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1.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 316: 111354, 2021 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399286

RESUMO

M1 and M4 muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonists are under development for the treatment of schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. We performed first-in-human PET imaging of mAChR with 18F-Fluorobenzyl-Dexetimide (FDEX) in 10 healthy participants (29.4±4.3yrs). Four underwent dynamic brain scanning for 240 min, and then six underwent static brain scans at 120 and 160-min post injection of 250 MBq of FDEX. Gjedde-Patlak graphical analysis was applied to determine the influx constant (Ki). Regional tissue ratios (SUVR) were calculated using the cerebellar cortex as the reference region. No adverse events were observed. The tracer showed good brain entry (∼4.2% ID at 5 min) but irreversible distribution kinetics over four hours in regions of high mAChR. Binding was consistent with the distribution of mAChR receptors with striatum > cortex > hippocampus >> thalamus >>> cerebellum with low variance in regional binding between subjects. Ki was 0.42±0.04 in the putamen, 0.27±0.01 in frontal cortex, 0.25±0.02 in the hippocampus and 0.10±0.01 in the thalamus. SUVR at 120 and 240 min. were highly correlated with these Ki values with R2 of 0.91 and 0.99 respectively. FDEX yields high quality brain images with uptake in the known distribution of mAChR with remarkably little variance between normal subjects.


Assuntos
Dexetimida , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo
2.
J Nucl Med ; 56(2): 317-22, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25593117

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) is highly involved in cognition, and selective M1 agonists have procognitive properties. Loss of M1R has been found in postmortem brain tissue for several neuropsychiatric disorders and may be related to symptoms of cognitive dysfunction. (123)I-iododexetimide is used for imaging muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchRs). Considering its high brain uptake and intense binding in M1R-rich brain areas, (123)I-iododexetimide may be an attractive radiopharmaceutical to image M1R. To date, the binding affinity and selectivity of (123)I-iododexetimide for the mAchR subtypes has not been characterized, nor has its brain distribution been studied intensively. Therefore, this study aimed to address these topics. METHODS: The in vitro affinity and selectivity of (127)I-iododexetimide (cold-labeled iododexetimide), as well as its functional antagonist properties (guanosine 5'-[γ-(35)S-thio]triphosphate [GTPγ(35)S] assay), were assessed on recombinant human M1R-M5R. Distributions of (127)I-iododexetimide and (123)I-iododexetimide in the brain were evaluated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and storage phosphor imaging, respectively, ex vivo in rats, wild-type mice, and M1-M5 knock-out (KO) mice. Inhibition of (127)I-iododexetimide and (123)I-iododexetimide binding in M1R-rich brain areas by the M1R/M4R agonist xanomeline, or the antipsychotics olanzapine (M1R antagonist) and haloperidol (low M1R affinity), was assessed in rats ex vivo. RESULTS: In vitro, (127)I-iododexetimide displayed high affinity for M1R (pM range), with modest selectivity over other mAchRs. In biodistribution studies on rats, ex vivo (127)I-iododexetimide binding was much higher in M1R-rich brain areas, such as the cortex and striatum, than in cerebellum (devoid of M1Rs). In M1 KO mice, but not M2-M5 KO mice, (127)I-iododexetimide binding was strongly reduced in the frontal cortex compared with wild-type mice. Finally, acute administration of both an M1R/M4R agonist xanomeline and the M1R antagonist olanzapine was able to inhibit (123)I-iododexetimide ex vivo, and (123)I-iododexetimide binding in M1-rich brain areas in rats, whereas administration of haloperidol had no effect. CONCLUSION: The current results suggest that (123)I-iododexetimide preferentially binds to M1R in vivo and can be displaced by M1R ligands. (123)I-iododexetimide may therefore be a useful imaging tool as a way to further evaluate M1R changes in neuropsychiatric disorders, as a potential stratifying biomarker, or as a clinical target engagement biomarker to assess M1R.


Assuntos
Dexetimida/análogos & derivados , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Animais , Ligação Competitiva , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Líquida , Cognição , Dexetimida/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Muscarínico M1 , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Distribuição Tecidual , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
3.
J Card Fail ; 20(8): 577-83, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24951931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nuclear myocardial imaging with iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-mIBG) is approved for risk stratification of patients with systolic heart failure (HF). Whether (123)I-mIBG imaging provides incremental prognostic utility beyond established risk models remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a multicenter study, 961 patients with moderate systolic HF underwent (123)I-mIBG imaging and were followed for cardiac death, progressive HF, or life-threatening arrhythmias over 2 years. We constructed 4 multivariable models, using variables from each of 4 published HF risk models, and patient-level scores were calculated both before and after adding the heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M) from (123)I-mIBG imaging. Incremental utility was evaluated by calculating integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), which quantifies the increase in probability of experiencing the primary end point after adding H/M to each model. The composite end point occurred in 25% of patients. After adding H/M, absolute IDI ranged from 2.1% to 3.0%, representing 33%-59% relative improvements in risk stratification. Of note, hazard ratios for H/M were remarkably similar between risk models (0.40-0.44 for predicting the composite end point, 0.10-0.18 for mortality; all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite notable differences in predictor variables, patient populations, and analytic techniques from which each model was initially derived, adding (123)I-mIBG data to HF risk models consistently identified patients at lower risk of experiencing adverse events.


Assuntos
Dexetimida/análogos & derivados , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Diagnóstico por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Cintilografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
4.
Nucl Med Biol ; 41(1): 90-5, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24267055

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system is present in Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease related dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, and is thought to contribute to cognitive deficits in these patients. In vivo imaging of the cholinergic system in these diseases may be of value to monitor central cholinergic disturbances and to select cases in which treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors could be beneficial. The muscarinic receptor tracer [(123)I]iododexetimide, predominantly reflecting M1 receptor binding, may be an appropriate tool for imaging of the cholinergic system by means of SPECT. In this study, we used [(123)I]iododexetimide to study the effects of a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion (an animal model of Parkinson's disease) on the muscarinic receptor availability in the rat brain. METHODS: Rats (n=5) were injected in vivo at 10-13 days after a confirmed unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. Muscarinic receptor availability was measured bilaterally in multiple brain areas on storage phosphor images by region of interest analysis. RESULTS: Autoradiography revealed a consistent and statistically significant lower [(123)I]iododexetimide binding in all examined neocortical areas on the ipsilateral side of the lesion as compared to the contralateral side. In hippocampal and subcortical areas, such asymmetry was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that evaluation of muscarinic receptor availability in dopamine depleted brains using [(123)I]iododexetimide is feasible. We conclude that 6-hydroxydopamine lesions induce a decrease of neocortical muscarinic receptor availability. We hypothesize that this arises from down regulation of muscarinic postsynaptic M1 receptors due to hyperactivation of the cortical cholinergic system in response to dopamine depletion. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: In rats, dopamine depletion provokes a decrease in neocortical muscarinic receptor availability, which is evaluable by [(123)I]iododexetimide imaging. IMPLICATIONS FOR PATIENT CARE: This study may further underline the role of a dysregulated muscarinic system in patients with Lewy body disorders.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dexetimida/análogos & derivados , Oxidopamina/toxicidade , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dexetimida/metabolismo , Masculino , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 18(21): 5819-23, 2008 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18922694

RESUMO

The synthesis and evaluation of benzetimide derivatives showing potent CXCR3 antagonism are described. Optimization of the screening hits led to the identification of more potent CXCR3 antagonists devoid of anti-cholinergic activity and identification of the key pharmacophore moieties of the series.


Assuntos
Dexetimida/farmacologia , Receptores CXCR3/antagonistas & inibidores , Dexetimida/química , Humanos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
J Clin Neurosci ; 12(4): 421-5, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15925773

RESUMO

Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) allows timely pharmacological and social interventions. Alteration in muscarinic receptor binding was evaluated with I-123 iodo-dexetimide (IDEX) in early clinical stage AD. We studied 11 mild AD patients (Folstein Minimental State Examination Score 24-27, Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5-1.0) and 10 age- and sex-matched normal subjects with SPECT brain imaging after injection of 185 MBq of IDEX and 750 MBq of 99mTc-HMPAO. Using a voxel based approach (Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM99) software), a deficit in IDEX binding was found in the posterior cingulate cortex in the mild AD group with p (corrected)=0.06 for the most significant voxel and p=0.0003 for the voxel cluster. Region of interest (ROI) analysis confirmed the SPM99 results. SPM99 found no deficit in the HMPAO scans, suggesting that neither atrophy nor hypoperfusion were major factors in the reduced IDEX binding. This study provides further evidence of the involvement of the posterior cingulate region and of muscarinic receptors in early Alzheimer's disease and suggests that this change may precede an alteration in blood flow.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Dexetimida , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos , Receptores Muscarínicos/análise , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Isótopos de Iodo , Masculino , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos
7.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 32(2): 180-5, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15449046

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play an important role in the generation of seizures. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 12I-iododexetimide (IDEX) depicts tracer uptake by mAChRs. Our aims were to: (a) determine the optimum time for interictal IDEX SPECT imaging; (b) determine the accuracy of IDEX scans in the localisation of seizure foci when compared with video EEG and MR imaging in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE); (c) characterise the distribution of IDEX binding in the temporal lobes and (d) compare IDEX SPECT and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in identifying seizure foci. METHODS: We performed sequential scans using IDEX SPECT imaging at 0, 3, 6 and 24 h in 12 consecutive patients with refractory TLE undergoing assessment for epilepsy surgery. Visual and region of interest analyses of the mesial, lateral and polar regions of the temporal lobes were used to compare IDEX SPECT, FDG PET and MR imaging in seizure onset localisation. RESULTS: The 6-h IDEX scan (92%; kappa=0.83, p=0.003) was superior to the 0-h (36%; kappa=0.01, p>0.05), 3-h (55%; kappa=0.13, p>0.05) and 24-h IDEX scans in identifying the temporal lobe of seizure origin. The 6-h IDEX scan correctly predicted the temporal lobe of seizure origin in two patients who required intracranial EEG recordings to define the seizure onset. Reduced ligand binding was most marked at the temporal pole and mesial temporal structures. IDEX SPECT was superior to interictal FDG PET (75%; kappa=0.66, p=0.023) in seizure onset localisation. MR imaging was non-localising in two patients in whom it was normal and in another patient in whom there was bilateral symmetrical hippocampal atrophy. CONCLUSION: The 6-h IDEX SPECT scan is a viable alternative to FDG PET imaging in seizure onset localisation in TLE.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Dexetimida/análogos & derivados , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Adulto , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 416(3): 235-44, 2001 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11290374

RESUMO

The effects of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, otenzepad, in combination with the competitive antagonists N-methylscopolamine, dexetimide and atropine, or the allosteric modulators, C(7)/3'-phth, gallamine and alcuronium, were measured in the guinea pig electrically driven left atrium using the agonists, carbachol or acetylcholine. Otenzepad, in combination with C(7)/3'-phth or gallamine, gave concentration-ratios close to additive and in agreement with theoretical model predictions for combination of two allosteric modulators acting at a common site. However, when otenzepad was combined with alcuronium, dexetimide or N-methylscopolamine, supra-additive effects were observed. For either competitive antagonist in combination with otenzepad, the degree of supra-additivity was more evident after 2-h equilibration than after 40 min. When otenzepad was combined with atropine, no supra-additivity was observed with carbachol as the agonist, but was evident with acetylcholine. Otenzepad was also unable to fully inhibit [3H]N-methylscopolamine binding when the radioligand was employed at a concentration of approximately 100 x K(D). It is concluded that the action of otenzepad involves an allosteric site and a number of possibilities are discussed for its location.


Assuntos
Átrios do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Pirenzepina/farmacologia , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Regulação Alostérica/fisiologia , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Carbacol/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Dexetimida/farmacologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Trietiodeto de Galamina/farmacologia , Cobaias , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Masculino , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , N-Metilescopolamina/farmacologia , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Ftalimidas/farmacologia , Pirenzepina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Ensaio Radioligante , Receptor Muscarínico M2 , Receptores Muscarínicos/química
9.
J Nucl Med ; 40(6): 935-41, 1999 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10452308

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Muscarinic acetyl cholinergic receptors (mAChRs) may be involved in the pathophysiology of partial epilepsy. Previous experimental and imaging studies have reported medial temporal abnormalities of mAChR in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Suitable radiotracers for mAChR are required to evaluate these disturbances in vivo using PET. Dexetimide is a specific mAChR antagonist that has been labeled recently with 76Br. This first study in humans focused on regional distribution and binding kinetics of [76Br]4-bromodexetimide (BDEX) in patients with MTLE. METHODS: Ten patients with well-lateralized MTLE had combined MRI, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and 76Br-BDEX PET studies. Time-activity curves were generated in PET-defined regions of interest, including the medial, polar and lateral regions of the temporal lobe; the basal ganglia; the external and medial occipital cortex; and the white matter. RESULTS: The highest radioactivity concentration was observed in the basal ganglia and in the cortical regions, whereas radioactivity was lower in the white matter. On late images of PET studies, 76Br-BDEX uptake was statistically significantly decreased only in the medial temporal region ipsilateral to the seizure focus (1.37 +/-0.28, P < 0.01) as determined by FDG PET imaging, anatomic MRI and electroencephalogram correlation, compared with the contralateral medial temporal region (1.46 +/- 0.31). CONCLUSION: 76Br-BDEX concentration is reduced in the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the seizure focus in patients with MTLE. This preliminary study suggests that 76Br-BDEX is a suitable radiotracer for studies of mAChR in humans. Further studies are required to investigate the potential value of 76Br-BDEX PET in other neurological disorders with muscarinic disturbances.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Bromo , Dexetimida/análogos & derivados , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Receptores Muscarínicos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão , Adulto , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Dexetimida/química , Dexetimida/farmacocinética , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Receptores Muscarínicos/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Eur J Nucl Med ; 26(7): 743-9, 1999 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10398822

RESUMO

In previous studies we have shown that iodine-123 N-methyl-4-iododexetimide ([123I]MIDEX) is a suitable single-photon emission tomography radiotracer for the characterisation of myocardial muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (m-AChR) in the normal state. It has been demonstrated that m-AChR are altered as a consequence of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to examine myocardial m-AChR density using [123I]MIDEX in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In vitro binding experiments were conducted on left and right ventricle and atrium homogenate membranes of 1-week, 5-week and 10-week STZ-induced diabetic and aged-matched normal rats. The m-AChR densities (Bmax values), as determined by saturation experiments with [123I]MIDEX, revealed no difference in left and right ventricles or atrium in 1-week and 5-week STZ-diabetic rats when compared with normal rats. However, the 10-week STZ-diabetic group revealed a 39% (P<0.001) decrease in m-AChR density in atrium with no change in left and right ventricles. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd values) was similar in all groups. In vitro binding autoradiography revealed a 40% decrease in m-AChR density in atrium in the same 10-week diabetic rats. No statistically significant difference was found in 1-week and 5-week diabetic rats compared with normals. Ex vivo autoradiography showed a 50% decrease in [123I]MIDEX uptake in atrium in 5-week diabetic rats and a 60% decrease in 10-week diabetic rats. These results demonstrate the ability of the single-photon agent [123I]MIDEX to measure in vitro and ex vivo alterations in myocardial m-AChR density observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Colinérgicos , Dexetimida/análogos & derivados , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Receptores Muscarínicos/análise , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Cintilografia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Nucl Med Biol ; 25(8): 777-80, 1998 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9863566

RESUMO

The distribution of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the human brain in vivo has been successfully characterized using radiolabeled tracers and emission tomography. The effect of acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft on receptor binding of these tracers has not yet been investigated. The present study examined the influence of acetylcholine on binding of 4-[125I]iododexetimide to muscarinic cholinergic receptors of porcine brain synaptosomes in vitro. 4-Iododexetimide is a subtype-unspecific muscarinic receptor antagonist with high affinity. Acetylcholine competed with 4-[125I]iododexetimide in a dose-dependent manner. A concentration of 500 microM acetylcholine inhibited 50% of total specific 4-[125I]iododexetimide binding to synaptosomes when both substances were given simultaneously. An 800 microM acetylcholine solution reduced total specific 4-[125I]iododexetimide binding by about 35%, when acetylcholine was given 60 min after incubation of synaptosomes with 4-[125I]iododexetimide. Variations in the synaptic acetylcholine concentration might influence muscarinic cholinergic receptor imaging in vivo using 4-[123I]iododexetimide. Conversely, 4-[123I]iododexetimide might be an appropriate molecule to investigate alterations of acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dexetimida/análogos & derivados , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Sinaptossomos/metabolismo , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexetimida/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Suínos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 358(3): 207-11, 1998 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9822886

RESUMO

New pharmacologic approaches to enhance brain cholinergic function focus on increasing intrasynaptic acetylcholine. We examined the usefulness of a simple probe and [125I]dexetimide to evaluate in vivo the effects of extracellular acetylcholine on muscarinic receptor binding in the mouse brain. After radiotracer injection continuous time/activity curves were generated over 330 min. [125I]Dexetimide reached a plateau at 90 min post-injection. To increase extracellular acetylcholine, the anticholinesterase physostigmine was administered at 120 min, producing a reversible decrease in [125I]dexetimide specific binding (23%) for 30 min. These findings demonstrate that dynamic changes in extracellular acetylcholine can be evaluated by displacement of [125I]dexetimide binding in vivo using a simple probe system.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Dexetimida/metabolismo , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dexetimida/farmacologia , Espaço Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Câmaras gama , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Masculino , Camundongos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Fisostigmina/farmacologia , Cintilografia , Receptores Muscarínicos/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 60(3): 639-44, 1998 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9678647

RESUMO

Like amphetamine, scopolamine produces locomotor stereotypy (repetitive routes of locomotion) in an open field. To determine whether locomotor stereotypy is a common behavioral effect of anticholingeric agents, several doses of the anticholinergic dexbenzetimide were tested for the ability to produce locomotor stereotypy; like scopolamine, dexbenzetimide produced locomotor stereotypy. To investigate a possible role of dopamine in anticholinergic-induced locomotor stereotypy, we tested the ability of the dopamine D1 antagonist SKF 83566 and the D2 antagonist sulpiride to block the locomotor stereotypy induced by scopolamine as well as dexbenzetimide. SKF 83566 blocked scopolamine- and dexbenzetimide-induced locomotor stereotypy; sulpiride did not reduce dexbenzetimide-induced locomotor stereotypy, but enhanced scopolamine-induced locomotor stereotypy. Hyperlocomotion was reduced by both dopamine antagonists. Results are interpreted in support of the notion that dopamine is the likely candidate mediating locomotor stereotypy.


Assuntos
2,3,4,5-Tetra-Hidro-7,8-Di-Hidroxi-1-Fenil-1H-3-Benzazepina/análogos & derivados , Dexetimida/antagonistas & inibidores , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Escopolamina/antagonistas & inibidores , Comportamento Estereotipado/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulpirida/farmacologia , 2,3,4,5-Tetra-Hidro-7,8-Di-Hidroxi-1-Fenil-1H-3-Benzazepina/farmacologia , Animais , Dexetimida/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2 , Interações Medicamentosas , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Dopamina D1/antagonistas & inibidores , Escopolamina/farmacologia
14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 17(3): 493-9, 1998 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9656161

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new, compact, dynamic diffusion cell for in vitro transdermal permeation. These so-called Kelder-cells were developed as an automated alternative to the static Franz diffusion cells. The new cells were used in combination with the ASPEC-system (automatic sample preparation with extraction columns) which was initially designed for the automation of solid-phase extractions. Three variables were tested to optimize the performance of the new cell system: injection height into the inlet compartment, volume flowing through the receptor compartment and temperature. Experiments were performed using the tritium labelled anticholinergic [3H]dexetimide permeating through an artificial membrane (Silastic). The injection height of the needle into the inlet compartment of the cell should be programmed at -34 mm to ensure complete air tightness, thus forcing the buffer to flow through the cell. The volume of buffer flow through the receptor compartment is important in maintaining sink conditions: a volume of 117 microliters was chosen to replace the total content of the cell (84 microliters) every 2 min. The temperature was precisely controlled in a thermostatic cabinet to minimize variations in experimental conditions. For [3H]dexetimide, an increase in temperature of 20 degrees C reduced the lag time by a factor of approximately two, however the influence on the flux was negligible. The data for the Kelder-cells were comparable with static Franz diffusion cells at a pseudo-steady state, however Kelder-cells have the advantage of automatic sampling, continuous replacement of the receptor solution, and unattended operation over at least 24 h.


Assuntos
Administração Cutânea , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Análise de Variância , Dexetimida/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Membranas Artificiais , Temperatura , Trítio/metabolismo
16.
Eur J Nucl Med ; 24(9): 1156-61, 1997 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9283110

RESUMO

Animal experiments and preliminary results in humans have indicated alterations of hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in temporal lobe epilepsy. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy often present with a reduction in hippocampal volume. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hippocampal atrophy on the quantification of mAChR with single photon emission tomography (SPET) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Cerebral uptake of the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist [123I]4-iododexetimide (IDex) was investigated by SPET in patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy of unilateral (n=6) or predominantly unilateral (n=1) onset. Regions of interest were drawn on co-registered magnetic resonance images. Hippocampal volume was determined in these regions and was used to correct the SPET results for partial volume effects. A ratio of hippocampal IDex binding on the affected side to that on the unaffected side was used to detect changes in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density. Before partial volume correction a decrease in hippocampal IDex binding on the focus side was found in each patient. After partial volume no convincing differences remained. Our results indicate that the reduction in hippocampal IDex binding in patients with epilepsy is due to a decrease in hippocampal volume rather than to a decrease in receptor concentration.


Assuntos
Dexetimida/análogos & derivados , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Adulto , Atrofia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
17.
Eur J Nucl Med ; 24(6): 602-8, 1997 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9169565

RESUMO

Decreased muscarinic receptor binding has been suggested in single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies of Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unclear whether these changes are present in mildly demented patients, and the role of cortical atrophy in receptor binding assessment has not been investigated. We studied muscarinic receptor binding normalized to neostriatum with SPET using [123I]4-iododexetimide in five mildly affected patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and in five age-matched control subjects. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in a consensus procedure blind to clinical diagnosis using matched magnetic resonance (MRI) images. Cortical atrophy was assessed by calculating percentages of cerebrospinal fluid in each ROI. An observer study with three observers was conducted to validate this method. Alzheimer patients showed statistically significantly less [123I]4-iododexetimide binding in left temporal and right temporo-parietal cortex compared with controls, independent of age, sex and cortical atrophy. Mean intra-observer variability was 3.6% and inter-observer results showed consistent differences in [123I]4-iododexetimide binding between observers. However, differences between patients and controls were comparable among observers and statistically significant in the same regions as in the consensus procedure. Using an MRI-SPET matching technique, we conclude that [123I]4-iododexetimide binding is reduced in patients with mild probable Alzheimer's disease in areas of temporal and temporo-parietal cortex.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dexetimida , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Antagonistas Muscarínicos , Receptores Muscarínicos/análise , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo
18.
Eur J Nucl Med ; 24(5): 475-82, 1997 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9142726

RESUMO

We studied the potential of three radiobrominated isomers of BrQNP, (Z(-,-)-[76Br]BrQNP, E(-,-)-[76Br]BrQNP and E(-,+)-[76Br]BrQNP), as suitable radioligands for imaging of central muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the human brain. These radioligands were stereospecifically prepared by electrophilic radiobromodestannylation of the respective tributylstannyl precursors using no-carrier-added [76Br]BrNH4 and peracetic acid. Preliminary pharmacological characterizations were determined by biodistribution, autoradiography, competition, displacement and metabolite studies in rats. The (-,-)-configuration presented important specific uptakes in brain muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR)-rich structures and in heart, low metabolization rates and an apparent M2 selectivity. The (-,+)-configuration revealed more rapid clearance, lower uptake, a higher metabolization rate and an apparent M1 selectivity. Reversibility of the binding was confirmed for the three radiotracers. Positron emission tomography in the living baboon brain revealed high and rapid uptake in the brain and accumulation in the mAChR-rich structures studied. At 30 min p.i., the E(-,-)-radiotracer reached a plateau in cortex, pons and thalamus with concentrations of 29%, 24% and 19% ID/l, respectively. Z(-,-)-[76Br]BrQNP also accumulated in these structures, reaching a maximal uptake (27% ID/l) in the cortex 2 h p.i. At 5 min p.i. a plateau (17% ID/l) was only observed in the cortex for the E(-, +)-[76Br]BrQNP; by contrast, the other structures showed slow washout. After 3 weeks, the (-,-)-radiotracers were studied in the same baboon pretreated with dexetimide (1 mg/kg), a well-known muscarinic antagonist. In all the mAChR structures, the highly reduced uptake observed after this preloading step indicates that these radiotracers specifically bind to muscarinic receptors. Z(-, -)-[76Br]BrQNP, which is displaced in higher amounts from M2 mAChR-enriched structures, reveals an M2 affinity. The two isomers having the (-,-)-configuration are potential probes for investigating central muscarinic receptors. The absolute configuration on the acetate chiral centre influences their muscarinic subtype selectivity and the cis-trans isomerism of the vinyl moiety affects their specific fixation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos de Bromo , Antagonistas Muscarínicos , Quinuclidinil Benzilato , Receptores Muscarínicos/análise , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão/métodos , Animais , Dexetimida/farmacologia , Masculino , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacocinética , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Papio , Quinuclidinil Benzilato/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estereoisomerismo
19.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 14(11): 1425-33, 1996 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8877848

RESUMO

In order to optimize quantitative receptor assays for anticholinergics, the different receptor preparations resulting from the purification and the solubilization of the P2 pellet from the calf striatum were evaluated. The dissociation constants for two chemically different anticholinergics, the tertiary amine scopolamine and the quaternary amine oxyphenonium, were calculated from inhibition studies of 3H-NMS binding in buffer and plasma. The Kd values for both anticholinergics were similar for all the membrane-bound receptor preparations (unpurified and the purified P2 pellet) either in buffer or in plasma. More pronounced differences were observed between the membrane-bound and solubilized receptors. By introducing the solubilized receptor as well, differences between the individual anticholinergics appeared. On the one hand, for scopolamine, a gain in sensitivity of 1.5-2.8 in plasma was observed for the solubilized receptor. On the other hand, in the case of oxyphenonium, a dramatic loss in sensitivity (by a factor of about 24) was observed with the solubilized receptor, as compared to the membrane-bound receptor, in buffer. Very interestingly, however, when the solubilized receptor was used in plasma, a lowering of the Kd value was found for both anticholinergics, i.e. the assays became more sensitive. Such an effect (not observed for the membrane-bound receptor) could be obtained only when the percentage of digitonin present in the assay was at least 0.12% (w/v) or higher.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Muscarínicos/química , Oxifenônio/química , Ensaio Radioligante/métodos , Receptores Muscarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Derivados da Escopolamina/química , Animais , Tampões (Química) , Bovinos , Membrana Celular/química , Corpo Estriado/química , Dexetimida , Hexanos , Humanos , Plasma , Trítio
20.
Nucl Med Biol ; 23(3): 235-43, 1996 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8782231

RESUMO

4-[76Br]bromodexetimide and its inactive enantiomer 4-[76Br]bromolevetimide were prepared via electrophilic bromodesilylation using chloramine-T and no-carrier-added (NCA) [76Br]NH4. In vitro, Bmax measured on rat cortex membranes were 3.7 +/- 0.2 and < 0.07 pmol/mg protein for 4-[76Br]bromodexetimide and 4-[76Br]bromolevetimide, respectively. The kD of 4-[76Br]bromodexetimide was 1.9 +/- 0.3 nM. In vivo studies in rats showed specific uptake of 4-[76Br]bromodexetimide in cortex, striatum, thalamus and hippocampus. No specific uptake was observed with 4-[76Br]bromolevetimide. With [76Br]bromodexetimide, positron emission tomography (PET) studies in primates demonstrated a preferential accumulation of the radioactivity in the cortex and striatum which was displaced to the level of cerebellum by dexetimide. With 4-[76Br]bromolevetimide, the radioactivity concentrations in the cortex and striatum were similar to that of cerebellum.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos de Bromo , Dexetimida/análogos & derivados , Antagonistas Muscarínicos , Receptores Muscarínicos/análise , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão/métodos , Animais , Autorradiografia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Bromo/farmacocinética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Dexetimida/síntese química , Dexetimida/farmacocinética , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Cinética , Masculino , Ensaio Radioligante , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
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