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1.
J Youth Adolesc ; 51(12): 2368-2382, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123582

RESUMO

Past work on moral mindsets has largely overlooked the adolescent developmental period, a time when adolescents are navigating the complexities of moral life and experiencing tensions between important moral principles and their own actions. This study investigated how moral incrementalism and essentialism are linked to how adolescents construct meanings about their moral experiences. The sample included 96 Canadian adolescents (12-15-years of age; M = 13.5 years). Adolescents generated written narratives of times when they acted inconsistently and consistently with a moral value, and completed a vignette-based measure of moral mindsets. Moral incrementalism was associated with references to the psychological and emotional facets of experiences and engaging in meaning-making processes in narratives. Adolescents who endorsed incrementalism disengaged less only when narrating a self-discrepant experience, indicating some context-specificity across moral event types. Overall, results contribute to scholarship on moral mindset and narrative identity construction. Findings illuminate how individual differences in youth's views of moral traits and behavior may be associated with important aspects of moral identity development such as delving into the psychological and emotional aspects of their experiences and engaging in meaning-making processes.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Narração , Adolescente , Humanos , Canadá , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Moral
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 568, 2022 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reasoning and moral action are necessary to resolve day-to-day moral conflicts, and there are certain professions where a greater moral character is expected, e.g., medicine. Thus, it is desirable that medical students develop skills in this field. Some studies have evaluated the level of moral reasoning among medical students; however, there are no comparative studies involving other types of populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the moral reasoning among medical graduates with that of a group of young graduates with other degrees and of a group of nonprofessional adults. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted. Pediatric residents and pediatric subspecialty residents at a pediatric hospital were invited to participate, forming the group of "medical graduates". A group of young people from a social program and students with a master's degree in a science from the same pediatric hospital were also invited to participate, comprising the group of "graduates with other degrees". Finally, a group of beneficiaries of a family clinic was invited to participate, which we categorized as "nonprofessionals". To evaluate the differences in moral reasoning between these 3 groups, we applied the Defining Issues Test (DIT), a moral reasoning questionnaire designed by James Rest using Kohlberg's theory of moral development. RESULTS: The moral reasoning of 237 subjects-88 from the "medical graduates" group, 82 from the "graduates with other degrees" group and 67 from the "nonprofessionals" group- was evaluated. We found differences in the profiles of moral development of the groups. The profile of the "nonprofessionals" showed a very high predominance of subjects at the preconventional level, 70%, but only 4.5% at the postconventional level. Among the "medical graduates", we observed 37.5% at the preconventional level and 34% at the postconventional level (X2 p < 0.001); this group had the highest percentage in this category. This large difference could be because the differences in the ages and socioeducational levels of nonprofessionals are much wider than those among medical graduates. However, significant differences were also found when the profiles of medical graduates were compared with those of graduates with other degrees, since the latter demonstrated 56% at the preconventional level and 18% at the postconventional level (X2 test, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences were found in moral reasoning among the groups that we evaluated. Among the group of medical graduates, there was a higher percentage of subjects at the postconventional level than among the group of graduates with other degrees and a much higher percentage than among the group of nonprofessionals. Our conclusions give the first evidence that studying medicine seems to influence the development of moral reasoning in its students. Therefore, we consider it relevant to develop educational strategies where the student is involved in simulated but realistic decision-making situations, where there are moral dilemmas to resolve from their early years of training.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Estudantes de Medicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Resolução de Problemas
3.
Dev Psychol ; 58(11): 2022-2035, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816589

RESUMO

Although the influence of intent understanding on children's moral development has been long studied, little research has examined the influence of belief understanding on that development. In two studies we presented children with morally relevant belief vignettes to examine the extent to which they incorporate both intent and belief information in their moral judgments. In Study 1 (N = 64), 5-year-olds with higher false belief understanding (FBU) rated agents with false beliefs as more positively intentioned in good intent trials (even though the outcome was bad) than in bad intent trials (even though the outcome was good). In contrast, 4-year-olds with higher FBU were generally unable to integrate their belief understanding with their moral evaluations, performing no better on intention questions than children with lower FBU. Neither age group significantly differentiated reward and punishments as a function of intent when a false belief was involved. In Study 2 (N = 109 children, N = 42 adults), we found that by simplifying our study design and reducing the task demands, 4-year-olds with higher FBU were able to make appropriate intent judgments. Yet, as in Study 1, all children had difficulty assigning punishment/reward based on intent. For both moral intentions and moral consequences, 4- and 5-year-olds with higher FBU differed from those of adults in several respects, indicating that moral reasoning develops substantially beyond the preschool years. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Criança , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Punição , Intenção
4.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 223: 105494, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842960

RESUMO

Although theorists agree that social interactions play a major role in moral development, previous research has not experimentally assessed how specific features of social interactions affect children's moral judgments and reasoning. The current study assessed two features: disagreement and justification. In a brief training phase, children aged 4-5.5 years (N = 129) discussed simple moral scenarios about issues of fairness (how to allocate things between individuals) with a puppet who, in a between-participants factorial design, either agreed or disagreed with the children's ideas and either asked or did not ask the children to justify their ideas. Children then responded to another set of moral scenarios in a test phase that was the same for all children. Children in the "agree and do not justify" baseline condition showed an inflexible equality bias (preferring only equal allocations regardless of context), but children who had experiences of disagreement or experiences of being asked to justify themselves shifted toward making equitable decisions based on common ground norms and values. Furthermore, false belief competence was related to children's decisions and justifications. These findings support the classic Piagetian hypothesis that social interactions are a catalyst of cognitive disequilibrium and moral development.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Criança , Dissidências e Disputas , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Resolução de Problemas
5.
Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract ; 27(4): 1003-1019, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643994

RESUMO

In acute hospital settings, medical trainees are often confronted with moral challenges and negative emotions when caring for complex and structurally vulnerable patients. These challenges may influence the long term moral development of medical trainees and have significant implications for future clinical practice. Despite the importance of moral development to medical education, the topic is still relatively under-explored. To gain a deeper understanding of moral development in trainees, we conducted a qualitative exploration of how caring for a stigmatized population influences their moral development. Data were collected from 48 medical trainees, including observational field notes, supplemental interviews, and medical documentation from inpatient units of two urban teaching hospitals in a Canadian context. Utilizing a practice-based approach which draws on constructivist grounded theory, we conducted constant comparative coding and analysis. We found that caring for stigmatized populations appeared to trigger frustration in medical trainees, which often perpetuated feelings of futility as well as avoidance behaviours. Additionally, hospital policies, the physical learning environment, variability in supervisory practices, and perceptions of judgment and mistrust all negatively influenced moral development and contributed to apathy and moral detachment which has implications for the future. Recognizing the dynamic and uncertain nature of care for stigmatized patients, and addressing the influence of structural and material factors provide an opportunity to support moral experiences within clinical training, and to improve inequities.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Médica , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Canadá , Teoria Fundamentada , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Dev Psychol ; 58(5): 874-889, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311313

RESUMO

Understanding distinctions between morality and conventions is an important milestone in children's moral development. The current meta-analysis integrated decades of social domain theory research (Smetana, 2006; Turiel, 1983) on moral and conventional judgments from early to middle childhood. We examined 95 effect sizes from 18 studies (2,707 children; Mage = 7.30 years; 51% females; 42% Whites). Along with these, effects from additional 28 studies were estimated with imputed correlations in a secondary analysis of 248 effect sizes from 46 studies (4,469 children; Mage = 7.34 years; 46% females; 32% Whites). Across all judgments, moral/conventional distinction effects were significant, positive, and moderate. Consistent with social domain theory definitions of morality, children evaluated moral transgressions as more wrong independent of authorities' commands or rules than conventional transgressions and moral rules as more generalizable and inalterable than conventional rules. Moral transgressions also were seen as more unacceptable and more deserving of punishment than conventional transgressions. The aggregated effects were also significant for each type of judgment. However, effects were stronger for criteria considered definitional of the domains than for acceptability or punishment judgments, which are not considered criteria. Moreover, children made greater domain distinctions with age across all types of judgments. When examined separately, age moderated effects only for criterion judgments, not for acceptability or punishment judgments. Effects for distinctions also were moderated by the types of moral and conventional rules assessed. Thus, moral/conventional distinctions were found across early and middle childhood, but there was variability in children's developing understanding. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Criança , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Punição
7.
Nurse Educ ; 47(4): 236-240, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emphasis on disciplinary and preventive approaches to combating academic misconduct does little to foster student professional identity and core nursing value formation. PROBLEM: There is a need for pedagogy designed to navigate moral decision-making within ambiguous areas of practice as nursing students integrate personal and professional values while becoming a nurse. APPROACH: Rest's theory of moral development offers a framework for constructing purposeful affective learning activities that operationalize moral sensitivity, judgment, motivation, and character, whereas Krathwohl's theory provides a means to identify affective learning objectives. Offering prelicensure nursing students an opportunity to discuss, reflect on, and consider actions and consequences associated with academic and practice-based situations forms the basis for this affective learning module that fosters connections between academic and professional behaviors of integrity. CONCLUSION: Rest's theoretical model provides a viable structured approach to moral development. Curriculum designed to engage moral decision-making offers an innovative approach to cultivating student integrity.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Currículo , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
8.
Child Dev ; 93(2): 372-387, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687470

RESUMO

Associations between moral-related traits, such as justice sensitivity (JS), the tendency to negatively respond to injustice, and moral development are largely unknown. From May to December 2018, 1329 5- to 12-year-olds (M = 8.05, SD = 1.02; 51.2% girls, 1.3% transgender and gender-nonconforming) from Germany rated their JS, moral reasoning, emotions, and identity; parents and teachers rated children's theory of mind (ToM) and empathy. Victim JS (caring for own justice) predicted more attributions of positive emotions to norm transgressors in structural equation models (ß = .295). Altruistic JS (caring for other's justice) predicted less attributions of positive emotions (ß = -.343) and a stronger moral identity (ß = .392) unless ToM was considered. Particularly altruistic JS showed associations with advanced moral development. Hence, moral-related traits deserve more attention by moral-development research.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Justiça Social , Criança , Emoções , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Resolução de Problemas , Justiça Social/psicologia
9.
J Res Adolesc ; 31(4): 1097-1113, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820950

RESUMO

This article provides a selective review of research on moral development in adolescence during the past decade. We begin with introducing key concepts and reviewing critical theoretical advances in the field of adolescent moral development. This includes integrative models to the developmental study of morality and dynamic socialization models of moral development. Next, related major empirical findings are presented on moral emotion-behavior links, morality in intergroup contexts, and the socialization of moral development. Next, methodological innovations are presented, including new techniques to assess and analyze moral emotions and moral behaviors. We conclude by pointing to promising future directions for moral development research and practices aimed at promoting ethical growth and civic responsibility in adolescents around the globe.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Emoções , Humanos , Socialização
10.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 913-926, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424009

RESUMO

An understanding of harm is central to social and cognitive development, but harm largely has been conceptualized as physical damage or injury. Less research focuses on children's judgments of harm to others' internal well-being (emotional harms). We asked 5- to 10-year-old children (N = 456, 50% girls, 50% boys; primarily tested in Central New York, with socioeconomic diversity, but limited racial/ethnic or linguistic diversity) to compare emotional and physical harms. In Experiment 1, children compared simple harms (intended and completed) and then scenarios in which the perpetrator's intention did not match the outcome (intended emotional harm, but caused physical harm, or vice-versa). Assessments of the severity of emotional (vs. physical) harm increased with age and depended on the perpetrator's intentions. In Experiment 2, children saw emotional and physical harms that were: Simple (intended and completed); Incomplete (intended, but not completed); or Accidental (not intended, but completed). Children evaluated physical and emotional harms in isolation and then compared the two. Judgments of the relative severity of emotional harm increased with age, but only when intentions and outcomes were both present. This reflected an increase with age in children's perceptions that emotional harm was hurtful, whereas perceptions of physical harm were relatively stable across development. With age, children also increasingly associated emotional harms with longer-term impacts (being remembered and reoccurring). These findings suggest reasoning about the severity, underlying intentions, and duration of emotional harm shifts with age. The results hold implications for moral development, law and psychology, and emotional-harm-related interventions including those addressing bullying. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Bullying , Emoções , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Julgamento , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876754

RESUMO

Military personnel in industrialized societies often develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during combat. It is unclear whether combat-related PTSD is a universal evolutionary response to danger or a culture-specific syndrome of industrialized societies. We interviewed 218 Turkana pastoralist warriors in Kenya, who engage in lethal cattle raids, about their combat experiences and PTSD symptoms. Turkana in our sample had a high prevalence of PTSD symptoms, but Turkana with high symptom severity had lower prevalence of depression-like symptoms than American service members with high symptom severity. Symptoms that facilitate responding to danger were better predicted by combat exposure, whereas depressive symptoms were better predicted by exposure to combat-related moral violations. The findings suggest that some PTSD symptoms stem from an evolved response to danger, while depressive PTSD symptoms may be caused by culturally specific moral norm violations.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Adulto , Evolução Biológica , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Quênia , Desenvolvimento Moral , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
12.
Rev. crim ; 63(1): 91-104, 20/04/2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251667

RESUMO

Resumen Con base en la premisa teórica de que tanto el aumento de la inseguridad ciudadana, y de la violencia en general, como la ineficiente reacción institucional formal para regular las conductas sociales, tuvieron un efecto en la estructura de socialización e interacción individual del venezolano, el presente estudio hace un análisis comparativo generacional entre sujetos de vida violenta. Se expone la manera como la violencia se ha convertido en un valor de socialización y moralización para estos sujetos, quienes han centralizado la misma como un valor de vida para la interacción cotidiana con los demás individuos e instituciones. Al emplear una metodología cualitativa, a través de historias de vida, entrevistas a profundidad y revisión documental, los hallazgos permiten concluir que, como consecuencia de una socialización primaria y secundaria precaria (caracterizada por el establecimiento de vínculos débiles, en el plano afectivo y moral, con figuras como los padres, la familia, la sociedad, las instituciones y la autoridad), para el sujeto de vida violenta de la nueva generación la violencia pasó a ser un valor central, moralizado y legitimado. Estos sujetos tienen una mayor propensión a la violencia, la cual se configura no solo como su modo de vida, sino también como su rol principal para las relaciones con los demás y con las estructuras sociales.


Abstract Based on the theoretical premise that both an increase in citizen insecurity and general violence, as well as inefficient formal reactions by institutions regulating social conducts, affected Venezuelans' social and individual interaction structures, this study performs a generational comparative analysis between subjects with violent lives. The study shows how violence has become a value of social interaction and moralization for these subjects, who have centralized violence as a life value for daily interactions with other individuals and institutions. By using a qualitative methodology through life stories, in-depth interviews and documentary review, the findings allow concluding that, as a consequence of primary and secondary unstable social interaction (characterized by establishing weak emotional and moral bonds with figures, such as parents, family, society, institutions and authorities), violence became a central, moralized and legitimized value for subjects with violent lives in the new generation. These subjects are more likely to have a violent behavior, which is demonstrated not just by their ways of life, but in the main role violence plays in their relationships with others and social structures.


Resumo Partindo da premissa teórica de que tanto o aumento da insegurança cidadã e da violência em geral, quanto a ineficiente atuação institucional formal para regular os comportamentos sociais, tiveram um efeito na estrutura de socialização e interação individual dos sujeitos venezuelanos, este estudo faz uma análise comparativa geracional entre sujeitos de vida violenta. Expõe-se a forma como a violência se tornou um valor de socialização e moralização para esses sujeitos, que a centralizaram como um valor de vida para a interação cotidiana com outros indivíduos e instituições. Adotando uma metodologia qualitativa, por meio de histórias de vida, entrevistas em profundidade e revisão documental, os resultados permitem concluir que, em decorrência de uma precária socialização primária e secundária (caracterizada pelo estabelecimento de laços fracos, no plano afetivo e moral, com figuras como pais, família, sociedade, instituições e autoridade), para o sujeito da vida violenta da nova geração, a violência tornou-se um valor central, moralizado e legitimado. Esses sujeitos apresentam maior propensão à violência, que se configura não apenas como seu modo de vida, mas também como seu principal papel nas relações com os outros e com as estruturas sociais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Violência , Desenvolvimento Moral , Socialização , Venezuela , Comportamento e Mecanismos Comportamentais
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 140, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whereas experience and cognitive maturity drives moral judgement development in most young adults, medical students show slowing, regression, or segmentation in moral development during their clinical years of training. The aim of this study was to explore the moral development of medical students during clinical training. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of medical students from three clinical years of training were interviewed in groups or individually at an Australian medical school in 2018. Thematic analysis identified three themes which were then mapped against the stages and dimensions of Self-authorship Theory. RESULTS: Thirty five medical students from years 3-5 participated in 11 interviews and 6 focus groups. Students shared the impacts of their clinical experiences as they identified with their seniors and increasingly understood the clinical context. Their accounts revealed themes of early confusion followed by defensiveness characterised by desensitization and justification. As students approached graduation, some were planning how they would make moral choices in their future practice. These themes were mapped to the stages of self-authorship: External Formulas, Crossroads and Self-authorship. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students recognise, reconcile and understand moral decisions within clinical settings to successfully reach or approach self-authorship. Curriculum and support during clinical training should match and support this progress.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Adulto Jovem
14.
An. psicol ; 37(1): 61-68, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200651

RESUMO

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue incrementar el desarrollo moral en alumnos adultos con discapacidad intelectual, a través de un programa predeportivo y de valores. El programa se llevó a cabo a lo largo de un cuatrimestre de un título dirigido a la inserción sociolaboral de personas con discapacidad intelectual. Participaron 37 alumnos de ambos sexos, de tres promociones consecutivas (n1 = 11; n2 = 12; n3 = 14), entre los 19 y los 37 años (M = 24.49 ± 4.22). Se utilizó la versión española del Moral Competence Test (MCT), que mide los dos componentes del desarrollo moral: la competencia moral y las orientaciones o preferencias morales. Se planificó un diseño cuasiexperimental de cohorte de ciclo institucional recurrente, implicando a tres cohortes evaluadas en tres años consecutivos. Además, para asegurar la equivalencia de los grupos se realizó un estudio acerca de la influencia de variables sociodemográficas y clínicas en el cambio de la competencia moral del alumnado, a través de un diseño ex post facto prospectivo de grupo único. Los resultados mostraron un aumento del desarrollo moral, en sus dos componentes, con significación estadística en el estadio 4 de las orientaciones o preferencias morales


The aim of this study was to increase moral development of the students with intellectual disabilities, through an intervention with values learning and adapted sports. The program was developed in a training course for Social and Labor insertion of People with Intellectual Disability. The sample consisted of 37 students of three consecutive promotions (n1 = 11; n2 = 12; n3 = 14), aged from 19 to 37 years (M = 24.49 ± 4.22). Instrument used was the Spanish version of the Moral Competence Test adapted to intellectual disability (MCT) which measures the two components of moral development through two scores: moral competence and moral orientations/preferences. A quasi-experimental recurrent institutional cycle cohort design was planned. This design involved three cohorts, evaluated in three consecutive years. In addition, to ensure the equivalence of the groups, a study was carried out on the influence of sociodemographic and clinical variables in the change of students' moral competence, through a prospective ex post facto single group design. The results showed an improvement in two components of moral development, with statistically significant differences in stage 4 of moral orienta-tions/preferences


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Moral , Esportes/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Transversais , Aprendizagem , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Testes Neuropsicológicos
15.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 52(3): 515-532, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748274

RESUMO

Auto-aggressive behaviour, especially treatment refractory suicidality in adolescents with psychiatric disorders, may be challenging to clinicians. In search of therapeutic possibilities, we have integrated current opinions regarding causality and interdependency of suicidality and auto-aggressive behaviour across disorders within the HiTOP framework. We propose a developmental model regarding these unsettling behaviours in youths that may help to guide future directions for research and interventions. We argue that the interdependent development of biologic factors, attachment, moral reasoning and emotion regulation in an overprotective environment may lead to social anxiety and later during development to emotion dysregulation and severe internalizing behaviour disorders. To optimize treatment efficacy for both internalizing and externalizing behaviour, we emphasize the importance transdiagnostic interventions, such as addressing non-compliance, restoration of trust between parents and their child, and limitation of avoidance behaviour. These may be seen as higher order interventions within the HiTOP framework.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Moral , Apego ao Objeto , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Mentalização , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Psicoterapia , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/terapia
16.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 43(2): 125-139, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to develop a moral intervention and to determine whether it was more effective in preventing doping than an educational (i.e., knowledge-based) intervention; their primary outcome was doping likelihood, and the secondary outcomes were moral identity, moral disengagement, moral atmosphere, and anticipated guilt. METHODS: Eligible athletes (N = 303) in the United Kingdom and Greece took part in the study. The authors randomly assigned 33 clubs to either the moral or the educational intervention. They measured outcomes pre- and postintervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Athletes in both interventions in both countries reported lower doping likelihood and moral disengagement and higher guilt from pre- to postintervention. These effects were maintained at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. There were no effects on moral identity or moral atmosphere. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to disseminating information about doping, doping prevention programs should include content that focuses on moral variables.


Assuntos
Atletas/educação , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Culpa , Princípios Morais , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nurs Ethics ; 28(5): 791-808, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325340

RESUMO

Moral sensitivity is known to be the starting point for moral competence and even is a core concept in the curricula for bachelor's-level nursing students in the Netherlands. While the development of moral sensitivity in nursing is commonly agreed to be important, there is no clear understanding of how to develop moral sensitivity through nursing education and what components of nursing education contribute to moral sensitivity. Studies on educational interventions could build knowledge about what works in developing moral sensitivity and how to achieve this outcome. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore if and how educational interventions contribute to the development of moral sensitivity in nursing students. A scoping review was conducted. Four electronic databases were searched: CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE and SpringerLink. Articles that were not about formal or initial nursing education and that had no link to moral development or moral sensitivity were excluded. After the final selection on educational interventions, 10 articles out of the initial 964 resources were included in the review. Three different but related dimensions of moral sensitivity emerged from the literature: (1) raising moral awareness, (2) providing the ability to frame and name ethical issues and (3) improving moral reasoning ability. Half of the studies used quantitative measures to evaluate the educational intervention, in particular the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire; the other half used diverse qualitative evaluation methods. None of the studies presented teaching methods that included all three dimensions of moral sensitivity. Moral awareness of self appears to be more loosely connected to the other two dimensions, which raises the question of whether it can be seen as a prerequisite for them. To encompass all dimensions of moral sensitivity, a mix of quantitative and qualitative measures seems most appropriate to study that topic.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Ética em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Currículo , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais
18.
Psicol. esc. educ ; 25: e223346, 2021. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1287670

RESUMO

O bullying é um dos principais problemas enfrentados por crianças e adolescentes nas escolas. Este estudo teve por objetivo examinar evidências disponíveis na literatura sobre o efeito do desengajamento moral no envolvimento de estudantes em situações de bullying. Para tanto, foi realizada revisão sistemática com metanálise e consulta a oito bases de dados. As publicações elegíveis foram analisadas por meio da análise conceitual e do pacote estatístico Metafor. O estudo foi registrado na base PROSPERO. No total, 15 artigos foram incluídos na revisão. Os dados evidenciam que o desengajamento moral é um forte preditor para o comportamento de bullying (OR 0,27; IC95%: 0,18, 0,35) e estudantes propensos a se desengajarem moralmente podem praticar mais bullying quando comparados com estudantes com maior engajamento moral. Conclui-se que fatores cognitivos relacionados ao desengajamento moral devem ser incluídos na discussão do fenômeno, bem como ser considerados nas propostas de intervenção antibullying.


El bullying es uno de los principales problemas enfrentados por niños y adolescentes en las escuelas. En este estudio se tuvo por objetivo examinar evidencias disponibles en la literatura sobre el efecto del no compromiso moral en el envolvimiento de estudiantes en situaciones de bullying. Para tanto, se realizó revisión sistemática con metaanálisis y consulta a ocho bases de datos. Las publicaciones elegibles se analizaron por intermedio del análisis conceptual y del paquete estadístico Metafor. El estudio fue registrado en la base PROSPERO. En total, 15 artículos se incluyeron en la revisión. Los datos evidencian que el no compromiso moral es un fuerte predictor para el comportamiento de bullying (OR 0.27; IC95%: 0.18, 0.35) y estudiantes propensos a no comprometerse moralmente pueden practicar más bullying cuando comparados con estudiantes con más compromiso moral. Se concluye que factores cognitivos relacionados a la falta de compromiso moral deben ser incluidos en la discusión del fenómeno, así como ser considerados en las propuestas de intervención antibullying.


Bullying is one of the main problems faced by children and adolescents in schools. This study aimed to examine evidence available in the literature on the effect of moral disengagement on the involvement of students in situations of bullying. To this end, a systematic review was carried out with meta-analysis and consultation of eight databases. Eligible publications were analyzed using conceptual analysis and the Metafor statistical package. The study was registered on the PROSPERO database. In total, 15 articles were included in the review. The data show that moral disengagement is a strong predictor for bullying behavior (OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.35) and students prone to morally disengage can practice more bullying when compared to students with greater moral engagement. It is concluded that cognitive factors related to moral disengagement must be included in the discussion of the phenomenon, as well as be considered in the anti-bullying intervention proposals.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Moral , Bullying
19.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 38: e180041, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1133858

RESUMO

How do individuals react to statements that condone acts of corruption and violence? This article contributes to the understanding of how people respond to discourses related to antisocial practices by examining how (1) information about the person who made the statement, and (2) the use of additional information as justification for the antisocial statement affect individuals' agreement with this type of discourse. Relying on moral disengagement theory, we present an experimental study conducted with 487 high school students that assesses the level of agreement with statements made by Brazilian politicians that illustrate different mechanisms of moral disengagement. While overall results indicate low levels of agreement with these statements, comparisons across experimental groups suggest that providing case-based arguments as justification increases agreement with statements in favor of violence but reduces agreement with statements that condone acts of corruption.


Como indivíduos reagem a declarações que aceitam atos de corrupção e violência? Este artigo contribui para a compreensão de como indivíduos respondem a discursos de práticas antissociais ao examinar como (1) a informação sobre o emissor da frase e (2) o uso de dados adicionais como justificativa para a afirmação antissocial afetam sua concordância com este tipo de discurso. Utilizando-se da teoria de desengajamento moral, apresenta-se um estudo experimental conduzido com 487 estudantes de Ensino Médio, o qual avalia o grau de concordância com declarações feitas por políticos brasileiros que representam diferentes tipos de desengajamento moral. Enquanto os resultados gerais apontam um nível baixo de concordância com as declarações, as comparações entre os grupos experimentais sugerem que o uso de argumentos baseados em casos como justificação aumenta a concordância com afirmações em favor de violência, mas reduz a concordância com afirmações que aceitam atos de corrupção.


Assuntos
Política , Psicologia Social , Adolescente , Cognição , Desenvolvimento Moral
20.
Psicol. Educ. (Online) ; (51): 107-115, jul.-dez. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1287633

RESUMO

A maneira como as tecnologias digitais de informação e comunicação são discutidas e ensinadas em ambiente escolar podem não incluir de maneira sistemática a discussão sobre o impacto no comportamento ético. Privilegia-se apresentá-las como ferramenta de estudos, engajamento ou entretenimento, porém sua utilização em idade cada vez mais precoce apresenta a cibercultura para um indivíduo em desenvolvimento moral, com implicações ainda pouco exploradas uma vez que é fenômeno recente. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar reações diante de situações de cunho ético e moral no uso de tecnologias digitais de informação e comunicação (TDIC) por universitários que foram expostos à internet em idade de desenvolvimento moral. De abordagem quantitativa, este artigo inclui uma breve explanação sobre teorias de desenvolvimento moral e apresenta os resultados de um estudo de campo com 308 participantes, em situações tais como pirataria, plágio e cyberbullying. Foi possível identificar divergência no comportamento em razão da mídia empregada. Também se destaca a importância de as instituições manterem canais apropriados para acolhimento de problemas relacionados ao uso inadequado da internet, e indica a educomunicação como possibilidade para superação desse desafio e progresso do desenvolvimento humano local e global.


The way digital information and communication technologies are discussed and taught in a school environment may not systematically include the debate about the impact on ethical behavior. The preference is to present them as a tool for studies, engagement or entertainment, but its use at an earlier age presents cyberculture to a person in moral development, with implications still little explored since it is a recent phenomenon. The objective of this article is to analyze reactions to ethical and moral situations in the use of digital information and communication technologies by college students who were exposed to the internet at the age of moral development. From a quantitative approach, this paper includes a brief explanation of moral development theories and presents the results of a study with 308 participants in situations such as piracy, plagiarism and cyberbullying. It was possible to identify divergence in behavior due to the media used. It also highlights the importance of institutions maintaining appropriate networks to address problems related to the inadequate use of the Internet, and indicates educommunication to overcome this challenge and progress of local and global human development.


La forma en que se discuten y enseñan las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación digitales en un entorno escolar puede no incluir sistemáticamente la discusión sobre el impacto en el comportamiento ético. Se prefiere presentarlos como una herramienta para estudios, participación o entretenimiento, pero su uso a una edad cada vez más temprana, presentar la cibercultura para un individuo en desarrollo moral tiene implicaciones todavia poco exploradas ya que es un fenómeno reciente. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar reacciones ante situaciones de carácter ético y moral en el uso de tecnologías digitales de información y comunicación (TDIC) por universitarios que fueron expuestos a internet en edad de desarrollo moral. De natureza cuantitativa, este artículo incluye una breve explicación sobre teorías de desarrollo moral y presenta los resultados de un estudio de campo con 308 participantes, en situaciones tales como piratería, plagio y ciberacoso. Fue posible identificar la divergencia en el comportamiento debido a los medios utilizados. También destaca la importancia de que las instituciones mantengan canales adecuados para acojer los problemas relacionados con el uso inadecuado de Internet e indica que a educomunicación como una posibilidad para superación de este desafío y el progreso del desarrollo humano local y global.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudantes , Desenvolvimento Moral , Ética , Tecnologia da Informação , Plágio , Internet , Pirataria , Cyberbullying , Desenvolvimento Humano
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