linked to improved glucose control, suggesting breakfast can mitigate risk in a high-risk population. To better understand underlying mechanisms linking breakfast consumption to improved metabolic health, RCTs focusing on breakfast quality and timing are warranted.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Criança , Jejum , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino
20.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e36, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720169

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to determine nutritional anaemia using haemoglobin levels of female nursing undergraduates studying at Farasan Island with the purpose to intervene at a point, before the potential problems become serious later in life. In total, 130 apparently healthy, female students of Department of Nursing were recruited by a random sampling method to collect information on socio-demographic, lifestyle and anthropogenic characteristics, and dietary habits including breakfast skipping. Haemoglobin content was estimated using Sahli's Haemoglobinometer and observations were interpreted as per WHO's criteria for anaemia. Body mass index (BMI) was recorded using a digital weighing machine. Correlation between haemoglobin concentration, breakfast skipping and body mass index of study participants was assessed by Pearson's correlation. Data analyses were done using Origin software. Overall, 51⋅6 % (n = 67) students were all together anaemic with 28⋅5 % (n = 37) had mild anaemia, 15⋅4 % (n = 20) moderate and 7⋅69 % (n = 10) had severe anaemia. Of these, 20⋅8 % (n = 27) were underweight, 63⋅8 % (n = 83) normal weight and 15⋅4 % (n = 20) were above normal weight (over weight and obese). The Hb content showed a positive correlation with the BMI and exhibited an increasing trend with increase in the BMI among study participants (P < 0⋅05). Questionnaire analyses revealed that the majority (96⋅9 %, n = 126) of students were taking junk food as bulk of their meal. A strong negative correlation was recorded between Hb contents and breakfast skipping tendencies (r = -0⋅987, P < 0⋅05). Findings of the present study are of high significance for public health professionals and educators to prioritise actions that could motivate these future nurses to adapt healthy lifestyles to strategically combat nutritional anaemia.


Assuntos
Anemia , Desjejum , Anemia/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Estudantes
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