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1.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 1-8, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620304

RESUMO

Currently, there is a lack of consensus on the provision of preoperative carbohydrate loading in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to theoretical concerns including the possibility of delayed gastric emptying, perioperative hyperglycemia, and poor surgical outcomes. This narrative review summarizes the accumulating evidence on preoperative carbohydrate loading in this population and whether these concerns are supported by preliminary evidence. In general, the available research suggests that carbohydrate loading may be implemented in those with T2DM without increased risk for intra- and postoperative hyperglycemia or surgical complications. However, there is strong justification for future research to definitively study this highly debated and timely topic. Ultimately, the inclusion of preoperative carbohydrate loading for surgical patients with DM should be guided by the surgical team's clinical judgment and individualized based on patient needs and characteristics.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperglicemia , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios
2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684637

RESUMO

The liver plays a central role in glucose and fatty acid metabolism and acts as an endocrine organ that secretes hepatokines with diverse systemic effects. The study aimed to examine the influence of duodenojejunal omega switch (DJOS) bariatric surgery in combination with different diets on glucose administration parameters and hepatokines levels. After 8 weeks on high fat, high sugar diet (HFS) or control diets (CD), Sprague-Dawley rats underwent DJOS or SHAM (control) surgery. For the next 8 weeks after the surgery, half of DJOS and SHAM-operated animals were kept on the same diet as before, and half had a diet change. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed three times: 8 weeks before and 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Fetuin-B, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plasma levels were analyzed. DJOS surgery had a beneficial effect on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results and the area under the curve (AUCOGTT). The OGTT results depended on the time elapsed after the surgery, the type of diet used, the surgery performed, and the interaction between these factors. DJOS bariatric surgery reduced fetuin-B and GDF15 plasma levels. Interaction between the type of surgery performed and diet used influenced the fetuin-B and PTX-3 plasma levels. A dietary regime is essential to achieve therapeutic and clinical goals after bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Fetuína-B/metabolismo , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Duodeno/cirurgia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Jejuno/cirurgia , Fígado/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Clin Nutr ; 40(10): 5346-5354, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is well-known that high protein intake is associated with renal hyperfiltration and faster renal function decline, but the association of other macronutrients, carbohydrate and fat, with development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to examine the relationship between fat-to-carbohydrate intake ratio (F/C ratio) and incident CKD. METHODS: We included 9226 subjects from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on 1 g protein intake per ideal body weight per day. Primary exposure was the F/C ratio defined as calorie intake of fat/calorie intake of fat and carbohydrate. The primary outcome was the development of CKD, which was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria (≥1+). RESULTS: During a median follow-up duration of 11.4 years, 778 (8.4%) CKD events occurred. Subjects in the lowest F/C ratio tertile had faster eGFR decline rate than other tertiles. In multivariable Cox analysis, a significantly higher CKD risk was observed in the lowest tertile when protein intake > 1 g/kg/day (hazard ratio [HR] for T1 (<16.1%) vs. T3 (>21.5%), 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.84; P = 0.031). In sensitivity analysis, subjects maintained low F/C ratio diet (<16.1%) during 4 years showed higher risk of subsequent CKD development than those maintained high F/C ratio diet (≥16.1%; HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.10-2.63; P = 0.018). In cubic spline analysis, CKD risk was sharply increased in F/C ratio <16.1%, but the risk was nearly constant in F/C ratio ≥16.1%. CONCLUSIONS: A diet with a low F/C ratio was associated with increased risk of CKD in the general population. Therefore, it is necessary to limit excessive high carbohydrate and low fat intake to prevent CKD development in this population.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteinúria/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16684, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404817

RESUMO

Although the mechanism of action of the antidiabetic drug metformin is still a matter of discussions, it is well accepted that the gut plays an important role. To gain more insights into the mechanisms occurring in the different regions of the intestine, adult male mice were fed a high-fat-high sucrose (HFS) diet for 8 days and treated with metformin by gavage (300 mg/day/kg body weight) during the HFS diet. Metformin counteracted HFS diet-induced overexpression of a network of genes involved in the transport of glucose and fatty acids in the different regions of the small intestine. It also induced beneficial modification of secondary bile acid profile in the caecum, with a reduction of deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid levels and increased abundance of ursodeoxycholic acid and tauroursodeoxycholic acid, potentially leading to FRX inhibition. In parallel, metformin treatment was associated with specific changes of the microbiota composition in the lumen of the different regions of the intestine. Metformin induced a marked increase in the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in the lumen all along the gut and counteracted the effects of HFS diet on the abundances of some bacterial groups generally associated with metabolic disturbances (f-Lachnospiraceae, f-Petostreptococcaceae, g-Clostidium). Therefore, the present work clearly emphasises the role of all the regions of the intestinal tract in the beneficial action of the antidiabetic drug metformin in a prediabetic mouse model.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/farmacologia , Animais , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/microbiologia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444699

RESUMO

Increase in the aging population is a phenomenon all over the world. Maintaining good functional ability, good mental health, and cognitive function in the absence of severe disease and physical disability define successful aging. A healthy lifestyle in middle age predisposes successful aging. Longevity is the result of a multifactorial phenomenon, which involves feeding. Diets that emphasize fruit and vegetables, whole grains rather than refined grains, low-fat dairy, lean meats, fish, legumes, and nuts are inversely associated with mortality or to a lower risk of becoming frail among elderly subjects. A regular physical activity and a regular intake of whole grain derivatives together with the optimization of the protein/carbohydrate ratio in the diet, where the ratio is significantly less than 1 such as in the Mediterranean diet and the Okinawan diet, reduces the risk of developing aging-related diseases and increases healthy life expectancy. The purpose of our review was to analyze cohort and case-control studies that investigated the effects of cereals in the diet, especially whole grains and derivatives as well as the effects of a diet with a low protein-carbohydrate ratio on the progression of aging, mortality, and lifespan.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta/mortalidade , Grãos Integrais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/mortalidade , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/mortalidade , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Grão Comestível , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Longevidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 826-829, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226474

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to assess the outcome of carbohydrate loading dietary strategy on resistance exercise and muscle mass. In this prospective study, conducted at Dr DY Patil Gym and Fitness Center, Navi Mumbai (India), young healthy male resistance-trained individuals (18-25 years) were recruited randomly. The duration for entire study was three months in the year 2019. Participants were divided into two groups (n=30 each): carbohydrate loading group and control group. Participants in the carbohydrate loading group consumed carbohydrate loading diet protocol and designed exercise program for seven days. The control group consumed a regular diet with an exercise program. Resistance exercise (strength) and body circumference (muscle mass) measurements were recorded after seven days of respective assigned diet and exercise program. In the carbohydrate loading group, performance in resistance exercise was not significant from baseline to day seven (63.5±6.45 vs. 64.0±6.75 kg; p>0.05). Changes in the arm girth (p=0.3256), thigh girth (p=0.3256) and calf girth (p=0.1608) were also not significant in the carbohydrate loading group when compared from baseline to seven days. Therefore, the result indicates that the carbohydrate loading regimen had no enhanced effect on resistance exercise as well as muscle girth. This study results suggest that carbohydrate loading has no additional advantage in improving resistance exercise and muscle mass in resistance-trained individuals.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos , Treinamento de Força , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Músculos , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foods rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) have been discouraged by virtue of their cholesterol-raising potential, but this effect is modulated by the food source and background level of carbohydrate. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the consumption of palm stearin (PS) versus butter on circulating cholesterol responses in the setting of both a low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC/HF) and high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet in healthy subjects. We also explored effects on plasma lipoprotein particle distribution and fatty acid composition. METHODS: We performed a randomized, controlled-feeding, cross-over study that compared a PS- versus a Butter-based diet in a group of normocholesterolemic, non-obese adults. A controlled canola oil-based 'Run-In' diet preceded the experimental PS and Butter diets. All diets were eucaloric, provided for 3-weeks, and had the same macronutrient distribution but varied in primary fat source (40% of the total fat). The same Run-In and cross-over experiments were done in two separate groups who self-selected to either a LC/HF (n = 12) or a HC/LF (n = 12) diet track. The primary outcomes were low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C, triglycerides, and LDL particle distribution. RESULTS: Compared to PS, Butter resulted in higher LDL-C in both the LC/HF (13.4%, p = 0.003) and HC/LF (10.8%, p = 0.002) groups, which was primarily attributed to large LDL I and LDL IIa particles. There were no differences between PS and Butter in HDL-C, triglycerides, or small LDL particles. Oxidized LDL was lower after PS than Butter in LC/HF (p = 0.011), but not the HC/LF group. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Butter raises LDL-C relative to PS in healthy normocholesterolemic adults regardless of background variations in carbohydrate and fat, an effect primarily attributed to larger cholesterol-rich LDL particles.


Assuntos
Manteiga , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Palmeira/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202894

RESUMO

Consumption of different types of high-calorie foods leads to the development of various metabolic disorders. However, the effects of multi-strain probiotics on different types of diet-induced obesity and intestinal dysbiosis remain unclear. In this study, mice were fed a control diet, high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat and 20% kcal carbohydrate), or western diet (WD; 40% kcal fat and 43% kcal carbohydrate) and administered with multi-strain AB-Kefir containing six strains of lactic acid bacteria and a Bifidobacterium strain, at 109 CFU per mouse for 10 weeks. Results demonstrated that AB-Kefir reduced body weight gain, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis with a minor influence on gut microbiota composition in HFD-fed mice, but not in WD-fed mice. In addition, AB-Kefir significantly reduced the weight and size of adipose tissues by regulating the expression of CD36, Igf1, and Pgc1 in HFD-fed mice. Although AB-Kefir did not reduce the volume of white adipose tissue, it markedly regulated CD36, Dgat1 and Mogat1 mRNA expression. Moreover, the abundance of Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group and Ruminiclostridium significantly correlated with changes in body weight, liver weight, and fasting glucose in test mice. Overall, this study provides important evidence to understand the interactions between probiotics, gut microbiota, and diet in obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Kefir/microbiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/dietoterapia , Fígado Gorduroso/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intolerância à Glucose/dietoterapia , Intolerância à Glucose/microbiologia , Inflamação , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206627

RESUMO

We examined the effect of dietary carbohydrate intake on post-exercise glycogen recovery. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed moderate-carbohydrate chow (MCHO, 50%cal from carbohydrate) or high-carbohydrate chow (HCHO, 70%cal from carbohydrate) for 10 days. They then ran on a treadmill at 25 m/min for 60 min and administered an oral glucose solution (1.5 mg/g body weight). Compared to the MCHO group, the HCHO group showed significantly higher sodium-D-glucose co-transporter 1 protein levels in the brush border membrane fraction (p = 0.003) and the glucose transporter 2 level in the mucosa of jejunum (p = 0.004). At 30 min after the post-exercise glucose administration, the skeletal muscle and liver glycogen levels were not significantly different between the two diet groups. The blood glucose concentration from the portal vein (which is the entry site of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract) was not significantly different between the groups at 15 min after the post-exercise glucose administration. There was no difference in the total or phosphorylated states of proteins related to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle. Although the high-carbohydrate diet significantly increased glucose transporters in the jejunum, this adaptation stimulated neither glycogen recovery nor glucose absorption after the ingestion of post-exercise glucose.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192612

RESUMO

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial and polygenic disorder with the molecular bases still idiopathic. Experimental analyses and tests are quite limited upon human samples due to the access, variability of patient's conditions, and the size and complexity of the genome. Therefore, high-sugar diet exposure is commonly used for modeling T2DM in non-human animals, which includes invertebrate organisms like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Interestingly, high-sugar diet (HSD) induces delayed time for pupation and reduced viability in fruit fly larvae hatched from a 30% sucrose-containing medium (HSD-30%). Here we carried out an mRNA-deep sequencing study to identify differentially transcribed genes in adult fruit fly hatched and reared from an HSD-30%. Seven days after hatching, flies reared on control and HSD-30% were used to glucose and triglyceride level measurements and RNA extraction for sequencing. Remarkably, glucose levels were about 2-fold higher than the control group in fruit flies exposed to HSD-30%, whereas triglycerides levels increased 1.7-fold. After RNA-sequencing, we found that 13.5% of the genes were differentially transcribed in the dyslipidemic and hyperglycaemic insects. HSD-30% up-regulated genes involved in ribosomal biogenesis (e.g. dTOR, ERK and dS6K) and down-regulated genes involved in energetic process (e.g. Pfk, Gapdh1, and Pyk from pyruvate metabolism; kdn, Idh and Mdh2 from the citric acid cycle; ATPsynC and ATPsynẞ from ATP synthesis) and insect development. We found a remarkable down-regulation for Actin (Act88F) that likely impairs muscle development. Moreover, HSD-30% up-regulated both the insulin-like peptides 7 and 8 and down-regulated the insulin receptor substrate p53, isoform A and insulin-like peptide 6 genes, whose functional products are insulin signaling markers. All these features pointed together to a tightly correlation of the T2DM-like phenotype modeled by the D. melanogaster and an intricate array of phenomena, which includes energetic processes, muscle development, and ribosomal synthesis as that observed for the human pathology.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/análise , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
11.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(11): 2363-2373, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107508

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Very little research has investigated the effects of ultraendurance exercise on the bioenergetic status of muscle. The primary objective of this case study was to characterize the changes that occur in skeletal muscle mitochondria in response to a 100-km ultramarathon in monozygotic twins. A second objective was to determine whether mitochondrial function is altered by consuming a periodized low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet during training compared with a high-carbohydrate diet. METHODS: One pair of male monozygotic twins ran 100 km on treadmills after 4 wk of training on either a high-carbohydrate or periodized low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. Muscle biopsies were collected 4 wk before the run, as well as 4 and 52 h postrun. Blood draws were also performed immediately before as well as 4 and 52 h after the run. RESULTS: Four hours postrun, respiratory capacity, citrate synthase activity, and mitochondrial complex protein content were decreased. Two days later, both twins showed signs of rapid recovery in several of these measures. Furthermore, blood levels of creatine phosphokinase, C-reactive protein, and aspartate transaminase were elevated 4 h after the run but partially recovered 2 d later. CONCLUSION: Although there were some differences between the twins, the primary finding is that there is significant mitochondrial impairment induced by running 100 km, which rapidly recovers within 2 d. These results provide ample rationale for future investigations of the effects of ultraendurance activity on mitochondrial function.


Assuntos
Corrida de Maratona/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos , Dieta Rica em Proteínas e Pobre em Carboidratos , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065444

RESUMO

Resveratrol and its 2-methoxy derivative pterostilbene are two phenolic compounds that occur in foodstuffs and feature hepato-protective effects. This study is devoted to analysing and comparing the metabolic effects of pterostilbene and resveratrol on gut microbiota composition in rats displaying NAFLD induced by a diet rich in saturated fat and fructose. The associations among changes induced by both phenolic compounds in liver status and those induced in gut microbiota composition were also analysed. For this purpose, fifty Wistar rats were distributed in five experimental groups: a group of animals fed a standard diet (CC group) and four additional groups fed a high-fat high-fructose diet alone (HFHF group) or supplemented with 15 or 30 mg/kg bw/d of pterostilbene (PT15 and PT30 groups, respectively) or 30 mg/kg bw/d of resveratrol (RSV30 group). The dramatic changes induced by high-fat high-fructose feeding in the gut microbiota were poorly ameliorated by pterostilbene or resveratrol. These results suggest that the specific changes in microbiota composition induced by pterostilbene (increased abundances of Akkermansia and Erysipelatoclostridium, and lowered abundance of Clostridum sensu stricto 1) may not entirely explain the putative preventive effects on steatohepatitis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066330

RESUMO

Consumption of fructose has been associated with a higher risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of fructose compared to starch from high-amylose maize starch (HiMaize) at ad libitum feeding in a juvenile Göttingen Minipig model with 20% of the diet provided as fructose as a high-risk diet (HR, n = 15) and 20% as HiMaize as a lower-risk control diet (LR, n = 15). The intake of metabolizable energy was on average similar (p = 0.11) among diets despite increased levels of the satiety hormone PYY measured in plasma (p = 0.0005) of the LR pigs. However, after over 20 weeks of ad libitum feeding, no difference between diets was observed in daily weight gain (p = 0.103), and a difference in BW was observed only at the end of the experiment. The ad libitum feeding promoted an obese phenotype over time in both groups with increased plasma levels of glucose (p = 0.005), fructosamine (p < 0.001), insulin (p = 0.03), and HOMA-IR (p = 0.02), whereas the clinical markers of dyslipidemia were unaffected. When compared to the LR diet, fructose did not accelerate the progression of MetS associated parameters and largely failed to change markers that indicate a stimulated de novo lipogenesis.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/sangue , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 676628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054868

RESUMO

For poultry producers, chronic low-grade intestinal inflammation has a negative impact on productivity by impairing nutrient absorption and allocation of nutrients for growth. Understanding the triggers of chronic intestinal inflammation and developing a non-invasive measurement is crucial to managing gut health in poultry. In this study, we developed two novel models of low-grade chronic intestinal inflammation in broiler chickens: a chemical model using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and a dietary model using a high non-starch polysaccharide diet (NSP). Further, we evaluated the potential of several proteins as biomarkers of gut inflammation. For these experiments, the chemical induction of inflammation consisted of two 5-day cycles of oral gavage of either 0.25mg DSS/ml or 0.35mg DSS/ml; whereas the NSP diet (30% rice bran) was fed throughout the experiment. At four times (14, 22, 28 and 36-d post-hatch), necropsies were performed to collect intestinal samples for histology, and feces and serum for biomarkers quantification. Neither DSS nor NSP treatments affected feed intake or livability. NSP-fed birds exhibited intestinal inflammation through 14-d, which stabilized by 36-d. On the other hand, the cyclic DSS-treatment produced inflammation throughout the entire experimental period. Histological examination of the intestine revealed that the inflammation induced by both models exhibited similar spatial and temporal patterns with the duodenum and jejunum affected early (at 14-d) whereas the ileum was compromised by 28-d. Calprotectin (CALP) was the only serum protein found to be increased due to inflammation. However, fecal CALP and Lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) concentrations were significantly greater in the induced inflammation groups at 28-d. This experiment demonstrated for the first time, two in vivo models of chronic gut inflammation in chickens, a DSS and a nutritional NSP protocols. Based on these models we observed that intestinal inflammation begins in the upper segments of small intestine and moved to the lower region over time. In the searching for a fecal biomarker for intestinal inflammation, LCN-2 showed promising results. More importantly, calprotectin has a great potential as a novel biomarker for poultry measured both in serum and feces.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/veterinária , Gastroenterite/sangue , Gastroenterite/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Ração Animal , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Galinhas , Doença Crônica , Sulfato de Dextrana/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/química , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Masculino , Oryza/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia
15.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(8): 1480-1488, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative carbohydrate loading is a component of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols, but there is limited literature in bariatric surgery patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to characterize the impact of preoperative carbohydrate loading on postoperative bariatric surgery outcomes. SETTING: University Hospital. METHODS: Patients undergoing a primary minimally invasive Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) between 2018 and 2020 were randomized to standard management or intervention. Standard management patients were nothing by mouth (NPO) after midnight prior to surgery. Intervention patients consumed 2 carbohydrate drinks: 1 the night before and another 3 hours prior to surgery. Primary outcomes analyzed included postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), length of stay, and overall complications. RESULTS: In total, 134 patients were analyzed: 64 intervention (47.8%) and 70 (52.2%) standard. In the end, 7% and 15% of patients were lost to follow-up at 6-weeks and 3-months, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in length of stay (2.0 ± 1.2 vs 2.1 ± .9 d; P = .65) or postoperative outcomes between the 2 groups. There were no episodes of aspiration among the intervention group. Among RYGB patients, intervention patients had a shorter duration of nausea compared with standard patients. There was no significant difference in glycemic control among patients with and without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative carbohydrate drinks can be administered to bariatric surgery patients without significant risks. Carbohydrate loading preoperatively can decrease the duration of PONV in RYGB patients. Carbohydrate drinks can be safely included in bariatric ERAS protocols for patients with and without diabetes, although the benefits remain unknown.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921866

RESUMO

Persistence of damage induced by unhealthy diets during youth has been little addressed. Therefore, we investigated the impact of a short-term fructose-rich diet on liver metabolic activity in adolescent rats and the putative persistence of alterations after removing fructose from the diet. Adolescent rats were fed a fructose-rich diet for three weeks and then switched to a control diet for further three weeks. Body composition and energy balance were not affected by fructose-rich diet, while increased body lipids and lipid gain were found after the rescue period. Switching to a control diet reversed the upregulation of plasma fructose, uric acid, lipocalin, and haptoglobin, while plasma triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, lipopolysaccharide, and tumor necrosis factor alpha remained higher. Hepatic steatosis and ceramide were increased by fructose-rich diet, but reversed by returning to a control diet, while altered hepatic response to insulin persisted. Liver fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activities were upregulated by fructose-rich diet, and SCD activity remained higher after returning to the control diet. Fructose-induced upregulation of complex II-driven mitochondrial respiration, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α also persisted after switching to control diet. In conclusion, our results show prolonged fructose-induced dysregulation of liver metabolic activity.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Composição Corporal , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Frutose/sangue , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipocalinas/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Ratos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue
17.
Anesth Analg ; 133(3): 731-738, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypothermia is a common complication after neuraxial block in cesarean delivery. At least 1 animal study has found that carbohydrate loading can maintain the body temperature of rats during general anesthesia, but it is unclear whether carbohydrate loading is beneficial for body temperature maintenance in parturient women during combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) for elective cesarean delivery. METHODS: Women undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomized into a control group (group C), an oral carbohydrate group (group OC), or an oral placebo group (group OP), with 40 women in each group. Core body temperature (Tc) and body surface temperature (Ts) before and after cesarean delivery, changes in Tc (ΔTc) and Ts (ΔTs), and the incidence of side effects (eg, intraoperative shivering) were compared among the groups. RESULTS: The postoperative Tc (core body temperature after cesarean delivery [Tc2]) of group OC (36.48 [0.48]°C) was higher than those of group C (35.95 [0.55]°C; P < .001), and group OP (36.03 [0.49]°C; P = .001). The ΔTc (0.30 [0.39]°C) in group OC was significantly smaller than those in group C (0.73 [0.40]°C; P = .001) and group OP (0.63 [0.46]°C; P = .0048). CONCLUSIONS: Oral carbohydrate loading 2 hours before surgery facilitated body temperature maintenance during CSEA for elective cesarean delivery.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural , Anestesia Obstétrica , Raquianestesia , Cesárea , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hipotermia/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Tremor por Sensação de Frio , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anestesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Bebidas , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , China , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia/etiologia , Hipotermia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Nutr Biochem ; 92: 108622, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705942

RESUMO

The high prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disorders are one of the major public health problems worldwide. Among the main causal factors of obesity, excessive consumption of food rich in sugar and fat stands out due to its high energy density. The regulation of food intake relies on hypothalamic control by the action of several neuropeptides. Excessive consumption of hypercaloric diets has impact in the behavior and in the gut microbiota. In the present study, we used a high-sugar and fat (HSB) diet for 12 weeks to induce obesity in C57BL/6 mice and to investigate its effects on the gut microbiota, hypothalamic peptides, and behavior. We hypothesize that chronic consumption of HSB diet can change the behavior. Additionally, we also hypothesize that changes in gut microbiota can be associated with changes in the transcriptional regulation of hypothalamic peptides and behavior. To evaluate the gut microbiota, we performed the sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, which demonstrate that HSB diet modulates the gut microbiota with an increase in the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phylum and a decrease of Bacteroidetes phylum. The real time qPCR revealed that HSB-fed mice presented changes in the transcriptional regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides genes such as Npy, Gal and Galr1. The Marble-burying and Light/dark box tests also showed an alteration in anxiety and impulsive behaviors for the HSB-fed mice. Our data provides evidence that obesity induced by HSB diet consumption is associated with alterations in gut microbiota and behavior, highlighting the multifactorial characteristics of this disease.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670975

RESUMO

Excessive intake of fructose results in metabolic syndrome (MS) and kidney damage, partly mediated by its metabolism by fructokinase-C or ketohexokinase-C (KHK-C). Osthol has antioxidant properties, is capable of regulating adipogenesis, and inhibits KHK-C activity. Here, we examined the potential protective role of osthol in the development of kidney disease induced by a Western (high-fat/high-sugar) diet. Control rats fed with a high-fat/high-sugar diet were compared with two groups that also received two different doses of osthol (30 mg/kg/d or 40 mg/kg/d body weight BW). A fourth group served as a normal control and received regular chow. At the end of the follow-up, kidney function, metabolic markers, oxidative stress, and lipogenic enzymes were evaluated. The Western diet induced MS (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, hyperuricemia), a fall in the glomerular filtration rate, renal tubular damage, and increased oxidative stress in the kidney cortex, with increased expression of lipogenic enzymes and increased kidney KHK expression. Osthol treatment prevented the development of MS and ameliorated kidney damage by inhibiting KHK activity, preventing oxidative stress via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) activation, and reducing renal lipotoxicity. These data suggest that the nutraceutical osthol might be an ancillary therapy to slow the progression of MS and kidney damage induced by a Western diet.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Frutoquinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Cumarínicos/uso terapêutico , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutoquinases/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Estresse Oxidativo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3263, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547367

RESUMO

Insulin resistance is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes resulting from the confluence of several factors, including genetic susceptibility, inflammation, and diet. Under this pathophysiological condition, the dysfunction of the adipose tissue triggered by the excess caloric supply promotes the loss of sensitivity to insulin at the local and peripheral level, a process in which different signaling pathways are involved that are part of the metabolic response to the diet. Besides, the dysregulation of insulin signaling is strongly associated with inflammatory processes in which the JAK/STAT pathway plays a central role. To better understand the role of JAK/STAT signaling in the development of insulin resistance, we used a simple organism, Drosophila melanogaster, as a type 2 diabetes model generated by the consumption of a high-sugar diet. In this model, we studied the effects of inhibiting the expression of the JAK/STAT pathway receptor Domeless, in fat body, on adipose metabolism and glycemic control. Our results show that the Domeless receptor loss in fat body cells reverses both hyperglycemia and the increase in the expression of the insulin resistance marker Nlaz, observed in larvae fed a high sugar diet. This effect is consistent with a significant reduction in Dilp2 mRNA expression and an increase in body weight compared to wild-type flies fed high sugar diets. Additionally, the loss of Domeless reduced the accumulation of triglycerides in the fat body cells of larvae fed HSD and also significantly increased the lifespan of adult flies. Taken together, our results show that the loss of Domeless in the fat body reverses at least in part the dysmetabolism induced by a high sugar diet in a Drosophila type 2 diabetes model.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Insulina/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina/metabolismo
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