Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 12.661
Filtrar
1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(1): e20191559, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018998

RESUMO

The aim was to evaluate the association between growth, carcass and visual scores traits with precocious calving in Nellore cattle. Birth weight (BW), weight at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age, pre and post-weaning average daily gain, rib eye area, backfat thickness (BF), rump fat thickness and visual scores obtained at 18 months were used for the analysis. Records from 700 females born between 2009 and 2015, exposed to mating starting at 11 months of age were analyzed. Discriminant analyzes were performed with the software Statistica. BW and BF showed the highest (P>0.01) discrimination value for early heifer pregnancy (EP). Extreme intrauterine growth retardation can result in slower growth, which reflects in the worst reproductive performance, confirmed by the variation in BW between precocious and conventional heifers. The results also demonstrate that the level of body fat affects begin of puberty. Bone structure, musculature, depth, tail insertion and rump scores presented the highest discrimination value for EP. These traits can be used as selection tools to improve sexual precocity in female Nellore cattle. The results obtained in this study would support farmers to guide the heifer management and decisions in order to enhance the EP.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Desmame
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(2): 1115-1130, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998554

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of milk allowances equal to 526 g/d as moderate (MOD) versus 790 g/d of milk dry matter as high (HI), and starter diets containing 18% or 23% crude protein (CP), on growth performance, blood metabolites, and purine derivative (PD) excretion in the urine of dairy calves. A total of 52 female Holstein dairy calves (40.8 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to the experimental diets. The treatments were (1) moderate milk and 18% CP starter diet (MOD-18CP); (2) MOD and 23% CP starter diet (MOD-23CP); (3) high milk and 18% CP starter diet (HI-18CP); and (4) HI and 23% CP starter diet (HI-23CP). Calves had free access to a starter feed and water and were weaned on d 53 but remained in the study until d 73. Urine samples were collected during the preweaning period (for 6 consecutive days between d 35 and 40) and postweaning period (for 6 consecutive days between d 65 and 70) to investigate urinary excretion of PD. Starter feed intake, ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and blood urea concentrations were reduced; however, average daily gain (ADG) and blood glucose levels increased in calves fed HI before weaning compared with MOD. During the preweaning period, high milk feeding increased total urinary PD excretion but decreased it after weaning. The 23CP diet resulted in higher feed intake and ADG before weaning and higher excretion of allantoin and total excretion of PD compared with the 18CP diet. The HI-23CP treatment resulted in the greatest withers and hip heights at weaning and final measurement, as well as the highest preweaning blood insulin concentrations. In terms of rumen development, MOD-23CP showed the greatest benefits based on starter intake, blood BHB concentration, and urinary excretion of PD. Based on the higher urinary excretion of PD found in HI-fed calves before weaning, it is possible that milk feeding overestimates estimated microbial yield. The results suggest that feeding starters with a higher proportion of CP may help maintain a more balanced ratio of CP to ME during high milk feeding, to avoid protein deficiency due to low starter intake. When calves are fed a high milk allowance, urine excretion of PD may be misinterpreted as a measure of estimated microbial growth and rumen development; this should be considered during calculations of estimated microbial yield in milk-fed calves.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Purinas , Rúmen , Desmame
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(2): 1186-1198, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998555

RESUMO

Weaning dairy calves from a high milk volume (≥8.0 kg/d) can negatively affect the growth and welfare even if it is performed in a step-down manner. Supplementation of Gln improved gut development of preweaning calves and mitigated weaning stresses of piglets to extents achieved with antibiotics. The study objective was to examine the effect of initiating a step-down weaning scheme with a Gln supplement at an early age on calf starter intake (CSI), average daily gain (ADG), and paracellular permeability of the intestinal epithelium of calves fed a high volume of milk (9.0 kg/d). Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves were assigned to 3 treatments (n = 12) as follows: (1) initiating weaning at 49 d of age (LW), (2) initiating weaning at 35 d of age (EW), and (3) initiating weaning at 35 d with a Gln supplement (2.0% of dry matter intake) from 28 to 42 d of age (EWG). Calves were fed 9.0 kg/d of whole milk until weaning was initiated by abruptly decreasing the milk volume to 3.0 kg/d. Weaning was completed once calves achieved ≥1.0 kg/d of CSI. The paracellular permeability of the intestinal epithelium was assessed with lactulose-to-mannitol ratio (LMR) in the blood on 1 d before, and 3 and 7 d after the initiation of weaning. The blood was analyzed for haptoglobin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and metabolites including AA. The CSI increased once milk volume was restricted in all treatments. The CSI of LW was greater than that of EW and EWG during the first week of weaning. The LW, EW, and EWG took 11, 19, and 16 d to achieve ≥1.0 kg/d of CSI and were weaned at 60, 54, and 51 d of age, respectively. The body weight (BW) of LW, EW, and EWG at the initiation of weaning were 68.2, 58.7, and 59.5 kg, respectively. Both LW and EWG achieved similar ADG, but ADG of EW was lower than LW during the first week of weaning. All calves had similar ADG during the second week of weaning. The BW of LW, EW, and EWG at weaning were 74.8, 66.5, and 66.4 kg, representing a 2.0, 1.8, and 1.8-fold increase in birth weight, respectively. All calves had similar BW of 88.6 and 164.3 kg at 10 and 20 wk of age, respectively. Regardless of the age, serum haptoglobin and plasma LBP concentrations increased on d 3 and returned to baseline concentrations on d 7 during weaning. The EW had a lower plasma LBP concentration than LW and EWG on d 3 during weaning. The LMR was similar between treatments on d 3 but increased by 44% for EW and LW on d 7, whereas the LMR of EWG remained unchanged during weaning. The postprandial serum concentration of Gln, Met, Trp, and ß-hydroxybutyrate were greater for EWG than EW during weaning. Beginning step-down weaning at 35 d with a Gln supplement can help maintain the gut barrier function and wean dairy calves with a satisfactory CSI at 7 wk of age without affecting postweaning growth.


Assuntos
Glutamina , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Suínos , Desmame
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 43, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015160

RESUMO

Backfat thickness could reflect the energy reserve of female pigs that is required for their reproductivity, especially gilts that might be selected as replacements. In this study, genetic and phenotypic correlations between backfat thickness (BF) and body weight (BW) at 28 weeks of age, and reproduction traits were estimated. They were considered for the possibility of using BF at the pre-selective stage as an early indicator of sow's reproduction potential. Pedigree information, BF and BW at 28 weeks of age, age at first farrowing (AFF), transformed proportion of piglet loss at birth (tPL), and transformed weaning to first service interval (tWSI) of 806 primiparous Landrace sows were used to estimate the variance components by a restricted maximum likelihood procedure with an average information algorithm for multivariate analysis. The genetic correlation between BF and BW was 0.70 ± 0.13. Both BF and BW had a negative genetic correlation with AFF but not with tWSI. Genetic correlation estimates between tPL and other traits were unclear due to high standard error. The genetic correlation between AFF and tWSI was 0.78 ± 0.36. There were 19.35% of sires, 26.34% of dams, and 25.81% of sows that had preferable estimated breeding values for BF, BW, AFF, and WSI. These values indicated the feasibility of using selection index to improve BF and BW at the pre-selective stage and reduce AFF and tWSI of replacement gilt simultaneously. The estimation of genetic correlation between PL and other traits warrants further study in larger populations.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Clima Tropical , Animais , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Gravidez , Sus scrofa , Suínos/genética , Desmame
5.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210183, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1346052

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo analisar a influência do retorno ao trabalho de mães trabalhadoras da enfermagem no aleitamento materno. Método pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida por meio de formulário semiestruturado, via Google Forms, junto a 49 trabalhadoras de enfermagem do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram submetidos à análise lexicográfica, com auxílio do software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes Et de Questionnaires (IRAMUTEQ), pelo método de Nuvem de Palavras e Classificação Hierárquica Descendente. Resultados o aproveitamento do corpus textual foi de 88,24%, gerando quatro classes de segmentos de texto. As principais influências do retorno ao trabalho na amamentação relatadas pelas participantes foram: a falta de apoio dos chefes e colegas de trabalho, a necessidade de local e tempo adequados para ordenha do leite materno, a diminuição na produção de leite por fatores inerentes ao trabalho e sobrecarga e ambientes insalubres de trabalho na enfermagem. Conclusão e implicações para a prática a identificação desses fatores possibilita a compreensão das demandas das nutrizes participantes e aponta para a necessidade de estratégias inovadoras, que garantam o direito das trabalhadoras, assim como adequações de infraestrutura em seus ambientes laborais.


Resumen Objetivo analizar la influencia de la reincorporación al trabajo sobre la lactancia materna de madres lactantes trabajadoras de enfermería. Método investigación cualitativa, desarrollada a través de un formulario semiestructurado, con utilización de Google Forms, con 49 trabajadoras de enfermería en el estado de Río de Janeiro. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis lexicográfico, con el auxilio del software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes Et de Questionnaires (IRAMUTEQ), por los métodos de Nube de Palabras y Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente. Resultados el aprovechamiento del corpus textual fue del 88,24%, y se generaron cuatro clases de segmentos textuales. Las principales influencias de la reincorporación al trabajo sobre la lactancia materna señaladas por las participantes fueron: falta de apoyo de jefes y compañeros, necesidad de disponer de lugar y tiempo adecuados para el ordeñe de la leche materna, disminución de la producción de leche por factores inherentes al trabajo y sobrecarga e insalubridad de los ambientes de trabajo en enfermería. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica la identificación de estos factores permite comprender las demandas de las madres lactantes participantes y señala la necesidad de adoptar estrategias innovadoras, que garanticen los derechos de las trabajadoras, además de adaptaciones de infraestructura en sus ambientes de trabajo.


Abstract Objective to analyze the influences of returning to work on maternal breastfeeding in mothers who are Nursing workers. Method a qualitative research developed through a semi-structured form, using Google Forms, with 49 female Nursing workers in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The data were submitted to lexicographic analysis, with the aid of the Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes Et de Questionnaires (IRAMUTEQ) software, by the Word Cloud and Descending Hierarchical Classification methods. Results leverage of the text corpus was 88.24%, generating four classes of text segments. The main influences of returning to work on breastfeeding reported by the participants were as follows: lack of support from the management and coworkers, need for an adequate place and time for milking breast milk and decrease in milk production due to factors inherent to the work, in addition to overload and unhealthy working environments in Nursing. Conclusion and implications for the practice the identification of these factors enables understanding the demands of the participating nursing mothers and points to the need for innovative strategies, which guarantee the workers' rights, as well as infrastructure adaptations in their work environments.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Aleitamento Materno , Retorno ao Trabalho , Técnicos de Enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Apoio Social , Desmame , Jornada de Trabalho , Carga de Trabalho , Licença Parental , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Extração de Leite
6.
N Z Vet J ; 70(1): 49-54, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499591

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the level and timing of lamb loss that occurs during the first year of life on a typical hill country sheep and beef farm in the central North Island of New Zealand and to determine how much of this loss can be prevented through vaccination against the five main clostridial diseases using a commercially available multivalent clostridial vaccine. METHODS: The study was conducted on a single commercial hill country sheep and beef farm in the central North Island of New Zealand, with a history of never vaccinating their stock against clostridial disease. Lambs were blocked on sex and randomly selected at docking into treatment (n = 1,705 lambs) and control (n = 1,709 lambs) groups. Treated lambs were vaccinated at docking and 4 weeks later with 1 mL of multivalent clostridial vaccine. Control lambs were not vaccinated. Different coloured ear tags were used to identify the lambs in the treatment and control groups. All lambs were counted at docking (October 2019) and at six other management event times between docking and when the replacement hoggets were set stocked for lambing (August 2020). The number of lambs sold between each management event, from each group was also counted. The difference in the number of lambs from one management event to another, minus the lambs sold between these events was regarded as the lamb losses for that period. RESULTS: The total percentage of lamb losses from docking to pre-lamb was 4.8% (81/1,705) and 6.2% (106/1,709) in the vaccinated and unvaccinated lambs respectively OR = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.56-1.02; p = 0.06). Most lamb loss occurred in the period after docking, followed by the period between weaning and the first post-weaning drench. Less lamb loss occurred in the vaccinated lambs (27/1,705; 1.6%) after docking than in the unvaccinated lambs (66/1,709; 3.9%). This was mainly due to lower female lamb losses in the vaccinated (5/868; 0.6%) compared to the unvaccinated (38/868; 4.4%) group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination of lambs at docking and 4 weeks later, with a multivalent 5-in-1 clostridial vaccine was associated with a 23.6% (25/106) reduction in total lamb loss from docking to pre-lambing. In female lambs, vaccination was associated with an 87% (33/38) reduction in lamb loss after docking and a 37% (22/59) reduction over the total trial period.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Carne Vermelha , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Desmame
7.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151843, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653620

RESUMO

In France, bioarcheological research has long overlooked the early and late modern periods, which witnessed major transformations impacting population structure and leading to the dawn of modern industrialized societies. Two recently excavated large cemeteries in Provence present a unique opportunity to investigate on a large scale the impact on health and living conditions brought about by the Industrial Revolution and consequently track health status changes from the 16th to the early 20th century. The sample includes 642 individuals from the early modern cemetery of Saint-Jacques, La Ciotat (1581-1831) and the late modern cemetery of Les Crottes, Marseille (1784-1905). This study aims to document dental health markers and compare the results between both assemblages, considering ante-mortem tooth loss, wear, caries, abscesses, calculus, periodontitis and linear enamel hypoplasia. The available archaeological and historical sources for these recent periods provide a full documentation in which to interpret and discuss the biological analysis, thus enabling an inclusive bioarcheological approach. RESULTS: revealed similarities between both samples. Differences are more subtle than expected and are seen through the increase in carious lesions and in linear enamel hypoplasia. The former seem to indicate changes in diet with the introduction of new foodstuffs and manufacturing processes during the Industrial Revolution. The latter could reflect the increase in early childhood stress, perhaps due to new feeding practices around weaning and breastfeeding or a poorly diversified diet. Finally, the increasing number of stress events could suggest a noxious sanitary and infectious environment. During the 19th century, Marseille experienced strong demographic and urban growth, resulting in overcrowded areas where sanitation facilities were insufficient or absent. Moreover, the activity of this important trading seaport might have promoted the transmission and appearance of epidemic diseases despite scientific and medical advances, which would have a real impact only from the 20th century onwards.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Pré-Escolar , França , Nível de Saúde , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Desmame
8.
Meat Sci ; 185: 108719, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896873

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish the quantitative relationship between metabolisable energy intake (MEI) and growth performance, carcass tissue composition and internal fat, taking into consideration animal precocity, maturity and tail nature. Data from 67 publications were used in the meta-analysis. Diets were characterized and three classes were identified (low medium and high energy density diets). Breeds were characterized according to tail nature, precocity and maturity stage. Average daily gain (ADG) responded to MEI in all animals weighing less than 60% of their adult weight regardless their precocity or their tail nature. At the same level of MEI, the higher the diet energy density, the higher the ADG. In animals weighing less than 42% of adult weight and receiving a high starch diet, carcass muscle and internal fat responded to MEI. Whereas, for animals that weighed between 43% and 75% of adult weight, increases in MEI influenced carcass adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Ingestão de Energia , Tecido Adiposo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Ovinos , Desmame
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(2): 1369-1386, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955245

RESUMO

Some research has described a relationship between personality and feeding behavior at weaning in Holstein dairy calves; our objective was to determine if personality traits, especially sociability, are associated with differences in feeding behavior and growth in Norwegian Red calves. Our secondary objective was to assess the interaction between personality traits and gradual weaning method (by age or by concentrate intake) on the behavior and growth of calves. Twenty-seven Norwegian Red calves were housed in 7 groups of 3 to 5 calves, with group composition based on birthdate to ensure that there were no more than 21 d between the youngest and oldest calves. Calves had access to an automated milk and concentrate feeder with ad libitum access to concentrates, water, hay, and silage. Calves were semi-randomly assigned to be either gradually weaned by age at d 56, or weaned by intake, where weaning was initiated based on reaching specific concentrate intake targets. We measured milk intake, concentrate intake, and the number of unrewarded visits to the automated feeder during each of 5 experimental periods: preweaning (12 L/d; 10-30 d of age), weaning (milk allowance gradually reduced by method until completely weaned), weaning week (3 d before weaning and the first 7 d of 0 L/d milk allowance), postweaning (20 d after complete milk removal), and the total experimental period (10-20 d postweaning). At 21 and 80 d of age, individual behavioral responses toward novelty and isolation (indicative of personality) were recorded in 3 personality tests: novel environment, novel object, and a social motivation test (time taken to return the group). At 83 d of age, a group novel object test was conducted. Principal component analysis revealed 3 factors interpreted as personality traits (playful/exploratory, vocal/active, interactive in group test) that together explained 56% of the variance. Calves that were more playful/exploratory consumed more milk per day preweaning and more concentrate per day over the experimental period. Calves that were more vocal/active (interpreted as a type of sociability trait where vocalizations and pacing serve to communicate with conspecifics when isolated from herd) had lower preweaning milk intakes and lower concentrate intakes over the experimental period. Calves that were more interactive in the group test (interpreted as a type of sociability trait when with other herd mates) had lower preweaning and weaning concentrate intakes. There was no interaction between personality traits and weaning method on feeding behavior or performance outcomes; however, calves that were weaned by intake (successfully reached all concentrate targets) had higher average daily gains postweaning, likely due to consuming more concentrate per day over the entire experiment, than calves who failed to reach all targets, or were weaned by age. We concluded that the sociability traits of Norwegian Red calves were related to individual differences in milk and concentrate intake. Although the relationship between personality and feeding behavior and growth did not depend on weaning method, gradual weaning based on individual concentrate intakes provides an opportunity for calves to wean at a pace that fits the needs of each individual calf.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Comportamento Alimentar , Leite , Personalidade , Desmame
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(2): 1480-1492, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955272

RESUMO

Calf rearing practices differ among farms, including feeding and weaning methods. These differences may relate to how dairy producers view these practices and evaluate their own success. The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives of dairy producers on calf rearing, focusing on calf weaning and how they characterized weaning success. We interviewed dairy producers from 16 farms in Western Canada in the following provinces: British Columbia (n = 12), Manitoba (n = 2), and Alberta (n = 2). Participants were asked to describe their heifer calf weaning and rearing practices, and what they viewed as successes and challenges in weaning and rearing calves. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative analysis from which we identified the following 4 major themes: (1) reliance on calf-based measures (e.g., health, growth, and behavior), (2) management factors and personal experiences (e.g., ease, consistency, and habit), (3) environmental factors (e.g., facilities and equipment), and (4) external support (e.g., advice and educational opportunities). These results provided insight into how dairy producers view calf weaning and rearing, and may help inform the design of future research and knowledge transfer projects aimed at improving management practices on dairy farms.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Registros , Alberta , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Feminino , Registros/veterinária , Desmame
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 597-606, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of intensive farming, long-term exposure of pigs to poor light conditions is not conducive to the production of vitamin D3 , and vitamin D3 deficiency could affect absorption and metabolism of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3 ) has higher bioactivity than regular vitamin D3 . This study investigated the effects of 25OHD3 on performance, serum parameters, fecal microbiota, and metabolites in weaned piglets fed with low Ca-P diet. RESULTS: It was found that a low Ca-P diet supplemented with 50 µg/kg 25OHD3 (NC + 25-D) improved (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) in phase 2 and in the overall period of the experiment, and increased (P < 0.05) the immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), catalase (CAT), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and osteocalcin (OC) serum content on day 28 compared with a low Ca-P diet (NC), but no differences were observed between a normal Ca-P diet (PC) and the NC + 25-D diet. Compared with NC, the abundance of Firmicutes was higher (P < 0.05) in PC and NC + 25-D. NC + 25-D decreased (P < 0.05) the abundance of Streptococcaceae compared with PC and NC, and increased (P < 0.05) the abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared with NC. Serum 25OHD3 was negatively correlated with the abundance of fecal Streptococcaceae (P < 0.05), and positively correlated with the abundance of fecal Lachnospiraceae (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Supplementation of 25OHD3 in a low Ca-P diet improved serum immunity, bone biochemical parameters, and fecal microbiota such as decreased Streptococcaceae abundance and increased Lachnospiraceae abundance, which could subsequently promote growth of piglets. The effects were similar to that of a normal Ca-P diet. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cálcio/análise , Cálcio/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Suínos/sangue , Suínos/metabolismo , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 18, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910259

RESUMO

Calves are susceptible to a wide variety of stressors besides the seasoning low forage availability during their weaning phase. Thus, it is ideal if they receive adequate trace mineral supplementation during this period. This study evaluated the effect of injectable trace minerals (ITM) on performance, concentration of oxidative stress enzymes, and biochemical plasmatic parameters in Nellore calves during the weaning phase and under feed restriction. A total of 30 Nellore calves were used at the age of 7 ± 1 month and 176.23 ± 21.68 kg of initial body weight (BW). These animals were allocated in Urochloa decumbens pasture for 28 days and transferred to Urochloa brizantha cv Marandu pasture for another 28 days. The treatments were: Saline (saline solution; 0.9% NaCl) and ITM (Multimin®, providing: 15 mg Cu/mL, 60 mg Zn/mL, 10 mg Mn/mL, and 5 mg Se/mL). Both treatments were applied subcutaneously in the ratio of 1 mL/45 kg of BW. At the end of the experiment (d 56), animals were lighter than on d 0 in both treatments (P < 0.05). However, calves that received the ITM treatment presented lower body weight (P < 0.05) on d 56, compared to those in the control group. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed on the concentrations of oxidative stress enzymes. Moreover, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the plasmatic parameters; these were at normal range or slightly below the concentrations described for the species. We concluded that, in a feed restriction condition, the use of ITM in weaned calves did not improve performance, and the concentration of oxidative stress enzymes, and biochemistry variables. Therefore, we do not recommend using injectable trace minerals in the concentrations used in this study in animals under such stressful conditions.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desmame
13.
Prev Vet Med ; 197: 105506, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740025

RESUMO

Our study objective was to estimate the magnitude of association of BRD risk factors including failure of passive immunity transfer, sex, age, and the detection of suspected BRD etiological pathogens in pre-weaned dairy calves in California. A conditional logistic regression model and a mixed-effects logistic regression model were used to estimate the association of these potential risk factors with BRD from a matched and nested case-control studies, respectively. For each exposure covariate, the odds ratio (OR) is the ratio of odds of an exposure in a BRD calf (case) to that in a non-BRD calf (control). In the matched case-control study, an interaction term between failure of transfer of passive immunity and sex of calf showed that female calves were more negatively impacted by failure of transfer of passive immunity compared to male calves. The odds ratios comparing failure of transfer of passive immunity in BRD score positive calves versus controls for male calves was 1.34 (95 % CI: 0.87, 2.06) and was 2.47 (95 % CI: 1.54, 3.96) for female calves. The model odds ratios varied from 1.74 (95 % CI: 1.26, 2.42) for Mycoplasma spp. to 9.18 (95 % CI: 2.60, 32.40) for Histophilus somni, with Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida having an OR of 6.64 (95 % CI: 4.39, 10.03) and 6.53 (95 % CI: 4.44, 9.59), respectively. For bovine respiratory syncytial virus positive calves, the OR was 4.60 (95 % CI: 3.04, 6.97). Findings from the nested case-control study showed that based on thoracic ultrasonography findings consistent with BRD, the odds of a calf being 1 day older compared to a day younger were 1.01 (95 % CI: 1.00, 1.02) among BRD cases. For the bacterial and viral pathogens, the OR for Mycoplasma spp. and Pasteurella multocida were 1.85 (95 % CI: 1.24, 2.75) and 1.86 (95 % CI: 1.28, 2.71), respectively. The OR values for these pathogens were similar when both thoracic auscultation and ultrasound findings were used to detect cases of BRD. Based on positive scores for BRD using the California BRD scoring system, the OR for facility type, calf ranch versus dairy farm, was 3.17 (95 % CI: 1.43, 7.01), Mannheimia haemolytica was 3.50 (95 % CI: 2.00, 6.11), Pasteurella multocida was 1.78 (95 % CI: 1.21, 2.60), and bovine coronavirus was 2.61 (95 % CI: 1.85, 3.70). Results from both study designs showed the difference in relative contributions of age, sex, immune status, and pathogens in BRD occurrence between cases and controls in pre-weaned dairy calves.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Desmame
14.
J Anim Sci ; 99(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673954

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of combined supplementation of sodium humate (HNa) and glutamine (Gln) on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, serum parameters, intestinal microbiome, and metabolites of weaned calves. In Exp. 1, 40 calves were randomly assigned to four treatments: 1) NC (negative control, basal diet), 2) 1% H+1% G (basal diet extra orally gavaged with 1 g of HNa and 1 g of Gln daily), 3) 3% H+1% G (basal diet extra orally gavaged with 3 g of HNa and 1 g of Gln daily), and 4) 5% H+1% G (basal diet extra orally gavaged with 5 g of HNa and 1 g of Gln daily). The HNa and Gln were together mixed with 100 mL of milk replacer (51 to 58 d of age) or water (59 to 72 d of age) and orally administrated to each calf from a bottle before morning feeding. In a 21-d trial, calves on the 5% HNa+1% Gln group had higher (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea incidence than those in the control group. In Exp. 2, 20 calves were randomly assigned to two treatments fed with a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 100 mL of 5% HNa+1% Gln. In a 21-d trial, calves supplemented with HNa and Gln had higher (P < 0.05) ADG, IgG concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activities in the serum, but lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea incidence, as well as serum diamine oxidase (DAO), D-isomer of lactic acid (D-lac), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations compared with control group. Results of intestinal microbiota indicated that supplementation with HNa and Gln significantly increased (P < 0.05) the abundance of intestinal beneficial microbiota. Moreover, supplementation with HNa and Gln altered 18 metabolites and enriched 6 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways in weaned calves. In conclusion, combined supplementation with HNa and Gln could decrease diarrhea incidence of weaned calves via altering intestinal microbial ecology and metabolism profile.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glutamina , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Incidência , Sódio , Desmame
15.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 63, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe feeding practices and the risk factors for the mixed breastfeeding and early weaning in the neonatal period. METHODS: Cohort study, which we collected socioeconomic, demographic, health care and feeding data from 415 mother/child binomials born in four public maternity hospitals in Natal/Brazil. They were followed-up at 48 hours, 7 and 28 days after birth. The association was established using Pearson's Chi-square test and Poisson's regression, after adjusting it to other variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of mixed breastfeeding in the first 2 days was 47,2% and early weaning in 7 and 28 days was 8,4% and 16,2% in that order. The main reasons for mixed breastfeeding and early weaning were: colostrum deficiency (33.8%), difficulty in latching/sucking (23.5%) and "little milk" (70.0%). The use of formula/milk/porridge remained associated with maternal age ≤ 20 years (RR = 0.64; 95%CI: 0.47-0.86), age 20-29 years (RR = 0,70; 95%CI: 0,57-0,87), primiparity (RR = 1.37; 95%CI: 1.11-1.60) and cesarean delivery (RR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.00-1.45) at 2 days; absence of paternal support (RR = 4.98; 95%CI: 2.54-9.79) and pacifier use (RR = 3.21; 95%CI: 1.63-6.32) at 7 days; and only pacifier use (RR = 2.48; 95%CI: 1.53-4.02) at 28 days. CONCLUSIONS: Early weaning was associated with maternal and health care factors, thus suggesting the need to readjust good practices and educational actions to achieve the exclusive offer to the maternal breast in the neonatal period.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Desmame , Adulto Jovem
16.
Trials ; 22(1): 687, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional spoon-feeding approach to introduction of solid foods during the complementary feeding period is supported by consensus in the scientific literature. However, a method called Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) has been proposed as an alternative, allowing infants to self-feed with no adult interference. To date, there have been no trials in the Brazilian population to evaluate the effectiveness of BLISS in comparison to the traditional approach. METHODS/DESIGN: To evaluate and compare three different complementary feeding methods. Data on 144 mother-child pairs will be randomized into intervention groups by methods: (A) strict Parent-Led Weaning; (B) strict Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS; and (C) a mixed method. Prospective participants from Porto Alegre, Brazil, and nearby cities will be recruited through the Internet. The interventions will be performed by nutritionists and speech therapists, at 5.5 months of age of the child, at a private nutrition office equipped with a test kitchen where meals will be prepared according to the randomized method. The pairs will be followed up at 7, 9, and 12 months of age. Data will be collected through questionnaires designed especially for this study, which will include a 24h child food recall, questionnaires on the child's and parents' eating behavior, oral habits, eating difficulties, and choking prevalence. At 12 months of age, children will undergo blood collection to measure hemoglobin, ferritin, and C-reactive protein, saliva collection for analysis of genetic polymorphisms, and oral examination. Anthropometric parameters (child and maternal) will be measured at the baseline intervention, at a 9 month home visit, and at the end-of-study visit at the hospital. The primary outcome will be child growth and nutritional status z-scores at 12 months; secondary outcomes will include iron status, feeding behavior, acceptability of the methods, dietary variety, choking, eating behaviors, food preferences, acceptance of bitter and sweet flavors, suction, oral habits, oral hygiene behavior, dental caries, gingival health status, and functional constipation. DISCUSSION: The trial intends to ascertain whether there are potential advantages to the BLISS complementary feeding method in this specific population, generating data to support families and healthcare providers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBEC): RBR- 229scm number U1111-1226-9516 . Registered on September 24, 2019.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Desmame
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 510, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628538

RESUMO

Investigations in the Brazilian semi-arid region evaluating the performance and carcass traits of sheep of indigenous breeds and their crossings have been performed; however, these studies use exotic breeds which produce precocious lambs with heavier carcasses, but not adapted to climatic conditions and the extensive production system, jeopardizing the sustainability of the sheep production system. We crossed between three indigenous breeds: Morada Nova (MN - maternal breed); Rabo Largo (RL - paternal breed), and Santa Inês (SI - paternal breed) with the objective of evaluating the effect of genotype and sex on the performance and carcass traits of purebred and crossbred animals. A total of 30 lambs, males and females, reared in a semi-intensive system were evaluated. Birth and weaning weights were 2.26 ± 0.53 and 7.31 ± 1.85, respectively. All lambs were slaughtered at 10 months of age. A completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme (three genotypes and two sexes) was used. Multivariate techniques were also performed to reduce group and discriminate variables. Birth and weaning weight were similar (P > 0.05) among genetic groups and sexes. The weight gain, carcass and morphometric trait characteristics, and the main commercial cuts were higher in crossbred lambs (P < 0.05). All indicators have discriminatory power between genotypes and sexes, but the carcass traits have a higher discriminatory power (P < 0.001). All genotypes, regardless of sex, have particular characteristics, i.e. MN × SI was characterized by greater forelimb and ham perimeters (P < 0.001), and the MN × RL by higher hot carcass weight and finish (P = 0.001). The cluster analysis and the heatmap plot revealed associations between SI and the size of cuts and RL with the cut commercial yield and the reduction in weight loss due to cooling. Our findings confirm the hypothesis that crossing between indigenous breeds represents an adequate alternative in sheep meat production systems in semi-arid regions. Finally, we encourage the use of indigenous breeds for sheep meat production with breed identity in order to favor the conservation of genetic resources and the sustainability of the production system.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Carne , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Desmame
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(12): 12496-12507, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593232

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of incremental tributyrin supplementation in pasteurized waste milk on growth performance, health, and blood metabolism of dairy calves before and after weaning. Forty-eight newborn female Holstein dairy calves (39.6 ± 2.75 kg; mean ± standard deviation) were blocked by age and randomly assigned to 3 treatments: pasteurized waste milk (1) without supplementation, (2) with 1 g/L of tributyrin products (unprotected solid powder; containing 35% tributyrin), or (3) with 2 g/L of tributyrin products. The calves were weaned on d 56 and were raised until d 77. Data were analyzed for the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. The results showed that starter intake and hay intake were not different among treatments in any period of the trial, but the crude protein intake tended to increase linearly with tributyrin supplementation during the overall period. Although tributyrin supplementation had no effects on body weight during preweaning and overall periods, body weight increased linearly with tributyrin supplementation postweaning. The average daily gain tended to increase linearly during postweaning and overall periods. No effects were observed on feed efficiency in any period. A positive linear relationship between body length and tributyrin supplementation was observed during the postweaning period, but no differences were found for the other body structural measurements in any period. The results of diarrhea showed that tributyrin concentration had a negative linear relationship with diarrhea frequency during preweaning and overall periods. The rectal temperature did not differ among treatments in any period, but a treatment × week effect for rectal body temperature was observed. For blood metabolism, tributyrin supplementation had no effects on insulin, growth hormone, total protein, albumin, or globulin. No differences were found in serum amyloid A concentration in any of the periods, yet haptoglobin concentration decreased linearly with increasing tributyrin concentration during postweaning and overall periods. Endothelin concentration showed a tendency to decrease linearly during preweaning and postweaning periods and decreased linearly with tributyrin supplementation during the overall period. An increasing tributyrin concentration was associated with a negative linear relationship with IL-1ß concentration during the preweaning period, and no differences were found in the other periods. The concentration of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α were not different among treatments in any of the periods. These data suggest that increasing the concentration of tributyrin in pasteurized waste milk could increase growth performance and health of dairy calves, and incremental tributyrin supplementation could linearly reduce haptoglobin, endothelin, and IL-1ß concentrations, indicating a positive effect of tributyrin on alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory status of dairy calves. Calves fed pasteurized waste milk supplemented with tributyrin products (containing 35% tributyrin) at 2 g/L compared with 1 g/L of milk had more improved growth and health.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Triglicerídeos , Desmame
19.
Theriogenology ; 176: 122-127, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601236

RESUMO

High-quality follicles result in larger corpora lutea (CL), producing more progesterone, and having a fundamental role in pregnancy maintenance. For some sows, follicular growth takes place during lactation, and follicle selection occurs under a catabolic environment. As altrenogest inhibits follicular development, this study aimed to evaluate follicular growth, CL size, estrus expression, and subsequent reproductive performance of sows treated with altrenogest during the last seven days of a three-week lactation. A total of 81 primiparous and 319 multiparous sows were allocated to two treatments: CONT (control group) and ALT (20 mg of altrenogest/day during the last seven days of lactation). Subsamples of 20 primiparous sows and 97 multiparous were randomly selected to evaluate follicular growth and 26 multiparous sows for serum progesterone analysis at day 21 of gestation. On day 21 of pregnancy, CL measurement was performed by ultrasound. Once in estrus, sows were post-cervically inseminated with pooled semen doses with 1.5 × 109 sperm cells at estrus onset and every 24 h during the standing reflex period. Sows not showing estrus until 10 days after weaning were considered in anestrus. The variables weaning-to-estrus interval, CL size, litter size in the subsequent cycle, and piglet birth weight were evaluated using the GLIMMIX procedure and compared using the Tukey-Kramer test. Anestrus, pregnancy, farrowing, and adjusted farrowing rate were evaluated as binary responses using logistic regression. Follicular size was analyzed as a repeated measure during treatment and after weaning. Treatment was considered as a fixed effect. During the treatment period, follicular size was smaller in ALT sows than CONT sows (3.29 vs. 3.52 mm; P < 0.001). However, after treatment, ALT sows showed a larger follicular size than CONT sows (5.30 vs. 5.03 mm; P ≤ 0.01). There were less ALT sows showing estrus than CONT sows on days three (1.03 vs. 4.57%) and four (55.38 vs. 68.02%) after weaning (P ≤ 0.05), respectively. At 21 days after insemination, ALT sows showed larger CL size and lower CL size variation (P < 0.01) than CONT sows. Anestrus rate, pregnancy rate, farrowing rate, adjusted farrowing rate, litter size in the subsequent cycle, piglet birth weight, litter birth weight, and birth weight variation did not differ between treatments (P ≥ 0.14). In conclusion, altrenogest treatment during the last week of lactation concentrated estrus expression on day five after weaning, larger follicle and CL sizes; however, with no improvement in reproductive performance.


Assuntos
Lactação , Acetato de Trembolona , Animais , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Paridade , Gravidez , Reprodução , Suínos , Acetato de Trembolona/análogos & derivados , Acetato de Trembolona/farmacologia , Desmame
20.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 133, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666827

RESUMO

Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen responsible for economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. There is no effective commercial vaccine against S. suis. The use of autogenous ("bacterin") vaccines to control S. suis outbreaks is a frequent preventive measure in the field, although scientific data on immunogenicity and reduction in mortality and morbidity are scarce. The goal of our study is to experimentally evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy against homologous challenge in weaned piglets of a S. suis serotype 2 bacterin-based vaccine formulated with six different commercial adjuvants (Alhydrogel®, Emulsigen®-D, Quil-A®, Montanide™ ISA 206 VG, Montanide™ ISA 61 VG, and Montanide™ ISA 201 VG). The vaccine formulated with Montanide™ ISA 61 VG induced a significant increase in anti-S. suis antibodies, including both IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses, protected against mortality and significantly reduced morbidity and severity of clinical signs. Vaccines formulated with Montanide ISA 206 VG or Montanide ISA 201 VG also induced a significant increase in anti-S. suis antibodies and showed partial protection and reduction of clinical signs severity. Vaccines formulated with Alhydrogel®, Emulsigen®-D, or Quil-A® induced a low and IgG1-shifted antibody response and failed to protect vaccinated piglets against a homologous challenge. In conclusion, the type of adjuvant used in the vaccine formulation significantly influenced the immune response and efficacy of the vaccine against a homologous challenge.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus suis/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...