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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 176(1): 10-21, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear if a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet is a possible treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the effect on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a calorie-unrestricted LCHF diet, with no intention of weight loss, on T2DM and NAFLD compared with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HCLF) diet. DESIGN: 6-month randomized controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03068078). SETTING: Odense University Hospital in Denmark from November 2016 until June 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 165 participants with T2DM. INTERVENTION: Two calorie-unrestricted diets: LCHF diet with 50 to 60 energy percent (E%) fat, less than 20E% carbohydrates, and 25E% to 30E% proteins and HCLF diet with 50E% to 60E% carbohydrates, 20E% to 30E% fats, and 20E% to 25E% proteins. MEASUREMENTS: Glycemic control, serum lipid levels, metabolic markers, and liver biopsies to assess NAFLD. RESULTS: The mean age was 56 years (SD, 10), and 58% were women. Compared with the HCLF diet, participants on the LCHF diet had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (mean difference in change, -6.1 mmol/mol [95% CI, -9.2 to -3.0 mmol/mol] or -0.59% [CI, -0.87% to -0.30%]) and lost more weight (mean difference in change, -3.8 kg [CI, -6.2 to -1.4 kg]). Both groups had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower triglycerides at 6 months. Changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were less favorable in the LCHF diet group than in the HCLF diet group (mean difference in change, 0.37 mmol/L [CI, 0.17 to 0.58 mmol/L] or 14.3 mg/dL [CI, 6.6 to 22.4 mg/dL]). No statistically significant between-group changes were detected in the assessment of NAFLD. Changes were not sustained at the 9-month follow-up. LIMITATION: Open-label trial, self-reported adherence, unintended weight loss, and lack of adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: Persons with T2DM on a 6-month, calorie-unrestricted, LCHF diet had greater clinically meaningful improvements in glycemic control and weight compared with those on an HCLF diet, but the changes were not sustained 3 months after intervention. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Novo Nordisk Foundation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glicemia/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Redução de Peso , Idoso
3.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(12): 100870, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516846

RESUMO

To understand what determines the success of short- and long-term weight loss, we conduct a secondary analysis of dietary, metabolic, and molecular data collected from 609 participants before, during, and after a 1-year weight-loss intervention with either a healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) or a healthy low-fat (HLF) diet. Through systematic analysis of multidomain datasets, we find that dietary adherence and diet quality, not just caloric restriction, are important for short-term weight loss in both diets. Interestingly, we observe minimal dietary differences between those who succeeded in long-term weight loss and those who did not. Instead, proteomic and gut microbiota signatures significantly differ between these two groups at baseline. Moreover, the baseline respiratory quotient may suggest a specific diet for better weight-loss outcomes. Overall, the identification of these dietary, molecular, and metabolic factors, common or unique to the HLC and HLF diets, provides a roadmap for developing individualized weight-loss strategies.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Obesidade , Humanos , Proteômica , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Redução de Peso
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e060951, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous trials of dietary interventions to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have yielded only limited success. Low-carbohydrate diets have shown promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but there is no evidence to support their use in pregnancy. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of a moderately reduced-carbohydrate dietary intervention delivered from mid-pregnancy alongside routine antenatal care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) with embedded qualitative study. Sixty women who are pregnant <20 weeks' gestation, with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 at their antenatal booking appointment, will be randomised 2:1 intervention or control (usual care) and followed up until delivery. The intervention is a moderately reduced-carbohydrate diet (~130-150 g total carbohydrate/day), designed to be delivered alongside routine antenatal appointments. Primary outcomes are measures of adoption of the diet and retention of participants. Secondary outcomes include incidence of GDM, change in markers of glycaemic control, gestational weight gain, total carbohydrate and energy intake. Process outcomes will examine resources and management issues. Exploratory outcomes include further dietary changes, quality of life, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and qualitative measures. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial was reviewed and approved by the South-Central Oxford B Research Ethics Committee NHS National Research Ethics Committee and the Health Research Authority (Reference: 20/SC/0442). The study results will inform whether to progress to a full-scale RCT to test the clinical effectiveness of the RECORD programme to prevent GDM in women at high risk. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN16235884.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Viabilidade , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Carboidratos da Dieta , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558458

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the short-term effect of two isocaloric diets differing in the ratio of protein-carbohydrate on melatonin levels, sleep, and subsequent dietary intake and physical activity in healthy young men. Twenty-four healthy men took part in a crossover design including two sessions of three days on isocaloric diets whether high-protein, low-carbohydrate (HPLC) or low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) followed by 24-h free living assessments. Sleep was measured by ambulatory polysomnography pre-post-intervention. Melatonin levels were assessed on the third night of each session on eight-point salivary sampling. Physical activity was monitored by accelerometry. On day 4, participants reported their 24-h ad-libitum dietary intake. LPHC resulted in better sleep quality and increased secretion of melatonin compared to HPLC. A significant difference was noted in sleep efficiency (p < 0.05) between the two sessions. This was mainly explained by a difference in sleep onset latency (p < 0.01) which was decreased during LPHC (PRE: 15.8 ± 7.8 min, POST: 11.4 ± 4.5 min, p < 0.001). Differences were also noted in sleep staging including time spent on REM (p < 0.05) and N1 (p < 0.05). More importantly, REM latency (PRE: 97.2 ± 19.9 min, POST 112.0 ± 20.7 min, p < 0.001) and cortical arousals (PRE: 7.2 ± 3.9 event/h, POST 8.5 ± 3.3 event/h) increased in response to HPLC diet but not LPHC. On day 4, 24-h ad-libitum energy intake was higher following HPLC compared to LPHC (+64 kcal, p < 0.05) and explained by increased snacking behavior (p < 0.01) especially from carbohydrates (p < 0.05). Increased carbohydrates intake was associated with increased cortical arousals.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Masculino , Humanos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Sono/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498325

RESUMO

Combining regular exercise and a healthy diet is recommended in international guidelines to fight type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Low- and very low-carbohydrate diets have attracted attention in the last years. This article takes a critical look at the possible effects when regular exercise and carbohydrate restriction are combined. An increased intervention effect on the oxidative capacity as well as glucose and lipid profiles can be assumed (at least for a short period of time). However, anabolic signaling pathways might be blunted during a very low-carbohydrate diet and increasing ketosis. Thus, muscle build-up can become difficult or impossible. Furthermore, maximal performance during high-intensity workouts may be attenuated due to a possible reduced anaerobic glycolysis and metabolic inflexibility in T2DM patients. However, more studies are needed to evaluate the effects of this combination in comparison to those of exercise and other types of diet.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Glucose , Glicemia/metabolismo
7.
Clin Nutr ; 41(12): 2792-2800, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) can provoke symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to compare the effects of diets with low vs. moderate FODMAP content on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and bowel habits, and to identify possible predictors of clinical response to a low FODMAP diet and FODMAP sensitivity in IBS. METHODS: Adult participants with IBS (Rome IV criteria, n = 29) were included and adhered to two 7-day diet periods, with either low (4 g/day) or moderate (23 g/day) amounts of FODMAPs, in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study. The periods were separated by a wash-out period (≥14 days). IBS-Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) and a stool diary (Bristol Stool Form) were completed before and after the diet periods. At baseline, severity of GI symptoms and gut microbial fermentation were assessed (every 15 min, 4 h) during the Lactulose Nutrient Challenge Test (LNCT). Clinical response and FODMAP sensitivity were defined by reduction after low FODMAP period, and increase after moderate FODMAP period in IBS-SSS (≥50 points), respectively. RESULTS: Severity of GI symptoms (P = 0.04), stool consistency (P = 0.01), and stool frequency (P = 0.01) differed between the interventions, with reduced overall GI symptom severity, abdominal pain intensity and frequency, bowel habits dissatisfaction, and daily life interference (P < 0.05 for all), as well as more firm (P = 0.03) and less frequent (P < 0.01) stools after low FODMAP intervention, but not after moderate FODMAP intervention. A third (34%) responded clinically to the low FODMAP diet, and the response could be predicted by higher IBS-SSS at baseline (P = 0.02). Although modest associations between FODMAP sensitivity (22%) and GI symptoms during LNCT were observed, no independent predictors could be identified. CONCLUSIONS: A diet low in FODMAPs reduces GI symptoms and affects bowel habits in IBS, compared with a moderate FODMAP diet. Assessment of IBS severity before the intervention may be used to predict clinical response to a low FODMAP diet. Trial registry (http://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov): Registered under Clinical Trial number NCT05182593.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Defecação , Lactulose
8.
Cell Rep ; 41(7): 111657, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384106

RESUMO

Changes in microbiome composition are associated with a wide array of human diseases, turning the human microbiota into an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Yet, clinical translation of these findings requires the establishment of causative connections between specific microbial taxa and their functional impact on host tissues. Here, we infuse gut organ cultures with longitudinal microbiota samples collected from therapy-naive patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) under a low-fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet. We show that post-diet microbiota regulates intestinal expression of inflammatory and neuro-muscular gene sets. Specifically, we identify Bifidobacterium adolescentis as a diet-sensitive pathobiont that alters tight junction integrity and disrupts gut barrier functions. Collectively, we present a pathway discovery platform for mechanistic dissection and identification of functional diet-host-microbiota modules. Our data support the hypothesis that the gut microbiota mediates the beneficial effects of a low-FODMAP diet and reinforce the potential feasibility of microbiome-based therapies in IBS.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Homeostase
9.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364824

RESUMO

Approximately 30% of patients with quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) meet the diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet in patients who meet the diagnostic criteria for IBS whilst in IBD remission. A total of 200 patients in remission of IBD were included in the study. Sixty-five of these patients (32.5%) were diagnosed with IBS according to the R4DQ. On the patients who met the IBS diagnostic criteria, anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests and lactulose hydrogen breath tests were performed. A low-FODMAP diet was introduced for 6 weeks. Of the 59 patients with IBS diagnosed at baseline for whom data were collected at the end of follow-up, after the low-FODMAP intervention IBS-like symptoms were not present in 66.1% (n = 39) (95% CI (53.4%; 76.9%)). The difference between the two groups (with SIBO at baseline (33 of 48 patients) and without SIBO at baseline (6 of 11 patients)) in the low-FODMAP diet's effectiveness was not statistically significant (p = 0.586). The low-FODMAP diet improved the gut symptoms of flatulence and diarrhea. It had no effect on the occurrence of constipation. In IBD patients in remission who meet the IBS criteria, the dietary intervention of a low-FODMAP diet is effective for a reduction in IBS-like symptoms, regardless of the coexistence of bacterial overgrowth.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Humanos , Fermentação , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta , Monossacarídeos , Dissacarídeos
10.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364888

RESUMO

Since irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder-still lacks effective therapy, a nutritional approach may represent a practical alternative. Different reports demonstrated that a low-fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) diet (LFD) reduces symptoms in IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D) patients, also inducing beneficial pathophysiological and biochemical modifications. More recently, diets with alternative cereals having a different gluten composition, such as tritordeum, have also been considered (TBD). We investigated the impact of TBD and LFD on the fecal metabolome composition in 38 IBS-D patients randomly allocated to the two diets for 12 weeks. Summarily, at baseline, the profile of fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of IBS-D patients was not significantly different in the two groups. After treatment, significant changes were observed in the two groups regarding the VOCs content since some of them increased in the TBD group (namely, decanoic acid), whereas others (i.e., nonanal and ethanol) increased in the LFD one. Further, at baseline, short-chain fatty acids were positively related to inflammation and showed a significant decreasing trend after both diets compared to baseline values (namely, acetic and propanoic acid). Preliminary results from this pilot study suggest a potential positive intervention of TBD and LFD affecting the fecal metabolome composition in IBS-D patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Monossacarídeos , Humanos , Dissacarídeos , Projetos Piloto , Oligossacarídeos , Dieta , Metaboloma , Fermentação , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos
11.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364951

RESUMO

Therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1DM) focuses on maintaining optimal blood glucose levels, achieved with intensive insulin treatment, proper nutrition, and physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate postprandial glycemic changes under low (30%) and standard (50%) carbohydrate diets in adolescents with T1DM. A single-center cross-over nutritional study was conducted, during which 26 adolescent patients provided 220 continuous glucose-monitored (CGM) meals data from the two consecutive 3-day nutritional plans. Overall, the 50% carbohydrate diet was associated with higher postprandial glucose variability in the small meals (afternoon snacks, second breakfast) and greater postprandial peaks for other meals (breakfast, dinner, supper). Nevertheless, after the adjustment of a patient's individual clinical variables (age, Tanner classification, glucose disposal rate), we observed that mean postprandial glucose was higher for afternoon snacks and lower for suppers in the 30% carbohydrate diet. Although a 30% carbohydrate diet seems to offer better postprandial glycemia, it requires additional attention from the physician and patient when it comes to modifying daily carbohydrate intake. Increased fat/protein content and size of the main meal lead to a prolonged postprandial glycemic response, which may affect the insulin treatment and result in suboptimal glycemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Insulinas , Adolescente , Humanos , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Carboidratos da Dieta , Período Pós-Prandial , Refeições , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Estudos Cross-Over , Insulina
12.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36297053

RESUMO

In adults, dietary management, particularly with the FODMAP diet, is a key evidence-based part of multimodal therapy for patients with disorders of the gut-brain interaction, particularly irritable bowel syndrome. This review aims to describe the evidence for the use of this diet and how to deliver it in paediatric practice. A literature review covering studies on the FODMAP diet in adult and paediatric settings was conducted. While the evidence for the efficacy and safety of a FODMAP diet delivered in three phases, restriction, rechallenge and personalisation, is considerable, there is a lack of good-quality clinical trials exploring the efficacy of the diet in children and adolescents. Likewise, there are limited data on safety concerns associated with a restrictive diet in paediatrics, including impacts on nutrition and growth, disordered eating behaviours, psychosocial and family issues and families and the gut microbiome. The evidence suggests that the implementation of a dietary program is enhanced by a skilled dietitian when navigating a young person (and family) through healthy eating strategies and/or FODMAP restrictions to ameliorate their symptoms. Since the FODMAP diet is being prescribed globally to children, a practical guide for clinicians used to optimise efficacy and safety is provided, including the less restrictive 'FODMAP-gentle' diet.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Pediatria , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Fermentação , Estado Nutricional , Monossacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Dissacarídeos , Oligossacarídeos
13.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36297093

RESUMO

This study examined the effectiveness of a health care professional delivered low-carbohydrate diet program (Diversa Health Program) aiming to improve obesity/type-2-diabetes management for people living in Australia. 511 adults (Age:57.1 ± 13.7 [SD] yrs) who participated between January 2017-August 2021 for ≥30 days with pre-post data collected for ≥1 key outcome variable (body weight and HbA1c) were included in the analysis. Average participation duration was 218 ± 207 days with 5.4 ± 3.9 reported consultation visits. Body weight reduced from 92.3 ± 23.0 to 86.3 ± 21.1 kg (n = 506, p < 0.001). Weight loss was 0.9 ± 2.8 kg (1.3%), 4.5 ± 4.3 kg (5.7%) and 7.9 ± 7.2 kg (7.5%), respectively, for those with a classification of normal weight (n = 67), overweight (n = 122) and obese (n = 307) at commencement. HbA1c reduced from 6.0 ± 1.2 to 5.6 ± 0.7% (n = 212, p < 0.001). For members with a commencing HbA1c of <5.7% (n = 110), 5.7-6.4% (n = 55), and ≥6.5% (n = 48), HbA1c reduced -0.1 ± 0.2%, -0.3 ± 0.3%, and -1.4 ± 1.3%, respectively. For members with a commencing HbA1c ≥6.5%, 90% experienced a HbA1c reduction and 54% achieved a final HbA1c < 6.5%. With inclusion and exclusion of metformin, respectively, 124 and 82 diabetes medications were prescribed to 63 and 42 members that reduced to 82 and 35 medications prescribed to 51 and 26 members at final visit. A health care professional delivered low-carbohydrate diet program can facilitate weight loss and improve glycaemic control with greatest improvements and clinical relevance in individuals with worse baseline parameters.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Metformina , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente , Fatores de Risco , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Peso Corporal , Redução de Peso , Pessoal de Saúde , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs) are an ever-growing problem, seen most commonly among young women. People with EDs are particularly predisposed to restrictive eating patterns. Diet therapy for many diseases involves the elimination of certain food groups, and the use of restrictive diets in people with EDs may indirectly influence the recurrence of the disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the possible presence of EDs and orthorexia symptoms among young women following a traditional, alternative (vegetarian), or therapeutic (low FODMAP) diet. METHODS: The analysis was based on 420 responses from female respondents aged 19 to 30 years. The research tool consisted of questionnaires to assess the possible presence of EDs (SCOFF), cognitive-behavioral aspects of eating (TFEQ-13), and the presence of orthorexia symptoms (ORTO-15). RESULTS: Uncontrolled and emotional eating was least common in women on a vegetarian diet (5.6 ± 3.7; 3.5 ± 2.7; p < 0.05). Women on a low FODMAP diet were most prevalent with symptoms of orthorexia (n = 37, 47.4%; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It seems important to perform screening tests for eating disorders before recommending diet therapy in order to individually adjust the dietary regimen and refer patients to appropriate specialists.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Estudos Transversais , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vegetarianos
15.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 16(6): 447-456, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244957

RESUMO

It has been widely demonstrated that there are a broad range of individual responses to all weight management regimens, often masked by reports of the mean. Identifying features of responders and non-responders to weight loss regimens enables a more tailored approach to the provision of weight management advice. Low-carbohydrate diets are currently popular, and anecdote suggests that males are more successful at losing weight using this approach. This is feasible given the physiological and socio-psychological differences between the genders. We analysed the extent and variation in weight change for males and females separately through a systematic search for all low-carbohydrate diet trials published since 1985. Very few studies compared weight loss outcomes by gender and, of those that did, most lacked supporting data. The majority of studies reported no gender difference but when a gender difference was found, males were more frequently reported as losing more weight than females on a low-carbohydrate diet. The lack of gender stratification in weight loss trials is concerning, as there are a range of gender-based factors that affect weight loss outcomes. This study highlights the importance of examining weight change for males and females separately, since as failure to do so may mask any potential differences, which, if detected, could assist with better weight loss outcomes.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Obesidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redução de Peso
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2237552, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264576

RESUMO

Importance: Evidence linking low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) to mortality is limited among multiethnic populations. Objective: To evaluate the association between LCDs and mortality by race and ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a large, population-based prospective cohort study of adults aged 45 to 84 years recruited from 6 US communities. A total of 6109 participants without baseline cardiovascular disease were included in this analysis. Baseline data were collected from July 2000 to August 2002, with follow-up completed by December 2017. The data were analyzed between May 2021 and April 2022. Exposures: Food frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary intake. From these data, overall LCD scores were calculated from the percentages of energy intake from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Animal-based (emphasizing saturated fat and animal protein) and vegetable-based (emphasizing monounsaturated fat and vegetable protein) LCD scores were also calculated. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and cause-specific mortality over a median follow-up of 15.9 years (IQR, 14.3-16.6 years). Results: Among the 6109 participants (mean [SD] age, 62.3 [10.3] years; 3190 women [52.2%]; 1623 African American [26.6%], 701 Chinese American [11.5%], 1350 Hispanic [22.1%], and 2435 non-Hispanic White [39.8%]), there were 1391 deaths. Overall, LCD scores were not associated with mortality, but when analyses were stratified by race and ethnicity, a lower risk of all-cause and non-CV mortality was observed among Hispanic participants with moderate carbohydrate intake. Specifically, the hazard ratios for total mortality for overall LCD scores were 0.58 (95% CI, 0.40-0.84) for quintile 2, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.45-0.98) for quintile 3, 0.60 (95% CI, 0.41-0.87) for quintile 4, and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.57-1.21) for quintile 5, with quintile 1 as the reference group. A similar association was observed for animal-based (but not vegetable-based) LCD scores. In contrast, no significant associations were found between LCD scores and mortality risk in the other racial and ethnic groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of multiethnic US adults, LCD score was not associated with mortality in the whole population. However, moderate carbohydrate intake was associated with a lower risk of mortality among Hispanic participants. These findings suggest that the association between carbohydrate intake and mortality may differ according to race and ethnicity. Dietary guidelines considering these differences may be necessary.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Etnicidade , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis , Carboidratos
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2238645, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287562

RESUMO

Importance: Low-carbohydrate diets decrease hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among patients with type 2 diabetes at least as much as low-fat diets. However, evidence on the effects of low-carbohydrate diets on HbA1c among individuals with HbA1c in the range of prediabetes to diabetes not treated by diabetes medications is limited. Objective: To study the effect of a behavioral intervention promoting a low-carbohydrate diet compared with usual diet on 6-month changes in HbA1c among individuals with elevated untreated HbA1c. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 6-month randomized clinical trial with 2 parallel groups was conducted from September 2018 to June 2021 at an academic medical center in New Orleans, Louisiana. Laboratory analysts were blinded to assignment. Participants were aged 40 to 70 years with untreated HbA1c of 6.0% to 6.9% (42-52 mmol/mol). Data analysis was performed from November 2021 to September 2022. Interventions: Participants were randomized to a low-carbohydrate diet intervention (target <40 net grams of carbohydrates during the first 3 months; <60 net grams for months 3 to 6) or usual diet. The low-carbohydrate diet group received dietary counseling. Main Outcomes and Measures: Six-month change in HbA1c was the primary outcome. Outcomes were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. Results: Of 2722 prescreened participants, 962 underwent screening, and 150 were enrolled (mean [SD] age, 58.9 [7.9] years; 108 women [72%]; 88 Black participants [59%]) and randomized to either the low-carbohydrate diet intervention (75 participants) or usual diet (75 participants) group. Six-month data were collected on 142 participants (95%). Mean (SD) HbA1c was 6.16% (0.30%) at baseline. Compared with the usual diet group, the low-carbohydrate diet intervention group had significantly greater 6-month reductions in HbA1c (net difference, -0.23%; 95% CI, -0.32% to -0.14%; P < .001), fasting plasma glucose (-10.3 mg/dL; 95% CI, -15.6 to -4.9 mg/dL; P < .001), and body weight (-5.9 kg; 95% CI, -7.4 to -4.4 kg; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, a low-carbohydrate dietary intervention led to improvements in glycemia in individuals with elevated HbA1c not taking glucose-lowering medication, but the study was unable to evaluate its effects independently of weight loss. This diet, if sustained, might be a useful dietary approach for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes, but more research is needed. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03675360.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Redução de Peso
18.
Epilepsy Behav ; 136: 108936, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215831

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to be a proof of concept of an analysis strategy to assess the effectiveness of the modified Atkins diet (MAD) in adults with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). This retrospective cohort study included participants aged >16 years with at least two failed antiseizure medications (ASMs). The variables were self-reported and gathered from medical records or phone calls. Two groups are compared: MAD adjuvant to ASM (diet group) and ASM only (control). To make both groups comparable, diet and control groups were matched (1:2) by predictors of seizure remission (PSR) in adults with DRE. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to establish PSR. A total of 127 patients were eligible. Forty-six participants (36 %) initiated the MAD, but only 28 (22 %) continued the diet after 3 months. The number of past and new ASMs, epilepsy type, and follow-up time were selected as PSR. Twelve patients were included in the diet group and 24 in the control group, matched by PSR. Compared with the control group, the diet group had 4.5 greater odds of achieving ≥50 % seizure frequency reduction at 1-3 months (OR 5.5; 90 % confidence interval 1.1-26.65). Mean seizure frequency and other secondary outcomes did not differ significantly between the groups. In summary, the MAD showed a modest effect over seizure control compared with only ASM. Matching by PSR could be an alternative analysis approach to determine the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in controlled studies. Additional studies are required to validate the analysis proposed.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas e Pobre em Carboidratos , Dieta Cetogênica , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Convulsões
19.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(10): 100777, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220069

RESUMO

Overconsumption of carbohydrate-rich food combined with adverse eating patterns contributes to the increasing incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in China. Therefore, we conducted a randomized trial to determine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD), an 8-h time-restricted eating (TRE) schedule, and their combination on body weight and abdominal fat area (i.e., primary outcomes) and cardiometabolic outcomes in participants with MetS. Compared with baseline, all 3-month treatments significantly reduce body weight and subcutaneous fat area, but only TRE and combination treatment reduce visceral fat area (VFA), fasting blood glucose, uric acid (UA), and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, compared with changes of LCD, TRE and combination treatment further decrease body weight and VFA, while only combination treatment yields more benefits on glycemic control, UA, and dyslipidemia. In conclusion, without change of physical activity, an 8-h TRE with or without LCD can serve as an effective treatment for MetS (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04475822).


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Síndrome Metabólica , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Peso Corporal , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia
20.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 112-119, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The modified Atkins diet (MAD), a less restrictive form of the ketogenic diet (KD), has gained popularity and is proposed to be an alternative to the traditional KD in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). However, the evidence to support this hypothesis remains limited. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of MAD compared to traditional KD in children with DRE. METHOD: We systematically searched multiple databases through March 2022 for all the studies that evaluated the clinical utility of MAD versus KD for DRE in a pediatric population. The primary outcome was the proportion of children who had seizure frequency reduction (SFR) > 50%. The secondary outcomes were SFR >90%, seizure freedom, and diet-related side effects. All measurements were taken 6 months after starting the regimens. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and combined using random-effects model meta-analysis. RESULTS: Six studies, with 397 patients with DRE (201 followed MAD vs. 196 with KD), were included. There was a significant difference in the proportion of patients who attained SFR >50% favoring the traditional KD (RR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47-0.83; P = 0.001). However, there was no significant differences in SFR >90% (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.49-1.10; P = 0.13) or the proportion of patients who had seizure freedom (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.49-1.41; P = 0.49). Furthermore, both regimens had comparable safety profiles (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.95-1.05; P = 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis demonstrated the superiority of traditional KD over MAD in achieving SFR > 50% at 6 months in pediatric patients with DRE. However, SFR > 90% and seizure freedom were comparable between KD and MAD at 6 months. The tolerability profile between the two regimens was similar as well. Large-scale RCTs are necessary to validate our findings.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas e Pobre em Carboidratos , Dieta Cetogênica , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta Cetogênica/efeitos adversos , Humanos
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