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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 33, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nature conservation with reduced drainage of pastures has been increasingly promoted in agriculture in recent years. However, moisture on pastures is a crucial factor for the development of free-living stages of many parasite species in ruminants. Hence, for the first time, we conducted a field study between 2015 and 2017 at the German North Sea coast to investigate the long-term effect of pasture rewetting (since 2004) on endoparasite infections in sheep and cattle. METHODS: We examined faecal samples of 474 sheep and 646 cattle from five farms in spring, summer and autumn each year for the presence of endoparasite infections. Animals were kept on conventionally drained, undrained and rewetted pastures. The association between pasture rewetting and endoparasite infection probability was analysed in generalized linear mixed models and including further potential confounders. RESULTS: Infection frequencies for gastrointestinal strongyles, Eimeria spp. and Strongyloides papillosus were significantly higher in sheep (62.9%, 31.7% and 16.7%) than in cattle (39.0%, 19.7% and 2.6%). Fasciola hepatica was detected with a frequency of 13.3% in sheep and 9.8% in cattle, while rumen fluke frequency was significantly higher in cattle (12.7%) than in sheep (3.8%). Nematodirus spp., lungworms (protostrongylids, Dictyocaulus viviparus), Moniezia spp., Trichuris spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum were identified in less than 7% of samples. Co-infection with more than three endoparasite taxa was present significantly more often in sheep than in cattle. We identified significant positive correlations above 0.2 for excretion intensities between S. papillosus with strongyles, Eimeria spp. and Nematodirus spp. in sheep and between strongyles and Nematodirus spp. in cattle. Pasture rewetting had no long-term effect on endoparasite infections, neither in sheep nor in cattle. Interestingly, F. hepatica infections decreased significantly in sheep and cattle from 2015 (10.9% and 13.9%) to 2017 (1.4% and 2.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Pasture rewetting for nature conservation did not increase endoparasite infection probability in ruminants in the long term. This finding should be confirmed in ongoing studies aimed at further animal welfare parameters. The rapid decrease in F. hepatica infections over 3 years may suggest climatic impact or competition with rumen flukes in addition to potential anthelmintic treatment after feedback of the results to the farmers.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Eimeria , Fasciola hepatica , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Dictyocaulus , Fezes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
2.
J Helminthol ; 95: e4, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536094

RESUMO

Donkeys have been used as working animals for transport and farm activities worldwide. Recently, in European countries, there has been an increasing interest in donkeys due to their use as pets, onotherapy or milk production. During 2014-2016, a countrywide survey was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of principal helminth infections in 1775 donkeys in 77 Italian farms. A questionnaire on management and parasite control practices was filled out for each farm. Faecal samples were examined using a modified McMaster technique, a centrifugation/flotation method and a sedimentation technique. Pooled coprocultures were performed for differentiation of strongylid eggs. Strongyles were the most common parasites detected (84.9%), followed by Dictyocaulus arnfieldi (6.9%), Oxyuris equi (5.8%), Parascaris spp. (3.6%), Anoplocephala spp. (1.0%), Strongyloides westeri (0.3%). Coprocultures revealed an omnipresence of cyathostomins (100%), followed by Strongylus vulgaris (31.0%), Poteriostomum spp. (25.0%), Triodontophorus spp. (9.0%), Strongylus edentatus (7.0%), Strongylus equinus (5.0%). Logistic regression analysis identified breed, co-pasture with horses, living area, herd size and number of treatments as significantly associated with strongyles. Sex, age, living area and herd size were significantly associated with Parascaris spp. Dictyocaulus arnfieldi was significantly associated with sex, grass, co-pasture with horses, living area and herd size. Strongylus vulgaris was significantly associated with living area and herd size. The mean number of anthelmintic treatments/year was 1.4; most of the donkeys (71.8%) were dewormed using an ivermectin drug. It is important to design parasite programs to specifically address both D. arnfieldi and S. vulgaris in donkeys, and this is especially important if donkeys co-graze with horses.


Assuntos
Dictyocaulus , Equidae/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Strongylus , Animais , Itália , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
3.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(1): 71-81, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635975

RESUMO

Dictyocaulus spp. infections are common in North American cervids, with Dictyocaulus viviparus described as most common. A Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) was found dead in Wyoming, US with significant bronchitis and pneumonia. In the bronchi and trachea, numerous large nematodes were found and grossly identified as Dictyocaulus spp. lungworms. Macroscopic alterations, such as distended interlobular septa and edema with foam and mucus observed on cut surface and in trachea and bronchi, were consistent with those commonly described in D. viviparus infections. Female lungworms were identified to Dictyocaulus spp. level via morphologic examination and molecular analyses based on mitochondrial cyclooxygenase 1 and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted employing the maximum likelihood method. Based on both morphologic and genetic assays, the isolated lungworms were most likely a strain of Dictyocaulus cervi. Within the female adult worms, free first stage larvae were observed besides worm eggs, which had not been described for Dictyocaulus spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that our parasites clustered closely with D. cervi, forming a subclade with that species within a larger clade that includes Dictyocaulus eckerti. While the elk tested positive for chronic wasting disease, it is assumed that significant pathology in the present case was caused directly by infection with the D. cervi-like lungworm, not previously described in North America.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/parasitologia , Dictyocaulus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Dictyocaulus/genética , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Wyoming/epidemiologia
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 288: 109280, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160192

RESUMO

The lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus can have a major impact on bovine health and productivity. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), based on a recombinant Major Sperm Protein (MSP), have been developed to detect D. viviparus-specific antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM). The objectives of this study are to assess the association between BTM optical density ratio's (ODR) and farmer-reported lungworm outbreaks based on the clinical sign "coughing" throughout the grazing season and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of two ELISAs under field conditions. The Hannover MSP-ELISA and the prototype Svanova MSP-ELISA were used for the detection of D. viviparus antibodies in BTM samples on 717 dairy farms during the 2018 grazing season. Assuming all herds to be truly lungworm infected, the results show that the Svanova ELISA had a lower sensitivity (40-65%) and specificity (75-90%) for the detection of D. viviparus infections in BTM compared to the Hannover ELISA, which had a sensitivity of 42% and 74% and specificity of 100% and 98% at a cut-off of 0.41 ODR and 0.25 ODR, respectively. Therefore, analyses of the associations between milk antibody levels and farmer-reported outbreaks during the 2018 and 2019 grazing season were assessed using the Hannover ELISA, on 717 and 634 farms, respectively. A positive association was found between a farmer-reported outbreak and having at least two consecutive positive BTM ODR's at a cut-off of 0.41 in 2018 (Odds Ratio (OR) = 5.5) and 2019 (OR = 2.8). Furthermore, there was a significant association between a farmer-reported outbreak and having a positive BTM ODR in August (OR 2018 = 4.4; OR 2019 = 2.8) and October (OR 2018 = 3.7; OR 2019 = 1.8). On the farms with a farmer-reported outbreak and positive BTM samples, over half (2018 = 77%; 2019 = 57%) of the positive ODR's were situated before the outbreak and 47% (2018) and 42% (2019) within 12 weeks before the outbreak. In conclusion, there is a positive association between farmer-reported outbreaks and the occurrence of a positive BTM sample at the cut-off of 0.41 ODR using the Hannover ELISA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/epidemiologia , Dictyocaulus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Animais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/instrumentação , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/análise , Leite , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 182: 105103, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750638

RESUMO

We report a European wide assessment of the economic burden of gastrointestinal nematodes, Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke) and Dictyocaulus viviparus (bovine lungworm) infections to the ruminant livestock industry. The economic impact of these parasitic helminth infections was estimated by a deterministic spreadsheet model as a function of the proportion of the ruminant population exposed to grazing, the infection frequency and intensity, the effect of the infection on animal productivity and mortality and anthelmintic treatment costs. In addition, we estimated the costs of anthelmintic resistant nematode infections and collected information on public research budgets addressing helminth infections in ruminant livestock. The epidemiologic and economic input data were collected from international databases and via expert opinion of the Working Group members of the European Co-operation in Science and Technology (COST) action COMbatting Anthelmintic Resistance in ruminants (COMBAR). In order to reflect the effects of uncertainty in the input data, low and high cost estimates were obtained by varying uncertain input data arbitrarily in both directions by 20 %. The combined annual cost [low estimate-high estimate] of the three helminth infections in 18 participating countries was estimated at € 1.8 billion [€ 1.0-2.7 billion]. Eighty-one percent of this cost was due to lost production and 19 % was attributed to treatment costs. The cost of gastrointestinal nematode infections with resistance against macrocyclic lactones was estimated to be € 38 million [€ 11-87 million] annually. The annual estimated costs of helminth infections per sector were € 941 million [€ 488 - 1442 million] in dairy cattle, € 423 million [€ 205-663 million] in beef cattle, € 151million [€ 90-213 million] in dairy sheep, € 206 million [€ 132-248 million] in meat sheep and € 86 million [€ 67-107 million] in dairy goats. Important data gaps were present in all phases of the calculations which lead to large uncertainties around the estimates. Accessibility of more granular animal population datasets at EU level, deeper knowledge of the effects of infection on production, levels of infection and livestock grazing exposure across Europe would make the largest contribution to improved burden assessments. The known current public investment in research on helminth control was 0.15 % of the estimated annual costs for the considered parasitic diseases. Our data suggest that the costs of enzootic helminth infections which usually occur at high prevalence annually in ruminants, are similar or higher than reported costs of epizootic diseases. Our data can support decision making in research and policy to mitigate the negative impacts of helminth infections and anthelmintic resistance in Europe, and provide a baseline against which to measure future changes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/economia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/economia , Doenças dos Ovinos/economia , Animais , Bovinos , Dictyocaulus/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Fasciola hepatica/fisiologia , Fasciolíase/economia , Cabras , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
9.
Ann Parasitol ; 64(3): 235-240, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316220

RESUMO

Dictyocaulus arnfieldi is a lungworm commonly found in equids; however, relatively little is known about it. The aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence of equine lungworms in naturally-infected working and sporting horses, donkeys and mules in rural areas of Urmia, northwest Iran. The fecal samples were collected from 299 working horses, 57 sporting horses, 66 donkeys and 37 mules during the period March 2014 to June 2016. The collected fecal samples were processed within 48 hours following rectal sampling. The larval count/g (LPG) of feces was determined using the Baermann technique. The larvae were identified morphologically, and the arithmetic mean of the LPG was calculated at each sampling point. The overall prevalence of lungworm in all equine species was found to be 19.20%., with specific values of 15.71%, 0%, 31.81% and 24.32% being found in working horses, sporting horses, donkeys and mules, respectively. The working horses, donkeys and mules were also found to be heavily infected with Dictyocaulus arnfieldi and in addition to donkeys and mules, working horses are considered natural hosts for lungworm, and this has effects on both the epidemiology of parasitic infections and performance of the equids.


Assuntos
Infecções por Dictyocaulus , Dictyocaulus , Doenças dos Cavalos , Cavalos , Nematoides , Animais , Dictyocaulus/isolamento & purificação , Equidae , Fezes , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 261: 22-26, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30253848

RESUMO

The large lungworms of the genus Dictyocaulus are causative agents of parasitic bronchitis in various ungulate hosts, including red deer. Recently, the red deer-derived lungworm D. cervi was described and separated from D. eckerti. Little is known of the transmission patterns, epidemiology, geographical distribution and pathogenicity of D. cervi. Histological examinations were performed on 22 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of hunted red deer. Exclusively, D. cervi adults were derived from 15 red deer and confirmed molecularly (GenBank accession: MH183394). Dictyocaulus cervi infection was associated with various degrees of lung pathology, including interstitial pneumonia, bronchitis and bronchiolitis with an influx of eosinophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages; massive hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles within bronchiolar tissue, and hyperplasia of the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium. Furthermore, emphysema, atelectasis and lung tissue congestion were noted. Interestingly, interstitial and subpleural fibrosis was seen in adult Dictyocaulus-negative samples, suggesting either a prepatent phase of Dictyocaulus infection or infection/coinfection with protostrongylid nematodes.


Assuntos
Cervos , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/patologia , Dictyocaulus/fisiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Animais , Dictyocaulus/classificação , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia
11.
Parasitol Res ; 117(7): 2341-2345, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736729

RESUMO

Lungworms of the genus Dictyocaulus Railliet and Henry, 1907 (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) are the causative agents of parasitic bronchitis (dictyocaulosis, husk) of various ungulate hosts, including domestic and wild ruminants. Correct diagnosis of lungworm species and a better understanding of the transmission patterns of Dictyocaulus spp. are crucial in minimising the risk of its cross transmission between wildlife and livestock, and for the control of dictyocaulosis. The study was conducted on large lungworms collected from European bison, roe deer and red deer. The study resulted in 14 sequences of the partial cox1 region of Dictyocaulus spp. and 10 novel DNA sequences of partial cox3 region, including the first available mt cox3 sequence, of the roe deer lungworm (D. capreolus). The European bison was infected with bison genotype of D. viviparus, whereas red deer and roe deer were infected with D. cervi and D. capreolus respectively. The current study revealed that the cox3 nucleotide sequences of D. capreolus and D. viviparus were 100% homologous to each other. Our findings indicate that the mt cox3 gene does not serve as an efficient mt marker for systematic, population genetic or molecular epidemiological studies of Dictyocaulus lungworms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Dictyocaulus/diagnóstico , Dictyocaulus/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/parasitologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 250: 52-59, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329624

RESUMO

Infections with helminth parasites can negatively affect performance of dairy cows. Knowledge on infection intensity, spatial distributions and risk factors are key to develop targeted treatment strategies. Canada and most EU countries have conducted large investigations, but respective data for Switzerland were missing. We now performed a bulk tank milk serosurvey for Ostertagia ostertagi, Fasciola hepatica, and Dictyocaulus viviparus on a total of 1036 voluntarily participating dairy herds that were sampled at confinement periods, i.e. in winter 2014/15 or 2015/16, respectively. All samples were analyzed with commercial ELISAs for antibodies (AB) against O. ostertagi and F. hepatica, and those of the first sampling period additionally with an in-house ELISA for AB against D. viviparus. Testing for the latter parasite was not done in the second year of the study, as the sampling period might have missed infections due to the short lived nature of specific antibodies. The possible influence of geographic, climatic, and farm management variables on AB levels were assessed for each parasite using scanning cluster and multiple regression analysis. Overall seroprevalence for O. ostertagi was 95.5% (95% C.I.: 94.0-96.6), with a mean optical density ratio (ODR) of 0.83, for F. hepatica 41.3% (95% C.I.: 38.3-44.4), and for D. viviparus 2.9% (95% C.I.: 1.6-4.7). There were no significant differences between the two sampling periods. For all parasites, significant geographic clusters of higher AB levels could be established. Furthermore, AB levels against all three parasites were positively correlated with each other, indicating either cross-reactions or co-infections. For O. ostertagi, herd size and percentage of pasture in the ration were positively correlated with AB levels. For F. hepatica, altitude above sea level (a.s.l.) positively, and milk production per cow and year was negatively correlated with AB levels. This work provides baseline data for further studies performing in-depth risk factor analysis and investigating management as well as targeted treatment options to control the parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Ostertagíase/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dictyocaulus/fisiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fasciola hepatica/fisiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Ostertagia/fisiologia , Ostertagíase/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suíça/epidemiologia
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 24, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections with the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus might lead to reduced milk production and detrimental impacts on milk quality resulting in considerable economic losses in dairy farming. METHODS: In the presented field study, 1988 faecal samples were collected from 1166 Black and White dairy cows allocated in 17 small and medium-sized German grassland farms. Faecal samples were collected in summer and autumn 2015 to assess D. viviparus larvae excretion. Test-day records were used to estimate the association between patent D. viviparus infections in individual cows and the milk production parameters milk yield, milk protein and milk fat content by using linear mixed models. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from each farm and individual milk samples from those cows which were excreting larvae in summer were collected in autumn. In addition, occurrence of the clinical symptom "coughing" was noted in individual cows during autumn sampling to determine its association with patent lungworm infections. RESULTS: Patent D. viviparus infections were found on 23.5% (4/17) of farms with a prevalence at the individual cow level of 0.9% (9/960) in summer and 3.4% (35/1028) in autumn. No BTM sample exceeded the BTM ELISA cut-off value of 0.410 optical density ratio (ODR), the mean value was 0.168 ODR. Only one individual milk sample exceeded the individual milk ELISA cut-off value of 0.573 ODR (mean value of 0.302 ODR). A patent D. viviparus infection status was associated with a lower average daily milk yield of 1.62 kg/cow/day (P = 0.0406). No significant association was found with milk protein or fat content representing milk quality parameters. Coughing was observed in 5.9% (61/1028) of cows. Of the coughing cows, only 4.9% (3/61) had a patent lungworm infection. Fisher's exact test showed no significant difference between infected and non-infected coughing cows. CONCLUSIONS: Farmers and veterinarians should be aware that patent lungworm (re)infections in dairy cows reduce milk yield, despite the absence of clinical signs. Furthermore, if dairy cows present with coughing, other differential diagnoses need to be considered in addition to dictyocaulosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/patologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/parasitologia , Dictyocaulus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes/parasitologia , Alemanha , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano
14.
Parasitology ; 145(3): 378-392, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942744

RESUMO

The present study characterized the biological function of the asparaginyl peptidase legumain-1 (LEG-1) of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus and its suitability as a recombinant vaccine against dictyocaulosis. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis revealed LEG-1 to be almost exclusively transcribed and expressed in parasitic lungworm stages. Immunohistochemistry localized the enzyme in the parasite's gut, which was confirmed by immunoblots detecting LEG-1 in the gut as well as male testes. LEG-1 was recombinantly (rLEG-1) expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and subsequently analysed in activity assays for its enzyme functions and substrate specificity. For sufficient functionality, rLEG-1 needed trans-activation through D. viviparus cathepsin L-2, indicating a novel mechanism of legumain activation. After trans-activation, rLEG-1 worked best at pH 5·5 and 35-39 °C and cleaved a legumain-specific artificial substrate as well as the natural substrates bovine collagen types I and II. In a clinical vaccination trial, rLEG-1 did not protect against challenge infection. Results of in vitro characterization, transcription pattern and localization enhance the presumption that LEG-1 participates in digestion processes of D. viviparus. Since rLEG-1 needs trans-activation through a cathepsin, it is probably involved in an enzyme cascade and therefore remains interesting as a candidate in a multi-component vaccine.


Assuntos
Cisteína Endopeptidases/imunologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/prevenção & controle , Dictyocaulus/química , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/classificação , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Dictyocaulus/enzimologia , Dictyocaulus/metabolismo , Masculino , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas/química , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 116(12): 3315-3330, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027596

RESUMO

The results of coproscopical examinations in domestic animals and hedgehogs carried out as routine diagnostics in the years 2003 to 2012 at the Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany, are presented. Of 3475 horse faecal samples, 30.1% contained stages of strongyles and 1.3% eggs of Strongyloides westeri and Parascaris equorum, respectively. The most frequently observed parasite stages in 1416 cattle faecal samples were Eimeria oocysts (21.3%) and strongyle eggs or larvae (15.9%). Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae and Fasciola hepatica eggs were identified in 0.9 and 1.3% of samples. Of 574 bovine faecal samples analysed by carbol-fuchsin staining, 39.9% were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Stages of strongyles were found in 52.4% of sheep (n = 374) and 44.9% of goat faeces (n = 98) and Eimeria oocysts in 41.4 and 32.7% of their faeces, respectively. Of 1848 pig faecal samples, 3.0% contained stages of strongyles, 1.6% eggs of Ascaris suum and 3.3% coccidian (Eimeria or Cystoisospora spp.) oocysts. The most frequently detected helminth eggs in faecal samples of dogs (n = 2731) and cats (n = 903) were Toxocara spp. (2.8 and 3.9%, respectively). Cystoisospora oocysts were identified in 5.6% of dog and 2.4% of cat faeces. Furthermore, 0.7% of the cat samples were positive for small Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts. The faecal samples of rabbits (n = 434) contained eggs of Passalurus ambiguus (3.0%), strongyles (1.8%) and Trichuris leporis (0.2%) as well as Eimeria oocysts (21.2%). The most abundant nematodes in the samples of hedgehogs (n = 205) were Capillaria spp. (39.5%) and Crenosoma striatum (26.8%); coccidian oocysts were found in 14.2% of the samples.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Ascaridoidea , Gatos/parasitologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Dictyocaulus/isolamento & purificação , Cães/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Alemanha , Cabras/parasitologia , Ouriços-Cacheiros/parasitologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Incidência , Metastrongyloidea , Oocistos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Coelhos , Ovinos/parasitologia , Strongyloides , Suínos/parasitologia
16.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 216: 39-44, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651962

RESUMO

The development of parasitic nematodes proceeds via multiple stages, often implicating the necessity to adapt to different environments. Especially the transition from free-living to parasitic stages is accompanied by a significant change in the environmental conditions. To shed light on possible adaptations to these transitions, the fatty acid composition of different developmental stages of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus was investigated. Fatty acids of D. viviparus eggs, the free-living first, second and third larval stage (L1-L3) as well as the parasitic preadult stage and adult male and female worms residing in the lungs of infected hosts were quantified by gas chromatography after transesterification to their fatty acid methyl esters. The fatty acid content and diversity were higher in parasitic stages compared to those of free-living larvae. The most prevalent fatty acids in both parasitic and free-living stages were stearic (C18:0), palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1) and caprylic acid (C8:0). A variety of (poly-)unsaturated FAs was found in the parasitic stages and in the eggs, which was similar to the variety of FAs found in bovine surfactant. This finding indicates that parasitic stages of D. viviparus take up FAs from their environment. While eggs contained the highest concentration of fatty acids, a decrease was observed from eggs to L1 and further from L2 to L3. The lowest concentration was found in 38-days-old L3, which suggests that FAs serve as an energy reserve for the free-living, non-feeding larval stages. The free-living larvae contained mainly saturated fatty acids and only traces of unsaturated fatty acids, which is in contrast to the phospholipid saturation hypothesis of cold tolerance. Instead, a trade-off between desiccation stress and temperature adaptation may favour a higher amount of saturated FAs in the free-living larval stages. Further studies explicitly examining the FA composition of the different classes of lipids are necessary to better describe the adaptative responses of the FA metabolism to different environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Dictyocaulus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dictyocaulus/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 242: 47-53, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606324

RESUMO

Infections with the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus, the causative agent of parasitic bronchitis, are accompanied by substantial economic losses due to impacts on production, clinical respiratory disease or even death of diseased cattle. To detect lungworm antibodies in cattle, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant major sperm protein (MSP) has been developed. However, it remained unknown whether the infection dose influences antibody levels, and how acquired immunity influences antibody level patterns during reinfections. The latter may lead to low within-herd seroprevalence and thus to negative MSP-ELISA results in examination of bulk tank milk (BTM). Thus, infection experiments with 12 different doses ranging from 10 to 3000 D. viviparus larvae were performed to assess whether the antibody response is dose-dependent. Second, the impact of reinfections on the antibody response was evaluated in infection experiments, and third, antibody patterns in dairy cows during naturally occurring reinfections were assessed in a longitudinal field study based on individual milk samples. Results of this study demonstrate that the rise in MSP antibodies during first infection is dose-independent at infection doses of 25 lungworm larvae and above. However, following reinfections the magnitude and duration of the MSP antibody response are reduced or lacking, depending on the interval to reinfection. The field study revealed short periods of seropositivity as a common pattern in dairy cows subjected to natural D. viviparus reinfections. Low within-herd seroprevalence in dairy herds can thus be a result of continuous reinfections. Low infection doses should not be a barrier to serodiagnosis of lungworm infection in first-time infected cattle.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/sangue , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Dictyocaulus , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
18.
J Parasitol ; 103(5): 506-518, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585897

RESUMO

Lungworms from the genus Dictyocaulus cause parasitic bronchitis (dictyocaulosis) characterized by coughing and severe lung pathology in both domestic and wild ruminants. In this study we investigated the interrelationships of Dictyocaulus spp. from European bison (Bison bonasus L.), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red deer (Cervus elaphus) by nucleotide sequence analysis spanning the 18S RNA gene (small subunit [SSU]) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions of the ribosomal gene array as well as the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Molecular analyses of sequence data obtained partly with novel primers from between 10 and 50 specimens from each host were carried out. Bayesian inference analysis revealed that each host species was infected with different genotypes. Analysis of cox1 sequence data showed a diverse genetic background and high evolutionary potential of Dictyocaulus taxa. Data from lungworms of European bison revealed a distinct genotype of Dictyocaulus viviparus, whereas Dictyocaulus capreolus was only found in roe deer. In contrast, red deer were infected with a taxon with unique SSU, ITS2, and cox1 sequences. These results indicate the occurrence of a novel genotype from red deer, which differs significantly from the National Center for Biotechnology Information reference sequence of Dictyocaulus eckerti. The molecular evidence was consistent with a morphological study with description and imaging of Dictyocaulus cervi n. sp. recovered from red deer. Dictyocaulus cervi n. sp. can be distinguished from D. eckerti on the basis of the absence of cervical papillae, the occurrence of a single ring of 4 symmetrical submedian cephalic papillae, length of the tail in females, morphometry of the female reproductive system, and measurements of gubernacula in males. In conclusion, our findings further strengthen the idea that the genetic complexity and diversity among Dictyocaulus lungworms infecting wildlife ruminants is larger than previously believed and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/parasitologia , Dictyocaulus/fisiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bison/parasitologia , Brônquios/parasitologia , Bronquíolos/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , Dictyocaulus/anatomia & histologia , Dictyocaulus/classificação , Dictyocaulus/genética , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/epidemiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Traqueia/parasitologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504100

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dictyocaulosis (mild or severe) on enzymes of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) of dairy cows naturally infected by Dictyocaulus viviparus. Blood and faeces were collected from 22 dairy cows of the same farm to evaluate NTPDase (ATP and ADP substrate), 5'-nucleotidase, and ADA activities on days 0 (pre-treatment) and 10 (post-treatment). Seric activities of NTPDase (ATP substrate), 5'-nucleotidase, and ADA were lower (P<0.05) in D. viviparus infected animals compared to uninfected cows. The number of D. viviparus larvae per gram of faeces varied among the animals, and they showed different degrees of severity according to respiratory clinical signs of the disease (cough and nasal discharge). Later, these cows were divided into two groups: those with mild (n=10) and severe (n=12) disease. Cows with severe disease showed higher NTPDase activity (ATP substrate) than those with mild disease (P≤0.05). The opposite occurred with NTPDase (ADP substrate), 5'-nucleotidase, and ADA in cows with severe disease, that is, the enzymatic activity of these seric enzymes significantly decreased (P≤0.05) compared to animals with mild disease. Infected animals showed reduced NTPDase activity (ATP and ADP substrate) after treatment. No enzymatic changes were observed for 5'-nucleotidase, and ADA pre- and post-treatment (P>0.05). Based on these results, we conclude that dictyocaulosis alters NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase, and ADA activities of cow naturally infected by the parasite, in consequence the enzymes act as inflammatory markers.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/sangue , Adenosina Desaminase/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/enzimologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/enzimologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dictyocaulus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/imunologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/parasitologia , Fezes/química , Inflamação , Pirofosfatases/sangue
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 235: 75-82, 2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28215872

RESUMO

Feline aelurostrongylosis, caused by the metastrongylid nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, is an underestimated respiratory parasitosis. Its diagnosis currently mainly relies on the isolation of first stage larvae from fresh faecal samples. The aim of our study was to develop a serological test for the detection of specific antibodies against A. abstrusus by ELISA. We used recombinant major sperm protein (MSP) of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus as detection antigen and evaluated two different ELISA plates (Maxisorp and Immobilizer™ Amino-plate, Nunc Roskilde, Denmark) with two different enzyme systems [alkaline phosphatase (AP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)]. Sera from cats experimentally (n=54) and naturally (n=17) infected with A. abstrusus and from randomly selected cats with different medical issues (n=160) were used to determine sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, cross-reactions were evaluated using sera from cats naturally (n=71) and experimentally (n=8) infected with different nematodes. A sensitivity of 100% was obtained with sera from experimentally infected cats at 10 weeks post infection using MSP on the Immobilizer™ Amino-plate with HRP, while it ranged between 90.5 and 95.2% in the other ELISA set-ups. Using sera from naturally infected cats, a sensitivity of 88.2% (95% confidence interval: 63.6-98.5%) was achieved in all four set-ups. The specificity was 85.2-94.4% in sera from uninfected cats prior to experimental infection and 68.1-90% in randomly selected cats depending on the plate and enzyme system. The number of seropositive cats increased over time post infection. Serological follow-up showed a decrease of antibody levels within 30days after anthelmintic treatment. Seropositive reactions were observed with sera from stray cats naturally infected with Toxocara cati, Capillaria sp., hookworms and Taeniidae; however, coproscopic false negative A. abstrusus findings cannot be excluded. The serological detection of specific antibodies against A. abstrusus using ELISA requires a single serum sample and therefore represents a valid alternative for reliable individual diagnosis of A. abstrusus in cats and facilitates mass screening, overcoming the usually difficult collection of cat faeces.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Metastrongyloidea/imunologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Helmintos/química , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Reações Cruzadas , Dinamarca , Dictyocaulus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/química , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Larva , Pulmão/parasitologia , Masculino , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
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