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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131002, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500296

RESUMO

The effects of tempered procedures (well and under-tempered) on the crystalline behaves of cocoa butter were elaborated through detecting crystalline structure and compositions of crystals located at different positions of cocoa butter products in this study. The under-tempered products couldn't form crystalline structures as uniform as the well-tempered ones, whose internal contained more low saturated triacylglycerol and structurally unstable crystals. The low saturated triacylglycerol further created the diverse microstructure and thermal properties between center and outer part of cocoa butter products. During storage, the concentration differences drive migration of low saturated triacylglycerol from center to outer part of the product. Although this reduces the differences in triacylglycerol composition, it results in the polymorphism conversion between ß'-IV and ß-VI form and the fat bloom formation. This work indicates that the monitor for crystalline properties of different positions in cocoa butter products helps the chocolate industry to control formation of fat bloom.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Chocolate/análise , Cristalização , Gorduras na Dieta/análise
2.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9374

RESUMO

Material de apoio para estados e municípios sobre os princípios do Guia Alimentar para população brasileira.


Assuntos
Guias Alimentares , Dieta Saudável , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos
3.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9326

RESUMO

O uso de ingredientes culinários processados como óleos, gorduras, sal e açúcar são comumente utilizados ao temperar e cozinhar alimentos e criar preparações culinárias. Em uma alimentação adequada e saudável, esperamos que esses produtos sejam utilizados com moderação para não trazer prejuízos à saúde.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Culinária , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Óleos/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638640

RESUMO

Previous studies have revealed that a high-fat diet is one of the key contributors to the progression of liver fibrosis, and increasing studies are devoted to analyzing the different influences of diverse fat sources on the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. When we treated three types of isocaloric diets that are rich in cholesterol, saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid (TFA) with hepatitis C virus core gene transgenic mice that spontaneously developed hepatic steatosis without apparent fibrosis, TFA and cholesterol-rich diet, but not SFA-rich diet, displayed distinct hepatic fibrosis. This review summarizes the recent advances in animal and cell studies regarding the effects of these three types of fat on liver fibrogenesis.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682732

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated whether the partial replacement of dietary fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and provided each of the following diets: (1) high-fat diet (HFD), (2) HFD with perilla oil (PO), and (3) HFD with corn oil (CO). After 12 weeks of dietary intervention, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (5 mg/kg) from Escherichia coli O55:B5 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Following LPS stimulation, serum insulin levels were increased, while PO and CO lowered the serum levels of glucose and insulin. In the liver, LPS increased the triglyceride levels, while PO and CO alleviated the LPS-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. In the LPS injected rats, the mRNA expression of genes related to inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was attenuated by PO and CO in the liver. Furthermore, hepatic levels of proteins involved in the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, antioxidant response, and ER stress were lowered by PO- and CO-replacement. Therefore, the partial replacement of dietary fat with PUFAs alleviates LPS-induced hepatic inflammation during HFD consumption, which may decrease metabolic abnormalities.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1093, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An underlying cause of solid tumor resistance to chemotherapy treatment is diminished tumor blood supply, which leads to a hypoxic microenvironment, dependence on anaerobic energy metabolism, and impaired delivery of intravenous treatments. Preclinical data suggest that dietary strategies of caloric restriction and low-carbohydrate intake can inhibit glycolysis, while acute exercise can transiently enhance blood flow to the tumor and reduce hypoxia. The Diet Restriction and Exercise-induced Adaptations in Metastatic Breast Cancer (DREAM) study will compare the effects of a short-term, 50% calorie-restricted and ketogenic diet combined with aerobic exercise performed during intravenous chemotherapy treatment to usual care on changes in tumor burden, treatment side effects, and quality of life. METHODS: Fifty patients with measurable metastases and primary breast cancer starting a new line of intravenous chemotherapy will be randomly assigned to usual care or the combined diet and exercise intervention. Participants assigned to the intervention group will be provided with food consisting of 50% of measured calorie needs with 80% of calories from fat and ≤ 10% from carbohydrates for 48-72 h prior to each chemotherapy treatment and will perform 30-60 min of moderate-intensity cycle ergometer exercise during each chemotherapy infusion, for up to six treatment cycles. The diet and exercise durations will be adapted for each chemotherapy protocol. Tumor burden will be assessed by change in target lesion size using axial computed tomography (primary outcome) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived apparent diffusion coefficient (secondary outcome) after up to six treatments. Tertiary outcomes will include quantitative MRI markers of treatment toxicity to the heart, thigh skeletal muscle, and liver, and patient-reported symptoms and quality of life. Exploratory outcome measures include progression-free and overall survival. DISCUSSION: The DREAM study will test a novel, short-term diet and exercise intervention that is targeted to mechanisms of tumor resistance to chemotherapy. A reduction in lesion size is likely to translate to improved cancer outcomes including disease progression and overall survival. Furthermore, a lifestyle intervention may empower patients with metastatic breast cancer by actively engaging them to play a key role in their treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03795493 , registered 7 January, 2019.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Restrição Calórica , Dieta Cetogênica , Exercício Físico , Adaptação Fisiológica , Neoplasias da Mama/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Refeições , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Carga Tumoral , Hipóxia Tumoral
8.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684559

RESUMO

Carbohydrate counting (CHC) is the established form of calculating bolus insulin for meals in children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). With the widespread use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) observation time has become gapless. Recently, the impact of fat, protein and not only carbohydrates on prolonged postprandial hyperglycaemia have become more evident to patients and health-care professionals alike. However, there is no unified recommendation on how to calculate and best administer additional bolus insulin for these two macronutrients. The aim of this review is to investigate: the scientific evidence of how dietary fat and protein influence postprandial glucose levels; current recommendations on the adjustment of bolus insulin; and algorithms for insulin application in children with T1DM. A PubMed search for all articles addressing the role of fat and protein in paediatric (sub-)populations (<18 years old) and a mixed age population (paediatric and adult) with T1DM published in the last 10 years was performed. Conclusion: Only a small number of studies with a very low number of participants and high degree of heterogeneity was identified. While all studies concluded that additional bolus insulin for (high) fat and (high) protein is necessary, no consensus on when dietary fat and/or protein should be taken into calculation and no unified algorithm for insulin therapy in this context exists. A prolonged postprandial observation time is necessary to improve individual metabolic control. Further studies focusing on a stratified paediatric population to create a safe and effective algorithm, taking fat and protein into account, are necessary.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684636

RESUMO

Gestational high butterfat (HFB) and/or endocrine disruptor exposure was previously found to disrupt spermatogenesis in adulthood. This study addresses the data gap in our knowledge regarding transgenerational transmission of the disruptive interaction between a high-fat diet and endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA). F0 generation Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing butterfat (10 kcal%) and high in butterfat (39 kcal%, HFB) with or without BPA (25 µg/kg body weight/day) during mating and pregnancy. Gestationally exposed F1-generation offspring from different litters were mated to produce F2 offspring, and similarly, F2-generation animals produced F3-generation offspring. One group of F3 male offspring was administered either testosterone plus estradiol-17ß (T + E2) or sham via capsule implants from postnatal days 70 to 210. Another group was naturally aged to 18 months. Combination diets of HFB + BPA in F0 dams, but not single exposure to either, disrupted spermatogenesis in F3-generation adult males in both the T + E2-implanted group and the naturally aged group. CYP19A1 localization to the acrosome and estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) localization to the nucleus were associated with impaired spermatogenesis. Finally, expression of methyl-CpG-binding domain-3 (MBD3) was consistently decreased in the HFB and HFB + BPA exposed F1 and F3 testes, suggesting an epigenetic component to this inheritance. However, the severe atrophy within testes present in F1 males was absent in F3 males. In conclusion, the HFB + BPA group demonstrated transgenerational inheritance of the impaired spermatogenesis phenotype, but severity was reduced in the F3 generation.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Manteiga , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Infertilidade Masculina/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética , Estradiol , Feminino , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espermatogênese/genética , Testículo/metabolismo
10.
J Nutr ; 151(12 Suppl 2): 101S-109S, 2021 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In India, there is a need to monitor population-level trends in changes in diet quality in relation to both undernutrition and noncommunicable diseases. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a study to validate a novel diet quality score in southern India. METHODS: We included data from 3041 nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years) from 2 studies in India. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS) was calculated from 25 food groups (16 healthy; 9 unhealthy), with points for each group based on the frequency and quantity of items consumed in each group. We used Spearman correlations to examine correlations between the GDQS and several nutrient intakes of concern. We examined associations between the GDQS [overall, healthy (GDQS+), and unhealthy (GDQS-) submetrics] and overall nutrient adequacy, micro- and macronutrients, body mass index (BMI), midupper arm circumference, hemoglobin, blood pressure, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and total cholesterol (TC). RESULTS: The mean GDQS was 23 points (SD, 3.6; maximum, 46.5). In energy-adjusted models, positive associations were found between the overall GDQS and GDQS+ and intakes of calcium, fiber, folate, iron, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), protein, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), total fat, and zinc (ρ = 0.12-0.39; P < 0.001). Quintile analyses showed that the GDQS was associated with better nutrient adequacy. At the same time, the GDQS was associated with higher TC, lower HDL, and higher BMI. We found no associations between the GDQS and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The GDQS was a useful tool for reflecting overall nutrient adequacy and some lipid measures. Future studies are needed to refine the GDQS for populations who consume large amounts of unhealthy foods, like refined grains, along with healthy foods included in the GDQS.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/tendências , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684475

RESUMO

Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality measure that assesses the population's compliance towards dietary guidelines. In Malaysia, diet quality measure, though existing, has some limitations in terms of application and relevance. This study aims to develop a new standardized Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (S-MHEI) that can measure the diet quality of all Malaysians regardless of their energy requirement level. The Malaysian Dietary Guidelines (MDG) 2010 and MDG for Children and Adolescents (MDGCA) 2013 were used as main references in developing the index components. In addition, the latest Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) and Adolescent Nutrition Survey (ANS) were also referred to ensure the relevance of the components selected. For adequacy components, the least restrictive method was used in setting the standard for the scoring system. Meanwhile, the scoring system for moderation components was built based on the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) 2017. The new S-MHEI comprises of 11 components with a maximum total score of 100. The least restrictive method allowed the index to be used across energy requirement levels. However, the index will not be sensitive towards adhering to the specific recommended amount of intake-which in effect, made the index focus on measuring diet quality rather than diet quantity.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/normas , Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Malásia , Política Nutricional , Potássio/análise , Padrões de Referência , Sódio/análise , Açúcares/análise
12.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684376

RESUMO

Elevations in the circulating concentration of androgens are thought to have a positive effect on the anabolic processes leading to improved athletic performance. Anabolic-androgenic steroids have often been used by competitive athletes to augment this effect. Although there has been concerted effort on examining how manipulating training variables (e.g., intensity and volume of training) can influence the androgen response to exercise, there has been much less effort directed at understanding how changes in both macronutrient and micronutrient intake can impact the androgen response. Thus, the focus of this review is to examine the effect that manipulating energy and nutrient intake has on circulating concentrations of testosterone and what the potential mechanism is governing these changes.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Testosterona/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Micronutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/análise
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684304

RESUMO

The last decade has seen nearly 20 papers reviewing the totality of the data on saturated fats and cardiovascular outcomes, which, altogether, have demonstrated a lack of rigorous evidence to support continued recommendations either to limit the consumption of saturated fatty acids or to replace them with polyunsaturated fatty acids. These papers were unfortunately not considered by the process leading to the most recent U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the country's national nutrition policy, which recently reconfirmed its recommendation to limit saturated fats to 10% or less of total energy intake, based on insufficient and inconsistent evidence. Continuation of a cap on saturated fat intake also fails to consider the important effects of the food matrix and the overall dietary pattern in which saturated fatty acids are consumed.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Saúde , Política Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dieta , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 78, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that anxiety is correlated with eating behavior, however, little is known about the association between anxiety status as predictor of dietary macronutrient intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sex-stratified cross-sectional associations of trait anxiety with intake of various macronutrients in a large population-based sample of non-diabetic adults. METHODS: N = 20,231 participants (mean age = 53.7 ± 13.6 years) of the NutriNet-Santé web-cohort, who had completed the trait anxiety subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (T-STAI; 2013-2016) were included in the analyses. Dietary intake was calculated from at least 3 self-administered 24-h dietary records. The associations of interest were assessed by multiple linear regression stratified by sex, owing to significant interaction tests. RESULTS: In total, 74.3% (n = 15,033) of the sample were females who had a significantly higher mean T-STAI score than did males (39.0 versus 34.8; p < 0.01). Among females, the fully-adjusted analyses showed significant positive associations of T-STAI with total carbohydrate intake (ß = 0.04; p < 0.04), complex carbohydrate intake (ß = 0.05; p < 0.02), and percentage energy from carbohydrates (ß = 0.01; p < 0.03), as well as a significant inverse association of T-STAI with percentage energy from fat (ß = -0.01; p < 0.05). As regards males, the only significant finding was an inverse association between T-STAI and percent of the mean daily energy from protein (fully-adjusted model: ß = -0.01; p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional study found modest sex-specific associations between anxiety status and macronutrient intake among French non-diabetic adults. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the observed associations.


Assuntos
Dieta , Nutrientes , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
15.
Physiol Rep ; 9(18): e15044, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553504

RESUMO

In humans, exercise-induced thermogenesis is a markedly variable component of total energy expenditure, which had been acutely affected worldwide by COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns. We hypothesized that dietary macronutrient composition may affect metabolic adaptation/fuel selection in response to an acute decrease in voluntary activity. Using mice fed short-term high-fat diet (HFD) compared to low-fat diet (LFD)-fed mice, we evaluated whole-body fuel utilization by metabolic cages before and 3 days after omitting a voluntary running wheel in the cage. Short-term (24-48 h) HFD was sufficient to increase energy intake, fat oxidation, and decrease carbohydrate oxidation. Running wheel omission did not change energy intake, but resulted in a significant 50% decrease in total activity and a ~20% in energy expenditure in the active phase (night-time), compared to the period with wheel, irrespective of the dietary composition, resulting in significant weight gain. Yet, while in LFD wheel omission significantly decreased active phase fat oxidation, thereby trending to increase respiratory exchange ratio (RER), in HFD it diminished active phase carbohydrate oxidation. In conclusion, acute decrease in voluntary activity resulted in positive energy balance in mice on both diets, and decreased oxidation of the minor energy (macronutrient) fuel source, demonstrating that dietary macronutrient composition determines fuel utilization choices under conditions of acute changes in energetic demand.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Corrida , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502470

RESUMO

Bacterial endotoxin is a potent inflammatory antigen abundant in the human intestine. Endotoxins circulate in the blood at low concentrations in all healthy individuals. Elevated levels of circulatory endotoxins may cause inflammation with the development of chronic disease, either affecting metabolism, neurological disease, or resistance to viral and bacterial infections. The most important endotoxin is LPS, being a superantigen. In this narrative review, the effect of various food components to postprandially elevate circulating LPS and inflammatory markers is described. There is evidence that the intake of food enriched in fat, in particular saturated fat, may elevate LPS and pro-inflammatory markers. This occurs in both normal-weight and obese subjects. In obese subjects, inflammatory markers are already elevated before meal consumption. The importance of food choice for endotoxemia and inflammatory response is discussed.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta , Endotoxemia/sangue , Contaminação de Alimentos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Obesidade/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Endotoxemia/etiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shortenings are high in undesirable nutritionally saturated fatty acids. The aim of the study was to produce gluten-free muffins (GFM) of increased health quality and available to people intolerant to gluten, in which the shortenings were replaced with solid oleogels, consisting of 95% rapeseed oil. METHODS: The dough and baked products were subjected to physical, textural, and structural analyses. Moreover, the fatty acids composition, chemical quality of fats extracted from muffins, and color of the products were determined. The dough was also observed at 600× magnification in bright field and polarized light microscopy, and microtomographic analysis of the structure of GTM was performed. RESULTS: There was no effect of the type of lipids on physical properties, including water content in gluten-free muffins. However, the baked products differed in total porosity and brightness, as well as intensity of red and yellow colors. The use of rapeseed oil oleogels, instead of shortening in the muffin recipe, resulted in a decrease in the dietary undesirable SFA in lipid fractions (by approximately 40%), an increase in the content of MUFA (by approximately 30%), and an increase in the content of PUFA (by approximately 15%), with acceptable chemical quality. CONCLUSIONS: Research confirms the possibility of obtaining products with increased nutritional value available to consumers on a gluten-free diet.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Fenômenos Químicos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5323, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493722

RESUMO

The role of intestine clock in energy homeostasis remains elusive. Here we show that mice with Bmal1 specifically deleted in the intestine (Bmal1iKO mice) have a normal phenotype on a chow diet. However, on a high-fat diet (HFD), Bmal1iKO mice are protected against development of obesity and related abnormalities such as hyperlipidemia and fatty livers. These metabolic phenotypes are attributed to impaired lipid resynthesis in the intestine and reduced fat secretion. Consistently, wild-type mice fed a HFD during nighttime (with a lower BMAL1 expression) show alleviated obesity compared to mice fed ad libitum. Mechanistic studies uncover that BMAL1 transactivates the Dgat2 gene (encoding the triacylglycerol synthesis enzyme DGAT2) via direct binding to an E-box in the promoter, thereby promoting dietary fat absorption. Supporting these findings, intestinal deficiency of Rev-erbα, a known BMAL1 repressor, enhances dietary fat absorption and exacerbates HFD-induced obesity and comorbidities. Moreover, small-molecule targeting of REV-ERBα/BMAL1 by SR9009 ameliorates HFD-induced obesity in mice. Altogether, intestine clock functions as an accelerator in dietary fat absorption and targeting intestinal BMAL1 may be a promising approach for management of metabolic diseases induced by excess fat intake.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/deficiência , Animais , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/genética , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese
19.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 67(4): 243-248, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470999

RESUMO

Daily fat and sugar intake has increased in Japan, while total energy intake has decreased. However, the number of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients has increased, and this often causes renal injury characterized by autophagic vacuoles. Although many studies with comparisons of high fat or sugar versus a normal macronutrient balanced diet have been reported, there are few studies that equalized calorie intake and body weights. In the current study, AIN93M diets (CONT group) with matching energy content with lard derived high saturated fat (LARD group), soybean oil derived unsaturated fat (SOY OIL group) and sucrose (SUCROSE group) were provided to compare their effects on renal morphology in streptozotocin-injected CD-1 mice without causing obesity. The number of renal tubular vacuoles was higher in SUCROSE and slightly higher in LARD compared with CONT mice, and was higher in LARD and SUCROSE compared with SOY OIL mice. Most of those vacuoles were LAMP1-positive, a marker of lysosomal autophagy. These results suggest that despite identical energy contents, diets with high sucrose or saturated fat compared to unsaturated fat may aggravate lysosomal renal injury in a non-obese, streptozotocin-induced model of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sacarose , Animais , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Humanos , Rim , Lisossomos , Camundongos , Estreptozocina , Sacarose/efeitos adversos
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5018, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465789

RESUMO

Chocolate manufacture includes a complex tempering procedure to direct the crystallization of cocoa butter towards the formation of fat crystal networks with specific polymorphism, nano- and microstructure, melting behavior, surface gloss and mechanical properties. Here we investigate the effects of adding various minor non-triglyceride lipidic components to refined cocoa butter and chocolate on their physical properties. We discover that addition of saturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine to neutralized and bleached cocoa butter or molten and recrystallized commercial chocolate at 0.1% (w/w) levels, followed by rapid cooling to 20 °C in the absence of shear, accelerates crystallization, stabilizes the desirable Form V polymorph and induces the formation of chocolate with an optimal microstructure, surface gloss and mechanical strength. Final chocolate structure and properties are comparable to those of a commercial tempered chocolate. Minor lipidic component addition represents an effective way to engineer chocolate material properties at different length scales, thus simplifying the entire tempering process.


Assuntos
Chocolate/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Lipídeos/química , Cacau/química , Cristalização , Manipulação de Alimentos
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