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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130636, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314929

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the efficiency of advanced chelate compounds-based trace minerals (OTM) in laying hens. Laying hens (240, 32 weeks old) were assigned to one of the following five groups: NOTM (no added trace minerals), CONTM (standard mineral salts), and three experimental groups in which chelates were used to replace 33, 66, and 100% of mineral salts (OTM33, OTM66, and OTM100, respectively). Each treatment had six replicates with eight hens per replicate. After 18 weeks, performance and physicochemical properties of eggs in all experimental groups was better than those in the NOTM group. Among the treatments, OTM66 and OTM100 produced the best results in terms of laying performance, yolk PUFA/SFA ratio, Zn and Se contents, and malondialdehyde concentration in both serum and yolk. In conclusion, up to 66% OTM supplementation was beneficial for performance, lipid and mineral composition of yolk, and oxidative status.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Minerais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130628, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343807

RESUMO

A spectrophotometric method based on diazo-coupling reaction for nitrite analysis was established and validated, including inter-laboratory validation, linearity, accuracy, precision, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The time-saving and high-recovery method was established by examining the filtration step, colorimetric process and concentration range of the calibration curve. This method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) in the range of 0.025-1.0 µg/mL. The three-level recoveries were between 86.7% and 108.6%, with the coefficient of variation (CV) below 5.8%. Mean nitrite concentration ranges in processed foods were ND-33.47 mg/kg. The mean nitrite intake was 0.8% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI, 0.07 mg/kg bw/day) for all children and adolescents and 2.8% for the consumer group. The major contributors for all subjects and consumers were ham, sausage and bacon. These results indicated that the improved method was suitable for analyzing nitrite in processed foods and the nitrite exposure levels were safe.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Nitritos , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Exposição Dietética , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitritos/análise , República da Coreia
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130732, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384980

RESUMO

Saccharin was determined based on a new molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure. The polymer was synthesized with a hybrid monomer of metacrylic acid and 3-amino propril tetraethoxysilane and saccharin as template. After the synthesis, the saccharin removal from the MIP was verified by the UV analysis of the solutions used in the template removal procedure, as well as by the direct MIP analysis using FTIR hyperspectral image and chemometrics. The residual saccharin concentrations observed in the image analysis revealed a narrow concentration distribution consistent with a homogenous material. The MISPE was performed with homemade cartridges containing 200 mg of the MIP. The results obtained with standards and diet tea samples confirmed high affinity, adsorption capacity and selectivity of the MIP. The MISPE cartridge exhibited recoveries of 100 ± 3% in six extraction cycles. The diet tea analysis showed a significant reduction of the interferences, which can considerable simplifies the HPLC-UV analysis.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta , Imageamento Hiperespectral , Sacarina , Extração em Fase Sólida , Chá
4.
Food Chem ; 366: 130494, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293544

RESUMO

Bioactive peptides have recently gained more research attention as potential therapies for the management of bodily disorders and metabolic syndromes of delicate health importance. On another note, there is a rising trend on a global scale for the consumption and adoption of fruit and vegetables for the fulfilment of dietary and health needs. Furthermore, fruits and vegetables are being more studied as base materials for the isolation of biologically functional components and accordingly, they have been investigated for their concomitant bioactive peptides. This review focuses on isolation and bio-functional properties of bioactive peptides from fruits and vegetables. This manuscript is potential in serving as a material collection for fundamental consultancy on peptides derived from fruits and vegetables, and further canvasses the necessitation for the use of these food materials as primal matter for such.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Dieta , Peptídeos
5.
Food Chem ; 369: 130911, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455325

RESUMO

Postmortem alteration by apoptosis has significant effects on flesh quality. Currently, the information necessary to understand the apoptotic behavior and the molecular mechanisms during postmortem alteration in fish muscle is still lacking. Activation of apoptosis and the cytokines involved in regulating apoptosis in fish muscle were evaluated during postmortem condition at 4 °C for 5 days in terms of apoptotic morphology changes, nucleus DNA fragmentation, caspases activation and related gene expressions. The triggering apoptotic mechanisms associated with multiple cytokines transcriptional levels showed that the up-regulated pro-apoptotic mediators [IFN-γ2, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-17D, IL-12p35 and IL-10 (except IL-15)] and the down-regulated anti-apoptotic mediators of [IL-8 and IL-11 (except TGF-ß and IL-4)] both regulated apoptosis at early stage, which were regulated by NF-κB and TOR, respectively. Results suggested that transcriptional regulation of multiple cytokines produce a positive outcome on triggering apoptosis.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Aeromonas hydrophila , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Apoptose , Carpas/genética , Citocinas/genética , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Imunidade Inata , Músculos , NF-kappa B/genética
6.
Food Chem ; 370: 131069, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536780

RESUMO

Wholegrains have been promoted for human consumption due to their various health benefits. However, different wholegrains vary in nutritional composition and their beneficial impact on health. In this study, we compared the in vitro starch and protein digestibility, as well as dietary fiber content of eight different wholegrains including barley, buckwheat, coix seed, foxtail millet, oat, proso millet, quinoa, and sorghum and their porridges. We found that boiling improved starch digestibility of all grains, and protein digestibility except proso millet and sorghum. Porridges made from oats, quinoa, or buckwheat are considered healthier than others due to their lower glycemic index and glycemic load, higher digestible protein content and amino acid bioaccessibility, and higher dietary fiber content (>12%). This study could provide a comprehensive nutritional composition and digestibility of the eight types of wholegrains and their porridges. Dietary recommendations were also given for different populations based on factor analysis.


Assuntos
Dieta , Digestão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Amido
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 1-24, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807434

RESUMO

Consumption of high-quality animal protein plays an important role in improving human nutrition, growth, development, and health. With an exponential growth of the global population, demands for animal-sourced protein are expected to increase by 60% between 2021 and 2050. In addition to the production of food protein and fiber (wool), animals are useful models for biomedical research to prevent and treat human diseases and serve as bioreactors to produce therapeutic proteins. For a high efficiency to transform low-quality feedstuffs and forages into high-quality protein and highly bioavailable essential minerals in diets of humans, farm animals have dietary requirements for energy, amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and water in their life cycles. All nutrients interact with each other to influence the growth, development, and health of mammals, birds, fish, and crustaceans, and adequate nutrition is crucial for preventing and treating their metabolic disorders (including metabolic diseases) and infectious diseases. At the organ level, the small intestine is not only the terminal site for nutrient digestion and absorption, but also intimately interacts with a diverse community of intestinal antigens and bacteria to influence gut and whole-body health. Understanding the species and metabolism of intestinal microbes, as well as their interactions with the intestinal immune systems and the host intestinal epithelium can help to mitigate antimicrobial resistance and develop prebiotic and probiotic alternatives to in-feed antibiotics in animal production. As abundant sources of amino acids, bioactive peptides, energy, and highly bioavailable minerals and vitamins, animal by-product feedstuffs are effective for improving the growth, development, health, feed efficiency, and survival of livestock and poultry, as well as companion and aquatic animals. The new knowledge covered in this and related volumes of Adv Exp Med Biol is essential to ensure sufficient provision of animal protein for humans, while helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize the urinary and fecal excretion of nitrogenous and other wastes to the environment, and sustain animal agriculture (including aquaculture).


Assuntos
Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Aminoácidos , Animais , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Reprodução
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 177-206, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807443

RESUMO

L-Arginine (Arg) plays a central role in the nitrogen metabolism (e.g., syntheses of protein, nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine), blood flow, nutrient utilization, and health of ruminants. This amino acid is produced by ruminal bacteria and is also synthesized from L-glutamine, L-glutamate, and L-proline via the formation of L-citrulline (Cit) in the enterocytes of young and adult ruminants. In pre-weaning ruminants, most of the Cit formed de novo by the enterocytes is used locally for Arg production. In post-weaning ruminants, the small intestine-derived Cit is converted into Arg primarily in the kidneys and, to a lesser extent, in endothelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Under normal feeding conditions, Arg synthesis contributes 65% and 68% of total Arg requirements for nonpregnant and late pregnany ewes fed a diet with ~12% crude protein, respectively, whereas creatine production requires 40% and 36% of Arg utilized by nonpregnant and late pregnant ewes, respectively. Arg has not traditionally been considered a limiting nutrient in diets for post-weaning, gestating, or lactating ruminants because it has been assumed that these animals can synthesize sufficient Arg to meet their nutritional and physiological needs. This lack of a full understanding of Arg nutrition and metabolism has contributed to suboptimal efficiencies for milk production, reproductive performance, and growth in ruminants. There is now considerable evidence that dietary supplementation with rumen-protected Arg (e.g., 0.25-0.5% of dietary dry matter) can improve all these production indices without adverse effects on metabolism or health. Because extracellular Cit is not degraded by microbes in the rumen due to the lack of uptake, Cit can be used without any encapsulation as an effective dietary source for the synthesis of Arg in ruminants, including dairy and beef cows, as well as sheep and goats. Thus, an adequate amount of supplemental rumen-protected Arg or unencapsulated Cit is necessary to support maximum survival, growth, lactation, reproductive performance, and feed efficiency, as well as optimum health and well-being in all ruminants.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Lactação , Animais , Arginina , Bovinos , Citrulina , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Leite , Gravidez , Ruminantes , Ovinos
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 263-277, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807446

RESUMO

There is growing interest in the use of intestinal mucosal products and peptones (partial protein hydrolysates) to enhance the food intake, growth, development, and health of animals. The mucosa of the small intestine consists of the epithelium, the lamina propria, and the muscularis mucosa. The diverse population of cells (epithelial, immune, endocrine, neuronal, vascular, and elastic cells) in the intestinal mucosa contains not only high-quality food protein (e.g., collagen) but also a wide array of low-, medium-, and high-molecular-weight functional molecules with enormous nutritional, physiological, and immunological importance. Available evidence shows that intestinal mucosal products and peptones provide functional substances, including growth factors, enzymes, hormones, large peptides, small peptides, antimicrobials, cytokines, bioamines, regulators of nutrient metabolism, unique amino acids (e.g., taurine and 4-hydroxyproline), and other bioactive substances (e.g., creatine and glutathione). Therefore, dietary supplementation with intestinal mucosal products and peptones can cost-effectively improve feed intake, immunity, health (the intestine and the whole body), well-being, wound healing, growth performance, and feed efficiency in livestock, poultry, fish, and crustaceans. In feeding practices, an inclusion level of an intestinal mucosal product or a mucosal peptone product at up to 5% (as-fed basis) is appropriate in the diets of these animals, as well as companion and zoo animals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Peptonas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Mucosa Intestinal , Intestinos
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 237-261, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807445

RESUMO

Aquatic animals have particularly high requirements for dietary amino acids (AAs) for health, survival, growth, development, and reproduction. These nutrients are usually provided from ingested proteins and may also be derived from supplemental crystalline AA. AAs are the building blocks of protein (a major component of tissue growth) and, therefore, are the determinants of the growth performance and feed efficiency of farmed fish. Because protein is generally the most expensive ingredient in aqua feeds, much attention has been directed to ensure that dietary protein feedstuff is of high quality and cost-effective for feeding fish, crustaceans, and other aquatic animals worldwide. Due to the rapid development of aquaculture worldwide and a limited source of fishmeal (the traditionally sole or primary source of AAs for aquatic animals), alternative protein sources must be identified to feed aquatic animals. Plant-sourced feedstuffs for aquatic animals include soybean meal, extruded soybean meal, fermented soybean meal, soybean protein concentrates, soybean protein isolates, leaf meal, hydrolyzed plant protein, wheat, wheat hydrolyzed protein, canola meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal, sunflower meal, peas, rice, dried brewers grains, and dried distillers grains. Animal-sourced feedstuffs include fishmeal, fish paste, bone meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, chicken by-product meal, chicken visceral digest, spray-dried poultry plasma, spray-dried egg product, hydrolyzed feather meal, intestine-mucosa product, peptones, blood meal (bovine or poultry), whey powder with high protein content, cheese powder, and insect meal. Microbial sources of protein feedstuffs include yeast protein and single-cell microbial protein (e.g., algae); they have more balanced AA profiles than most plant proteins for animal feeding. Animal-sourced ingredients can be used as a single source of dietary protein or in complementary combinations with plant and microbial sources of proteins. All protein feedstuffs must adequately provide functional AAs for aquatic animals.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Proteínas na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Bovinos , Galinhas , Dieta
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 335-343, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807450

RESUMO

Much of biomedical oriented research is conducted with animal models. Over the years, rodents (primarily rats and mice) have emerged as the preferred species for basic biochemistry, cell biology, physiology and nutrition studies. In the past, dogs have been used for the evaluation of dietary protein quality and other aspects of animal nitrogen metabolism and physiology, cardiovascular and endocrine research. At an increasing rate, pigs have also been used as a model species in biomedical research. Pigs are readily available in various mature sizes and genotypic/phenotypic traits, and there are many anatomic, nutritional and physiologic similarities between human beings and pigs. Many notable reviews summarizing the role of pigs in biomedical studies have already been published and these are cited below. The present review focuses on characteristics that make pigs an excellent biomedical animal model in particular in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular research. To procure an animal model for obesity, irrespective of species used, these animals must be fed a dense caloric diet (high fat) to achieve an experimental working model within a reasonable period. This review also focuses on a putative role of gastrointestinal microbiota in obesity as obese animals exhibit a shift in the distribution of gastrointestinal microbial phyla from lean animals. But to date such results have not pinpointed a treatable cause for obesity. Sometimes, the choice of sampling sites for microbial assessment in many reports can be questioned as the microbial content and phyla distribution in easily collected fecal samples may differ from those obtained directly from the small intestine and upper colon. While pigs are still utilized in many countries for medical surgery practice, this has been discontinued in US medical schools.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Dieta , Cães , Fezes , Camundongos , Ratos , Sus scrofa , Suínos
12.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 471-486, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085122

RESUMO

In the western world the prevalence of atopic diseases such as food allergies is increasing highly significantly. One of the earliest and most prevalent food allergies occurring in the first year of life is cow's milk allergy. No treatment is available and only avoidance of the cow's milk allergens prevents the occurrence of an allergic reaction. Since cow's milk allergic children have an increased risk of developing other allergies later in life, investigating nutritional strategies to prevent the development of cow's milk allergy by developing oral tolerance is of high interest. Nutritional components such as prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids possess potential to support the maturation of the immune system early in life that might prevent the development of cow's milk allergy. The available research, so far, shows promising results particularly on the development of eczema. However, the preventive effects of the nutritional interventions on the development of food allergy are inconclusive. Future research may benefit from the combination of various dietary components. To clarify the preventive effects of the nutritional components in food allergy more randomized clinical trials are needed.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Probióticos , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
13.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 437-448, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196812

RESUMO

Since allergic diseases are of great public health relevance, effective primary prevention strategies are urgently needed. This chapter gives an overview of existing primary prevention programs on environmental exposures and dietary strategies based on epidemiological studies which have defined risk- and protective factors for the development of allergic diseases.The allergy protective effect mediated by growing up on a traditional farm environment is well studied. But the exact underlying mechanisms have still not been fully clarified and have not yet led to concrete prevention strategies. The beneficial effect of avoiding cigarette smoke exposure, indoor moisture and molds in pregnancy and childhood on the development of asthma is well documented. Whereas the avoidance of house dust mite exposure is not recommended to prevent eczema or allergy. Dietary supplementation with vitamins, pre- and probiotics in pregnant woman and their offspring is not harmful but evidence for the prevention of allergic diseases is still lacking. Fish oil consumption was shown to be asthma protective. The early introduction of peanuts and egg protein to prevent peanut and egg allergy in children with atopic dermatitis is promising. Further studies are needed to increase the overall evidence in allergy prevention. Most studies lack methodological standards such as randomization and blinding. More evidence is in demand on the potential beneficial impact of multifaceted interventional studies. The future of allergy prevention strategies might be based on individual risk assessment. Therefore, research in the immunological and molecular basis of allergic diseases needs to be promoted.


Assuntos
Asma , Dermatite Atópica , Eczema , Hipersensibilidade , Criança , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Lactente , Gravidez
14.
Food Chem ; 370: 131350, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788962

RESUMO

Polyphenols are bioactive substances that minimize the risk of a variety of chronic diseases. Exposure to polyphenol bioactive compounds in our diet has increased across the globe, with amplified expectations from consumers, industry, and regulators centered on the potential benefits and essential safety of these compounds. Several data resources for beneficial properties of dietary polyphenols are present; however, toxicological information remains partial. We present a dynamic web-based database to assess dietary polyphenols' safety and fulfill the toxicity data gaps in the domain of food safety. The database (ToxDP2) comprises 415 dietary polyphenolic compounds, distributed into 15 subclasses with 25,792 collected and predicted data points. This web server facilitates the exploration of polyphenols for divergent applications. The data-driven approach on the ToxDP2 provides researchers with an understanding of polyphenols structure-function-toxicity relationships beneficial for developing nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, herbal supplements, and formulations.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Polifenóis , Dieta , Polifenóis/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150050, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509851

RESUMO

Fish larvae play an important structuring role for their prey and show ontogenetic shifts in diet. Changes in diet differ between species and habitats and may also be affected by turbidity (eutrophication). We investigated the diet (stomach content) and the food selection (ratio of ingested prey and prey availability) of roach and perch larvae in a clear lake and of roach, perch and pikeperch larvae in a turbid lake multiple times during spring to autumn. The diet of the fish larvae changed with size, and for roach and perch larvae between the lakes. Coexisting species of fish larvae had different diets in the two lakes, pointing to resource partitioning; yet, in the clear lake, medium-sized larvae had a high diet overlap, suggesting a competitive relationship at this developmental stage. In the clear lake, roach larvae showed diel differentiation in diet, while perch demonstrated diet shifts between habitats, which probably aided in reducing competition and also evidenced an effect of light on the larval prey capture and/or predator-fish larvae interactions. In the turbid lake, roach and perch larvae did not reveal differences in diet between habitats or time of the day, owing to homogeneity of food items and poor light conditions. However, the diet of pikeperch larvae differed between day and night following daily variations in the abundance of its preferred prey. The roach larvae were highly selective for Bosmina, Daphnia and benthic cladocerans, perch larvae generally consumed what was available, while pikeperch primarily preyed on cyclopoid copepodites. We conclude that turbidity acted as a cover for fish larvae in the turbid lake. Under eutrophication-induced turbidity scenarios the effects of fish larvae on their prey are stronger (i.e., high selectivity for several resources) than that of larvae in clear waters, creating a negative feedback on the path to restore water clarity.


Assuntos
Lagos , Percas , Animais , Dieta , Preferências Alimentares , Larva , Água
16.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108662, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469806

RESUMO

This work investigated the effects of feeding ensiled bergamot pulp to pigs on meat and salami quality. Eighteen pigs were assigned to two experimental treatments and fed a cereal-based concentrate diet (control) or the same diet in which ensiled bergamot pulp replaced 15% dry matter of the diet fed (BP). The BP treatment increased α-linolenic acid (+250%; P < 0.05), docosapentaenoic acid (+62%; P < 0.05), docosahexaenoic acid (+43%; P < 0.05) and consequently n-3 PUFA (+15%; P < 0.01) in meat. In salami, the content of α-linolenic acid, total PUFA and n-3 PUFA increased (+320%, +25% and + 258%, respectively) by feeding the BP diet (P < 0.001). The inclusion of bergamot pulp in the diet did not alter the oxidative stability in raw and cooked meat and colour descriptors. In salami, TBARS values were lower after 5 days of storage (P < 0.001) in BP group (1.54 vs 2.96). Finally, dietary supplementation with ensiled bergamot pulp to pigs improved the nutritional value of meat and meat products.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Citrus , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne de Porco/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Silagem , Suínos
17.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108670, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509096

RESUMO

Feed efficiency was measured in thirty Pelibuey noncastrated male lambs using the residual feed intake (RFI) and residual intake and gain (RIG). The lambs were fattened for 92 d and then slaughtered, with the aim of identifying the interplay between feed efficiency indices (FEIs) and performance, rumen fermentation parameters, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits from the 15 intermediate and most extreme lambs for each FEI. The mean values of the classes were -0.09, 0.00, and 0.09 kg DM/d for low, medium and high RFI, respectively. The RIG indicators were 2.6, -0.1, and -2.7, for high, medium and low, respectively. The lambs with high-RIG had a higher (P ≤ 0.05) average daily gain and improved feed conversion. Lambs with low-RFI and high-RIG had higher (P < 0.05) values of meat cooking loss. Efficient lambs had improved feed utilization without affecting the carcass characteristics or meat quality (except for cooking loss).


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Masculino , Rúmen/fisiologia
18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 364-374, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569732

RESUMO

This study was aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of selenium (Se-NP) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NP) nanoparticles on growth performance, hemato-biochemical profile, immune and oxidative stress responses, and intestinal morphometry of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Monosex Nile tilapia (12.50 ± 1.03 g, N= 180) were randomly allocated into 4 groups in triplicates. Fish were fed diet supplemented with 0 Se-NP and Zn-NP (control group, CG), while fish in the other experimental groups were fed diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg diet Se-NP (Se-NP group), 10 mg/kg diet ZnO-NP (Zn-NP group), and a mixture of 1 and 10 mg/kg diet Se-NP and Zn-NP, respectively (Se/Zn-NP group) for 60 days. Fish fed diet containing Se-NP, Zn-NP, and Se/Zn-NP showed higher final body weight, weight gain, weight gain rate, specific growth rate, and lower feed conversion ratio with respect to CG (P<0.05) with the highest being in fish fed with Se/Zn-NP. Fish fed with Se/Zn-NP showed higher hemoglobin, red blood cells, and globulin (P<0.05). The highest phagocytic activity, phagocytic index, lysozyme activity, and immunoglobulin M was recorded in fish that received Se/Zn-NP followed by Se-NP, Zn-NP, and the lowest in CG (P<0.05). Fish that received diet supplemented with Se-NP, Zn-NP, and Se/Zn-NP significantly (P<0.05) increased superoxide dismutase and catalase while reduced malonaldehyde activity compared to CG. Intestinal morphometry revealed significantly (P<0.05) increased villi length and goblet cells number in fish fed with Se-NP and/or Zn-NP. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Nile tilapia with Se-NP and Zn-NP induces synergistic effects that improve growth performance, blood health, and intestinal histomorphology.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Nanopartículas , Selênio , Óxido de Zinco , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estresse Oxidativo , Selênio/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
19.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 348-353, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580353

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of zinc in the diet in the form of nano zinc oxide (nano ZnO) on the performance of broilers. A total of 240 day-old commercial broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design into 6 treatments with 8 replicates of 5 chicks each. Treatments comprised of T1- basal diet (BD) without ZnO supplementation, T2- 2.5 ppm ZnO, T3- 5 ppm ZnO, T4- 10 ppm ZnO, T5- 20 ppm ZnO, and T6- 40 ppm inorganic ZnO. The results revealed that supplementation of nano ZnO at 2.5 ppm recorded significantly (P < 0.05) higher body weight gain, feed intake, and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to control and other treatment groups at 42 days of age. All dietary treatments failed to exert any significant (P > 0.05) effect on various carcass parameters (dressing percentage, abdominal fat, giblet yields), serum protein and cholesterol concentrations, and meat quality parameters (water holding capacity and pH) of broiler chicken at 42 days of age. Finally, it could be concluded that supplementation of nano ZnO at 2.5 ppm improved the performance of broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Óxido de Zinco , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne/análise , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
20.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 156-163, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590455

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary high doses of chromium-methionine (CrMet) supplementation on blood hemato-biochemical parameters and growth performance of finishing lambs reared under warm condition with average temperature-humidity index (THI) of 85.8 unit. Fifteen male lambs (31.9 ± 1.2 kg) fed with either un-supplemented diet (CON) or supplemented with 1.5 (Cr1.5) and 3 (Cr3) mg of Cr/kg dry matter (DM) for 8 weeks. The results showed that high levels of supplemental Cr had no negative impacts on red (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC). Blood total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) tended to be higher in CrMet-fed lambs than those of CON (P < 0.1). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), as a lipid peroxidation marker, was, respectively, 20.24 and 22.1%, lower in lambs given 1.5 and 3 mg of chromium comparing those of CON (P < 0.05). Moreover, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, U/dL) displayed higher activity in Cr3 (421.2) group than those of CON (334.6) and Cr1.5 (351.2) groups (P < 0.05). Accordingly, GSH-PX activity per gram hemoglobin (U/gHb) was 45.9% greater in lambs of Cr3 than the CON (P < 0.05). Furthermore, feeding 3 mg of Cr led to increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P < 0.05): as such, SOD was 1193.1, 1281.5, and 1433.0 U/gHb in CON, Cr1.5, and Cr3, respectively. Chromium supplementation linearly decreased serum iron concentration (P < 0.05), but neither blood calcium, phosphorous, copper, zinc, and glucose concentrations nor aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were affected by supplemental CrMet. In comparison with CON (1250), lambs in Cr1.5 (1199) and Cr3 (1192) groups had lower daily feed intake (g/d, P < 0.01). In addition, feed to gain ratio was 21.5% lower in the Cr3 group than the control (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that feeding summer-exposed finishing lambs with 3 mg of Cr/kg DM improves blood antioxidant status and feed to gain efficiency without adverse effects on lambs' health and metabolism.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Metionina , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Células Sanguíneas , Cromo/farmacologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Minerais , Ovinos
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