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1.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 462(1-3): 169-77, 2003 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12591110

RESUMO

The contractile actions of imidazoline alpha-adrenoceptor agonists were investigated in human vas deferens longitudinal and circular muscle. The effects of phenoxybenzamine were studied in comparison to dibenamine and SZL-49 (4-amino-6,7-dimethoxy-2-quinazolinyl-4-(2-bicyclo[2,2,2]octa-2,5-dienylcarbonyl-2-piperazine), an alkylating prazosin analogue that discriminates between alpha(1H)- and alpha(1L)-adrenoceptor subtypes. The imidazoline alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, A-61603 (N-[5-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2yl)-2-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl]methanesulfonamide hydrobromide), was a potent agonist (pD(2); longitudinal muscle 6.9, circular muscle 6.4) and cirazoline a partial agonist (pD(2); longitudinal muscle 6.1, circular muscle 5.1). Oxymetazoline was less effective, indanidine and clonidine were ineffective. SZL-49 produced a differential inhibition of contractions evoked by A-61603 in circular (alpha(1H)) compared to longitudinal (alpha(1L)) muscle and phenoxybenzamine had the opposite effect. Dibenamine inhibited the contractions comparably in both muscle types and analyses of its partial alkylation of receptors yielded identical estimates of equilibrium dissociation constant (pK(d)) for A-61603 in longitudinal (5.82) and circular (5.84) muscle. Receptor occupancy-response relationships revealed that whilst the muscle types are not different in receptor reserves for A-61603, contraction to the potent imidazoline is more efficiently coupled in longitudinal than in circular muscle. This underlies the markedly different responsiveness of the muscle types to cirazoline or oxymetazoline (alpha-adrenoceptor agonists with lower efficacies relative to A-61603). The differential inhibitory actions of phenoxybenzamine and SZL-49 are discussed.


Assuntos
Agonistas alfa-Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Prazosina/análogos & derivados , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/farmacologia , Ducto Deferente/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Masculino , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Oximetazolina/farmacologia , Fenoxibenzamina/farmacologia , Prazosina/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Ducto Deferente/fisiologia
2.
Br J Pharmacol ; 136(1): 127-35, 2002 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11976277

RESUMO

The effects of irreversible alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, SZL-49 (an alkylating analogue of prazosin), dibenamine and benextramine on contractions to noradrenaline (NA) in longitudinal and circular muscle of human epididymal vas deferens were investigated. Competitive alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists were also used to further characterize the alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype stimulated by NA in longitudinal and circular muscle. NA evoked concentration-dependent contractions of both muscle types (pD2; 5.4 and 5.2 respectively). The contraction of circular muscle was comparatively more sensitive than that of longitudinal muscle to pretreatment with SZL-49. In contrast, dibenamine or benextramine produced comparable effects in both muscle types. The relationship between receptor occupancy and contraction in either longitudinal or circular muscle was nonlinear, with half-maximal response requiring similar receptor occupancy (longitudinal muscle 14%, circular muscle 16%). Maximal response in both muscle types occurred with little or no receptor reserve (<10%). The competitive alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists produced dextral shifts of the dose-response curves to NA in longitudinal and circular muscle. The inhibitory potencies, estimated from the apparent pKB values were significantly different in longitudinal and circular muscle respectively for either WB 4101 (pKB, 8.6 and 9.5) or RS-17053 (pKB, 7.1 and 9.0) but not for Rec 15/2739 (pKB, 9.2 and 9.8) or HV 723 (pKB, 8.3 and 8.4). In conclusion, the potency profile of the competitive alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists and the lack of different receptor reserves for NA in the muscle types suggest that the discriminatory effects of SZL-49 is primarily due to a predominance of the alpha1L-adrenoceptor subtype in longitudinal muscle and alpha1A-subtype in circular muscle.


Assuntos
Cistamina/análogos & derivados , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Prazosina/análogos & derivados , Prazosina/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Ducto Deferente/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/farmacologia , Cistamina/farmacologia , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Ducto Deferente/fisiologia
3.
Neuropsychobiology ; 40(1): 21-32, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10420098

RESUMO

In addition to the existence of complex memory (similar to the implicit nondeclarative memory of Squire), the existence of a phylogenetically old apparatus of a memory of situations (SMA) is supposed, which is to some extent comparable with the declarative memory of Squire. During actual sensory information the SMA generates a general frame and forms a general 'mark', indicating whether a given information has its origin inside or outside the body, and whether it is new or known. The procedure of this marking process can be explained as the time-depending arrest of a copy of the actual original information-transporting signal 'shower'; this copy must last until the feedback from thalamocortical centers indicates the termination of the processing of the original signal showers. The arrest of the shower copies is the performance of neuronal networks of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and the gyrus dentatus (GD). The psychopathological and biochemical analyses of experimental dibenamine psychosis show a different effect of dibenamine on the noradrenaline (NA) receptors of the EC and GD, respectively: these effects are responsible for the repeated perception cycles of a single situation. N,N-Dibencylamine blocks the postsynaptic alpha(1)-receptors of the EC without influencing the beta-receptors of the GD. Thus the interaction between EC and GD is changed: instead of new scenes, perceptions that have just been experienced get repeated presence and the quality of familiarity. The prolonged arrest of shower copies simultaneously blocks the entrance of new signal showers from the EC to the GD. No information-transporting signal showers can come in as long as the arrest lasts. In case of a disturbance in NA-dependent actions within the EC and the GD, the duration of arrest of information-transporting signal showers is shortened. Thus the formal frame of experience receives the quality of novelty instead of familiarity, and in addition the qualities of uncertainty, vagueness, and alienity. These very changes in perception and experience represent the basic disturbance of schizophrenia. All the symptoms of schizophrenia may be explained by this basic disturbance. The analysis of biochemical aspects turns attention to the energetic situation of NA and N-methyl-D-aspartate systems. These considerations suggest a genetic background of the basic disturbance of schizophrenia: transmitter effects on membranes of neurons and possibly also on glial cells, and energy supply of these effects may be predetermined genetically. It may be assumed that the compensation of such membrane-dependent disturbances will be possible within wide areas of the neural network, except for the 'bottleneck' of the overlapping region of the iso- and allocortex.


Assuntos
Giro Denteado/fisiopatologia , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiopatologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Giro Denteado/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzilcloretamina , Córtex Entorrinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/patologia , Alucinações/induzido quimicamente , Alucinações/patologia , Alucinações/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/etiologia , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/psicologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
4.
J Neurosci Res ; 51(5): 593-601, 1998 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9512003

RESUMO

The dentate gyrus neurons in the hippocampus contain a high density of both mineralocorticoid and adrenergic receptors. By in vivo extracellular recording from adrenalectomized rats we investigated the possible relationships between the two systems with regard to neuronal excitability and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Pretreatment with aldosterone significantly enhanced both basal neuronal excitability and tetanically evoked synaptic plasticity in adrenalectomized, but not sham-operated rats. The enhancement was blocked by spironolactone, indicating a mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent effect. The adrenomedullary hormone epinephrine also significantly enhanced synaptic plasticity via activation of beta-adrenergic receptors. Beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, infused directly into the dentate gyrus granule cell layer, significantly reduced the effect of aldosterone on neuronal excitability and partly canceled the aldosterone-enhanced synaptic plasticity. No effect of propranolol was found after its amygdaloid infusion. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone did not affect the epinephrine-induced effects. These results indicate that the pretreated adrenal steroids interact with the catecholaminergic system in the dentate gyrus of adrenalectomized rats and that the functional beta-adrenergic pathway is involved in the mechanism of mineralocorticoid-induced cellular effects in vivo.


Assuntos
Giro Denteado/química , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/química , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/metabolismo , Adrenalectomia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/farmacologia , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Aldosterona/farmacologia , Animais , Giro Denteado/fisiologia , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Potenciais Evocados/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Propranolol/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Estimulação Química
5.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 35(4): 223-37, 1996 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8823669

RESUMO

The determination of the affinity and efficacy of an agonist in functional (as opposed to radioligand binding) experiments is necessary to explain its potency. Using modeled dose-response data both in their ideal form and with an added average deviation as well as previously published experimental data, a variety of analytical approaches were compared which differed in goodness-of-fit, ease of handling, and range of successful application. A nonlinear curve-fitting algorithm that analyzed several dose-response curves simultaneously and fitted them to an extended version of the operational model of Black and Leff (1983) (Proc R Soc Lond B 220:141-162) was demonstrated to be superior to the other approaches using the above criteria. However, judging from the limitations of the analytical approaches, claims of efficacy or affinity differences between agonists that are based on less than 10-fold numerical differences in the same behavioral paradigm should be viewed with skepticism. It was also found that simple inspection of dose-response curves obtained before and after administration of an insurmountable antagonist give estimates of fair accuracy under most circumstances.


Assuntos
Receptores de Droga/agonistas , Receptores de Droga/antagonistas & inibidores , Agonistas alfa-Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Coelhos , Receptores Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Droga/metabolismo
6.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 10(5): 442-9, 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8902547

RESUMO

The study was undertaken to characterize the effects of porcine galanin (pGal) and some of its analogues on rat gastric fundus muscle strips. pGal, galantide (M15) and pGal(1-14)-[Abu8]SCY-I evoked reproducible concentration-dependent contractions in concentrations of 1-300, 3-1,000 and 100-3,000 nM, respectively, with EC50 values of 13, 70 and 187 nM. Hill's coefficient for pGal is 1.03, indicating an interaction of one pGal molecule with one receptor, fulfilling criteria of classical receptor theory. For M15 and pGal(1-14)-[Abu8]SCY-I, Hill's coefficients are significantly different from 1, namely 0.73 and 1.56, so that one drug molecule may not interact with one receptor. The stimulatory effects of pGal were not modified by dibenamine 10 microM or glybenclamide 1 or 10 microM. Diltiazem 0.1, 1 and 10 microM, papaverine 0.1, 10 microM or dibutyryl cAMP (dib cAMP) 100 and 300 microM, blocked the contraction to pGal in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating an important role for the influx of extracellular calcium ions and regulation by cAMP the pGal-evoked contraction. Diltiazem, dibutyryl cAMP and papaverine were not competitive antagonists of pGal in the stomach smooth muscle.


Assuntos
Galanina/farmacologia , Fundo Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Variância , Animais , Bucladesina/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Diltiazem/farmacologia , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Galanina/análogos & derivados , Fundo Gástrico/metabolismo , Glibureto/farmacologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Papaverina/farmacologia , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Substância P/análogos & derivados , Substância P/farmacologia
7.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 256(2): 131-9, 1994 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8050463

RESUMO

The effect of acetylcholine on isolated human uterine artery rings was investigated. Acetylcholine induced concentration and endothelium-dependent relaxation (pD2 = 7.29 +/- 0.03) of the precontracted arterial segments. The dissociation constant (KA) for acetylcholine was 1.35 (0.92-1.77) mumol/l. The occupancy-response relationship was non-linear. Half-maximal response to acetylcholine was obtained with 5.25% receptor occupancy. Muscarinic receptor antagonists: atropine, pirenzepine, methoctramine, p-fluoro-hexahydro-sila-diphenidol (pFHHSiD) and 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP) competitively antagonized the response to acetylcholine. The constrained pA2 values were 9.32 +/- 0.03, 7.13 +/- 0.01, 6.26 +/- 0.01, 8.17 +/- 0.01 and 9.13 +/- 0.02, respectively. A selective muscarinic M2 receptor antagonist, gallamine, had no effect on acetylcholine-induced relaxation. It is concluded that in human uterine arteries acetylcholine induces endothelium-dependent relaxation and acts as a full agonist. We suggest that the muscarinic receptors involved in the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the isolated human uterine artery are predominantly of the M3 subtype.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Acetilcolina/antagonistas & inibidores , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Adulto , Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Papaverina/farmacologia , Receptores Muscarínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/irrigação sanguínea
8.
Br J Pharmacol ; 109(2): 394-404, 1993 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8395286

RESUMO

1. This paper describes aspects of the functional antagonism between the responses mediated by activated alpha 1-adrenoceptors and adenosine A2 receptors in the adventitia- and endothelium-denuded aorta of the rabbit. 2. Adenosine A2 receptor agonists relaxed aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine. The relaxation response was agonist concentration-dependent and saturable. The respective contractile and relaxation responses were stable, reproducible, and reversible. 3. Increasing the phenylephrine concentration caused a progressive attenuation of the action of adenosine A2 receptor agonists, consisting of a decreased maximal response and a dextral shift of the adenosine agonist concentration-response curve. This functional antagonism could be completely reversed upon removal of adenosine by either the addition of adenosine deaminase or by wash-out of the adenosine agonist from the tissue. The relaxation response to the adenosine A2 receptor partial agonists, N6-cyclohexyladenosine and R-(-)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine, was abolished at higher phenylephrine concentrations (e.g. 30 EC50). 4. A 1000 fold increase in the adenosine concentration was required to shift the value of the EC50 of phenylephrine six fold, while a similar increase in the value of the EC50 of adenosine could be elicited by only a 32 fold increase in the phenylephrine concentration. A 30 fold increase in the phenylephrine concentration shifted the value of the EC50 of 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine four fold. 5. Analysis of the functional antagonism between the responses mediated by these receptors using the Black & Leff (1983) operational model of agonism allowed for the estimation of the agonist dissociation constant, KA, and the apparent efficacy, tau, for both phenylephrine and adenosine A2 receptor agonists. Increasing the concentration of phenylephrine reduced the value of tau for adenosine agonists in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner. Similarly, increasing the concentration of adenosine reduced the value of tau for phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner. The phenylephrine KA value obtained by the method of functional antagonism (1.9 microM) was similar to that obtained by the receptor inactivation method (2.1 microM). 6. Partial occlusion of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor by the alkylating agent, dibenamine, demonstrated that the magnitude of the adenosine A2 receptor-mediated relaxation was inversely proportional to the number of functional alpha 1-adrenoceptors. 7. It is concluded that the magnitude of functional antagonism is proportional to the stimulus elicited through either receptor. We propose that this tissue preparation and pair of receptors is a good model to study quantitative aspects of functional antagonism between activated receptors.


Assuntos
Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos/metabolismo , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/farmacologia , Adenosina-5'-(N-etilcarboxamida) , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Indicadores e Reagentes , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Capuzes de RNA/farmacologia , Coelhos , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Purinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
9.
Parasitol Res ; 78(4): 349-53, 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1409536

RESUMO

The neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying the action of milbemycin oxime on the motility of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Dirofilaria immitis were examined in vitro. In A. cantonensis, milbemycin oxime caused inhibitory effects at low concentrations of > or = 10(-9) g/ml, and paralysis was elicited at 10(-8) - 10(-6) g/ml. The paralysis was antagonized by picrotoxin and bicuculline but not by dibenamine. In addition, stimulatory effects were observed when the antibiotic was used at higher concentrations of 3-5 x 10(-6) g/ml, and the action was antagonized by strychnine. Both effects were also observed in the preparation contracted by eserine or pyrantel. When D. immitis was treated with milbemycin oxime at concentrations of 10(-7) and 3-5 x 10(-6) g/ml, only slight inhibitory and stimulatory effects, respectively, were observed. These effects were partially antagonized by picrotoxin and strychnine, respectively. These results suggest that the inhibitory and stimulatory actions of milbemycin oxime are caused through gabergic and cholinergic mechanisms in A. cantonensis and D. immitis.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/antagonistas & inibidores , Antibacterianos/antagonistas & inibidores , Bicuculina/farmacologia , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Cães , Feminino , Macrolídeos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Picrotoxina/farmacologia , Ratos , Estricnina/farmacologia
10.
Jpn J Pharmacol ; 56(4): 523-30, 1991 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1683914

RESUMO

Scatchard analyses of 3H-prazosin binding in rat brain membranes showed biphasic curves, which identified the presence of alpha 1High- and alpha 1Low-affinity sites. The alpha 1High-affinity site was completely inhibited by 0.1 microM phenoxybenzamine. On the other hand, 3H-prazosin binding in rat spleen membranes resulted in linear curves that were identical to the binding curve for the alpha 1High-affinity site in the brain. The displacement potencies of alpha 1-adrenergic antagonists were characterized by 3H-prazosin binding to alpha 1High-affinity sites in the rat spleen and brain and alpha 1Low-affinity sites in the brain in the presence of 0.1 microM of phenoxybenzamine. The affinities of WB-4101, phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, chlorpromazine, labetalol and nifedipine for brain alpha 1High-affinity sites were significantly higher than those in the spleen. The affinities of most ligands for alpha 1Low-affinity sites were significantly lower than those for both alpha 1High-affinity sites in the brain and spleen, but chlorethylclonidine was significantly selective for alpha 1Low-affinity sites, and bunazosin, dibenamine and 5HT had the same affinities for the alpha 1Low- and both alpha 1High-affinity sites. These results show that two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes, alpha 1High- and alpha 1Low-affinity, are present in the rat brain and that a different alpha 1High-subtype, exists in the rat spleen.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Dibenzilcloretamina/metabolismo , Cinética , Masculino , Fenoxibenzamina/metabolismo , Fenoxibenzamina/farmacologia , Prazosina/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa/química , Serotonina/metabolismo
11.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 256(2): 553-61, 1991 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1847200

RESUMO

5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and the selective alpha-1 agonists phenylephrine (PE) and oxymetazoline (OXY), were used to study the effects of simultaneous coactivation of the 5-HT2 and alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, respectively, on the contractile responses of isolated rat aortic rings. Dissociation constants (KA) were determined for each of the agonists at their respective receptor subtypes. The KA values for PE and OXY at the alpha-1 receptor were 316 nM and 1.82 microM, respectively, while the KA for 5-HT at the 5-HT2 receptor was 478 nM. Concentration-response curves for each agonist were analyzed by the Black and Leff operational model of pharmacological agonism to determine efficacy (tau) and slope factor values. The estimated tau for PE (16.02) was much greater than the tau for either OXY (4.15) or 5-HT (2.95), which had similar efficacies. Using a previously described drug concentration paradigm, a mutual-effect amplification of the 5-HT-induced contractile response was observed with mixtures of 5-HT and PE, whereas mixtures of OXY and 5-HT elicited a mutual-effect amplification of the observed response to OXY alone. In both cases, the theoretical concentration-response curve constructed using the Poch and Holzmann method of equiactive substitution demonstrated that mutual-effect amplification was largely the result of simple additivity of agonist effects. In addition, estimates of tau and slope factor determined from the Black and Leff equation were substituted into the Leff model of mutual-effect amplification and used to accurately predict the location of the concentration-response curves elicited by mixtures of 5-HT and PE, as well as mixtures of OXY and 5-HT. This represents the first time a mathematical model has been used to accurately predict the outcome of coactivation of the alpha-1 and 5-HT2 receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


Assuntos
Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Serotonina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Oximetazolina/metabolismo , Oximetazolina/farmacologia , Fenilefrina/metabolismo , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Serotonina/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 253(3): 1236-44, 1990 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2359025

RESUMO

5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-amphetamine (DOM) are potent agonists on isolated ovine uterine arteries in late pregnancy. Similar pA2 values (8.56 and 8.33, respectively) of ketanserin, tested against 5-HT and DOM, indicate that responses produced by both agonists are mediated by the 5-HT2 receptor. The contractions produced by 8-OH-DPAT and 2-methyl-5-HT were also blocked by ketanserin (10(-8) M) with the dissociation constants (KB) being 2.49 and 2.88 nM, respectively. This provides evidence that these agonists are activating 5-HT2 receptors in the ovine uterine artery. DOM was more potent than 5-HT, but had a similar efficacy to that of 5-HT. The greater affinity of DOM may explain its greater potency. The dissociation constants (KA) of 5-HT and DOM acting on 5-HT receptors were determined by analysis of concentration-response data before and after fractional inactivation of receptors with dibenamine. The mean KA values for 5-HT and DOM were 3.7 +/- 0.7 x 10(-7) and 1.8 +/- 0.3 x 10(-7) M, respectively. Assessment of receptor occupancy vs. functional response demonstrated little or no receptor reserve in this tissue. Several other 5-HT receptor agonists caused contractions but were much less potent than 5-HT. The order of potency of these agonists was determined to be DOM greater than 5-HT greater than or equal to alpha-methyl-5-HT much greater than 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) greater than 2-methyl-5-HT greater than 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (mCPP) greater than m-trifluoromethyl-phenylpiperazine (TFMPP).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


Assuntos
2,5-Dimetoxi-4-Metilanfetamina/farmacologia , Anfetaminas/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Serotonina/efeitos dos fármacos , Serotonina/farmacologia , Animais , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Gravidez , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Ovinos , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 51(1): 89-99, 1990 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2153880

RESUMO

The age changes of neural control over the function of the thyroid, adrenal cortex and testicles were examined in adult (6 months) and old (28 months) male rats. In old age, there was a weakening of adrenergic control of thyroidogenesis, alpha-adrenergic and M-cholinergic control of glucocorticoid function of the adrenal cortex and reduction of adrenergic and M-cholinergic influences in the regulation of steroidogenic function of the testicles.


Assuntos
Córtex Suprarrenal/inervação , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Testículo/inervação , Glândula Tireoide/inervação , Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Córtex Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Cetosteroides/sangue , Masculino , Propranolol/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Reserpina/farmacologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue
15.
Br J Pharmacol ; 98(2): 597-611, 1989 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2555016

RESUMO

1. The positive inotropic responses of rat paced left atria to adrenaline and noradrenaline were recorded. Desmethylimipramine (DMI, 1 microM) and metanephrine (10 microM) were initially present throughout. 2. The positive chronotropic responses of spontaneously beating right atria to adrenaline were used as a reference. In these, pindolol, in increasing concentrations, caused progressive shift of the concentration-response curves to the right, which yielded a pA2 value (8.15) compatible with antagonism of beta-adrenoceptors. 3. The left atrial tension responses to adrenaline showed an initial progressive displacement by pindolol (up to 3 microM) which gave an unexpectedly low pA2 value (6.48). However, with further increases in pindolol concentration there was no additional shift of the curve. In the presence of pindolol (3 microM), prazosin (0.1 microM) displaced the curve to the right but the pA2 value derived from this shift (7.75) was less than expected for alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonism. 4. When the experiments in the presence of pindolol (3 microM) were repeated in the absence of DMI, prazosin displaced the concentration-response curves for adrenaline-induced left atrial tension to a greater extent and the pA2 value (8.76) was now compatible with adrenaline stimulating typical alpha 1-adrenoceptors. 5. The concentration-response curves for noradrenaline-induced left atrial tension were also progressively displaced to the right by pindolol (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 microM). These concentrations yielded a Schild plot of unity slope and a pA2 value of 7.94 +/- 0.04. This was not significantly different from the pA2 value of 8.02 +/- 0.07 determined for pindolol against isoprenaline in the left atria, which indicates a normal interaction of noradrenaline with beta-adrenoceptors in the absence and presence of low concentrations of pindolol. 6. A further increase in the concentration of pindolol to 3 microM failed to induce an additional shift of the noradrenaline curves, whether a 'before and after' antagonist or a 'naïve tissue' design was adopted. Similarly, the rightwards shift of the concentration-response curves by timolol reached a limit as the concentration was increased. In all cases the limit of shift occurred at a noradrenaline EC50 value of 5-10 microM. 7. At the limit of beta-adrenoceptor antagonism, prazosin and dibenamine did not displace the noradrenaline curves further. The residual inotropic response to noradrenaline therefore appeared to be mediated via neither alpha- nor beta-adrenoceptors. 8. DMI, in the absence of beta-blockade, produced the potentiation of adrenaline and noradrenaline expected of a neuronal uptake inhibitor. However, in the presence of pindolol, there was no potentiation of the right atrial rate response to adrenaline while its left atrial tension responses were antagonized. This suggested that DMI was acting as an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist. It also explained the less-than-expected shift by prazosin of the adrenaline responses in the presence of both pindolol and DMI, the latter drug already exerting some alpha-blocking activity. In contrast, the left atrial tension responses to noradrenaline in the presence of pindolol (1 microM) were neither potentiated nor antagonized by DMI. 9. When the effects of prazosin upon left atrial tension responses to noradrenaline in the presence of pindolol (10 microM) were examined in the presence of a lower concentration of DMI (O.1 microM) or cocaine (1O microM), again there was no further shift of the curve. However, when the effect of prazosin) The Macmillan Press Ltd 1989 598 K.L. WILLIAMSON & K.J. BROADLEY was examined in the absence of DMI, but in the presence of pindolol (1 and 1O microM) or timolol (3 microM), there was a small shift of the curves by prazosin (0.1 microM). This yielded pA2 values of 7.19, 7.34 +/- 0.1 and 7.66 +/- 0.09, which were at least one order of magnitude less than literature values and that obtained with adrenaline (8.76 +/- 0.18), and are not consistent with noradrenaline stimulating an alpha 1-adrenoreceptor in the presence of beta-adrenoceptor blockade, the increase in left atrial tension by noradrenaline does not appear to be mediated by beta l- or typical alpha-adrenoceptors. This is in contrast to adrenaline which in these conditions stimulates typical alpha 1-adrenoceptors.


Assuntos
Epinefrina/farmacologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cocaína/farmacologia , Desipramina/farmacologia , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pindolol/farmacologia , Prazosina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Estimulação Química , Timolol/farmacologia
16.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 162(1): 51-8, 1989 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2721564

RESUMO

The effect of replacing calcium with strontium in the perfusion fluid was qualitatively and quantitatively studied in the isolated longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ileum. In the presence of strontium hyoscine could be considered a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine for the acetylcholine receptor of the longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ileum; dibenamine still blocked this receptor in an irreversible way. The equilibrium constants for acetylcholine (KA) and hyoscine (KI) were obtained in the presence of calcium (KA = 3.16 +/- 0.63 microM; KI = 0.38 +/- 0.07 nM), and strontium (KA = 7.00 +/- 0.89 microM; KI = 0.93 +/- 0.16 nM). The results show a decrease in the affinity of both drugs for the muscarinic receptor in the presence of strontium.


Assuntos
Parassimpatomiméticos/farmacologia , Receptores Colinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrôncio/farmacologia , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Cobaias , Técnicas In Vitro , Receptores Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Escopolamina/farmacologia
17.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 156(3): 315-24, 1988 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2850930

RESUMO

The rat vas deferens has been considered to be the tissue of choice to study alpha-adrenergic drugs. However, some of these agonists have elicited complex responses in this organ. Therefore, detailed characterization of alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated responses of the rat vas deferens was the aim of this work. Experiments were designed to study the contractile response of this tissue to phenylethanolamine (noradrenaline) and to two imidazolines (oxymetazoline and naphazoline). These responses were related to receptor occupancy and to other parameters of drug action, i.e. dissociation constants, relative efficacies, ED50 and maximal responses. A theoretical model was used to check the experimental data. There was a non-linear relationship between response and receptor occupancy with all three agonists. The dissociation constants for noradrenaline, oxymetazoline and naphazoline were 11.06, 0.15 and 0.10 microM, respectively. The rat vas deferens had 75-80% spare receptors for noradrenaline. Oxymetazoline and naphazoline were shown to be partial agonists with low relative efficacies as compared to noradrenaline (0.0063 and 0.0056 respectively). The dose-response curves generated by the model for partial agonists were similar to the curves obtained experimentally in vitro.


Assuntos
Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa/fisiologia , Ducto Deferente/fisiologia , Animais , Dibenzilcloretamina/metabolismo , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nafazolina/administração & dosagem , Nafazolina/metabolismo , Nafazolina/farmacologia , Norepinefrina/administração & dosagem , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Oximetazolina/administração & dosagem , Oximetazolina/metabolismo , Oximetazolina/farmacologia , Ratos , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ducto Deferente/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 337(5): 556-60, 1988 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3412492

RESUMO

In urethane-anesthetized rats, removal of about 50% of the total blood volume over a period of 25-30 min caused hypovolemic shock, with extreme hypotension (MAP = 18-25 mm Hg and death of all animals within 22 +/- 5 min. The i.v. injection of ACTH-(1-24) in the dose range of 40-160 micrograms/kg induced a sustained, dose-dependent, and, at the highest dose used, an almost complete recovery of blood pressure, and 100% survival, at least for 2 h after treatment. The effect of ACTH-(1-24) was completely prevented by reserpine (5 mg/kg) and clonidine (0.1 mg/kg), significantly reduced by prazosin (0.1 mg/kg), dibenamine (15 mg/kg) and i.v. yohimbine (1 mg/kg) and unaffected by i.c.v. yohimbine (0.2 mg/kg) and i.v. practolol (15 mg/kg). These data suggest that the effect of ACTH-(1-24) in hypovolemic shock depends on the functional integrity of the sympathetic nervous system and is mediated through an activation of peripheral alpha-adrenoceptors.


Assuntos
Cosintropina/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Pulso Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Jpn J Pharmacol ; 46(4): 414-7, 1988 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3404772

RESUMO

Thirty-min treatment of guinea-pig taenia caecum with 300 nM propyl-benzilylcholine mustard (PrBCM) shifted the concentration-response curve for carbachol to the right with a reduction of the maximum contraction, but 90-min treatment did not result in further inhibition. Under these conditions, pilocarpine hardly contracted the preparations, and it competitively antagonized carbachol. Muscarinic agonists might interact with two types of receptor mechanisms and carbachol elicited a stimulus from both types, whereas pilocarpine did so predominantly from the PrBCM-sensitive one.


Assuntos
Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Muscarínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Carbacol/farmacologia , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Cobaias , Técnicas In Vitro , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fenoxibenzamina/farmacologia , Pilocarpina/farmacologia , Mostarda de Propilbenzililcolina/farmacologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3448779

RESUMO

The effects of neuropharmacological agents on the motility of irradiated and non-irradiated Angiostrongylus cantonensis adult females were studied. GABA induced complete paralysis in non-irradiated and 5,000 R-irradiated worms, but caused only slight paralysis on 10,000 R-irradiated worms. The paralytic effect of GABA was antagonised by picrotoxin. The reason for low susceptibility of heavily irradiated worms to GABA is not known. There was no difference in susceptibility of non-irradiated and irradiated worms to other neuropharmacological agents including eserine, phenylephrine and dibenamine.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus/efeitos da radiação , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/farmacologia , Convulsivantes/farmacologia , Metastrongyloidea/efeitos da radiação , Angiostrongylus/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiostrongylus/fisiologia , Animais , Dibenzilcloretamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Raios gama , Larva/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Fisostigmina/análogos & derivados , Fisostigmina/farmacologia , Picrotoxina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Estricnina/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia
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