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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131069, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536780

RESUMO

Wholegrains have been promoted for human consumption due to their various health benefits. However, different wholegrains vary in nutritional composition and their beneficial impact on health. In this study, we compared the in vitro starch and protein digestibility, as well as dietary fiber content of eight different wholegrains including barley, buckwheat, coix seed, foxtail millet, oat, proso millet, quinoa, and sorghum and their porridges. We found that boiling improved starch digestibility of all grains, and protein digestibility except proso millet and sorghum. Porridges made from oats, quinoa, or buckwheat are considered healthier than others due to their lower glycemic index and glycemic load, higher digestible protein content and amino acid bioaccessibility, and higher dietary fiber content (>12%). This study could provide a comprehensive nutritional composition and digestibility of the eight types of wholegrains and their porridges. Dietary recommendations were also given for different populations based on factor analysis.


Assuntos
Dieta , Digestão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Amido
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130618, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330028

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the micronization (MT), steam explosion (SE), and gamma irradiation (GI) treatment on the chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls. GI (1200 kGy) treatment exerted the optimum effects on improving soluble dietary fiber content, in vitro gross energy digestibility (IVGED), and reducing sugar yield (RS) in the three modification methods, increased by 342.88%, 55.24%, and 117.02%, respectively. Compared with GI treatment, MT-GI combined treatment could further enhance the degradation effect of irradiation and improve the physicochemical properties (p<0.05) in soybean fibers. From the results of correlation analysis, RS was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with IVGED, and RS = -112.24 + 4.90 × IVGED (r2 = 0.82, p<0.01). In summary, MT-GI combined treatment could be considered the ideal modification method to improve the quality of soybean fiber.


Assuntos
Soja , Vapor , Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130751, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384987

RESUMO

Wheat bran is a rich source of phenolic compounds, and the health benefits of phenolic compounds depend on its bioaccessibility. The release behavior and functional properties of phenolic compounds in different particle size wheat bran during in vitro digestion were investigated. Coarse wheat bran (CWB, 1110.39 µm) was milled by airflow impact mill to produce medium wheat bran (MWB, 235.68 µm), fine wheat bran (FWB, 83.73 µm) and superfine wheat bran (SWB, 19.16 µm). The reduction in particle size increased the release of phenolic compounds, mainly ferulic acid, after digestion. The free p-coumaric acid content in SWB was nearly five times higher than that in CWB, MWB and FWB due to the complete destruction of aleurone cell walls. Moreover, SWB showed higher bioaccessible phenolic compounds content (65.51%) than CWB. The improved phenolic bioaccessibility increased the antioxidant capacities and carbohydrate-digestive enzymes inhibitory activities of SWB and significantly reduced its starch digestibility.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Fenóis , Antioxidantes , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 368: 130883, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438179

RESUMO

The effects of acetylation, hydroxypropylation, cellulase hydrolysis and crosslinking on adsorption capacities and in vitro hypoglycemic activities of millet bran dietary fibre (MBDF) were studied. The results demonstrated that both acetylation and hydroxypropylation improved water swelling ability of MBDF, and adsorption capacities of cholesterol, cholate and copper ion on MBDF. Acetylation and hydroxypropylation also enhanced α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition activities, glucose-binding ability and glucose diffusion retardation index (GDRI) of MBDF. Acetylated MBDF showed the highest cholate (77.31 mg/g) and cholesterol (13.97 mg/g) adsorption capacities. The crosslinking improved adsorption of cholate, cholesterol, copper ion (25.64 mg/g) and nitrite ion (181.59 µg/g) on MBDF; but reduced α-amylase inhibition activity (p < 0.05). Moreover, cellulase hydrolyzed MBDF exhibited the highest GDRI (39.60%) and α-amylase inhibition activity (34.53%), but the lowest oil and cholate adsorption capacities. The results suggest that the modified MBDFs can be used as an ingredient of hypoglycemic foods.


Assuntos
Celulase , Milhetes , Acetilação , Adsorção , Celulase/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Hidrólise , Hipoglicemiantes , Milhetes/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 371: 131065, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560336

RESUMO

Citrus fruits are a good source of flavanones. The present study aimed to assess the effect of food matrix elements [dietary fibres (DFs)] on the flavanone profile of grapefruit peel (GFP) and on the gut microbiota during in vitro digestion and simulated colonic fermentation. The contents of low-molecular-weight metabolites (dihydrocaffeic acid and 3-phenylpropionic acid) were increased by pectin, konjac and chitosan in medium- and high-viscosity matrices. Compared with the GFP group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Clostridium leptum were significantly increased in medium-viscosity food matrices (konjac and chitosan) (p < 0.05). Moreover, the acetic and propionic acid contents were significantly elevated in the GFP + DF groups after 12 h of fermentation (p < 0.05). GFP flavanones were retained by DF, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potency composite (APC) index decreased during in vitro digestion. These findings indicate that medium-viscosity DFs (konjac and chitosan) could act as key food matrix elements for the retention of polyphenols.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi , Flavanonas , Microbiota , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Fezes/química , Fermentação
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126092, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634465

RESUMO

In the downstream process, the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass can be improved by applying a biological pretreatment procedure using microorganisms to produce hydrolytic enzymes to modify the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose. In this study, various Bacillus strains (B. subtilis B.01162 and B.01212, B. coagulans B.01123 and B.01139, B. cereus B.00076 and B.01718, B. licheniformis B.01223 and B.01231) were evaluated for the degrading capacity of wheat bran in the submerged medium using enzymatic activities, reducing sugars and weight loss as indicators. The obtained results revealed that the B. subtilis B.01162, B. coagulans B.01123 and B. cereus B.00076 could be promising degraders for the wheat bran pretreatment. Besides, the application of their consortium (the combination of 2-3 Bacillus species) showed the positive effects on cellulose bioconversion compared with monocultures. Among them, the mixture of B. subtilis B.01162 and B. coagulans B.01123 increased significantly the cellulase, endo-glucanase, and xylanase enzyme activity resulting in accelerating the lignocellulose degradation. Our results served a very good base for the development of microbial consortium for biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic raw materials.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Celulase , Biomassa , Fibras na Dieta , Hidrólise , Lignina
7.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131663, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371357

RESUMO

In this study, an immobilization method for forming and keeping dominant petroleum degradation bacteria was successfully developed by immobilizing Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Sphingobacterium genus bacteria on wheat bran biochar pyrolyzed at 300, 500, and 700 °C. The removal efficiency indicated that the highest TPHs (total petroleum hydrocarbons) removal rate of BC500-4 B (biochar pyrolyzed at 500 °C with four kinds of petroleum bacteria) was 58.31%, which was higher than that of BC500 (36.91%) and 4 B (43.98%) used alone. The soil properties revealed that the application of biochar increased the content of organic matter, available phosphorus, and available potassium, but decreased pH and ammonium nitrogen content in soil. Bacterial community analysis suggested that the formation of dominant degrading community represented by Acinetobacter played key roles in TPHs removal. The removal rate of alkanes was similar to that of TPHs. Besides, biochar and immobilized material can also mediate greenhouse gas emission while removing petroleum, biochar used alone and immobilized all could improve CO2 emission, but decrease N2O emission and had no significant impact on CH4 emission. Furthermore, it was the first time to found the addition of Acinetobacter genus bacteria can accelerate the process of forming a dominant degrading community in wheat bran biochar consortium. This study focused on controlling greenhouse gas emission which provides a wider application of combining biochar and bacteria in petroleum soil remediation.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Álcalis , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal , Fibras na Dieta , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Hidrocarbonetos , Petróleo/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770068

RESUMO

The burden of pancreatic cancer varies greatly across countries, with the number of deaths, incident cases, and disability-adjusted life years more than doubling in recent years, and with high-income countries having the highest incidence and mortality rates. We conducted this systematic review with meta-analysis with the goal of summarizing the current evidence on dietary fiber intake and its role in reducing the risk of pancreatic cancer, given the importance of identifying risk factors. This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020. The structured literature search was conducted on PubMed/Medline and Scopus, combining free text words and medical subject headings. Our review contained 18 records at the end of the process. Our results show that dietary fiber intake reduces the risk of pancreatic cancer. When the analysis was differentiated according to the type of fiber considered, sub-grouped by gender (reduction of around 60% among women), and when case-control studies were conducted, the strength of the association increased. Clinicians and policymakers should improve interventions to raise the population's awareness regarding the consumption of high-fiber diets, both in practice and in terms of public health policy.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
9.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 321(5): E665-E673, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605248

RESUMO

The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate are end products of intestinal bacterial fermentation and important mediators in the interplay between the intestine and peripheral organs. To unravel the transorgan fluxes and mass balance comparisons of SCFAs, we measured their net fluxes across several organs in a translational pig model. In multicatheterized conscious pigs [n = 12, 25.6 (95% CI [24.2, 26.9]) kg, 8-12 wk old], SCFA fluxes across portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver, kidneys, and hindquarter (muscle compartment) were measured after an overnight fast and in the postprandial state, 4 h after administration of a fiber-free, mixed meal. PDV was the main releasing compartment of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate during fasting and in the postprandial state (all P = 0.001). Splanchnic acetate release was high due to the absence of hepatic clearance. All other SCFAs were extensively taken up by the liver (all P < 0.05). Even though only 7% [4, 10] (propionate), 42% [23, 60] (butyrate), 26% [12, 39] (isovalerate), and 3% [0.4, 5] (valerate) of PDV release were excreted from the splanchnic area in the fasted state, splanchnic release of all SCFAs was significant (all P values ≤0.01). Splanchnic propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate release remained low but significant in the postprandial state (all P values <0.01). We identified muscle and kidneys as main peripheral SCFA metabolizing organs, taking up the majority of all splanchnically released SCFAs in the fasted state and in the postprandial state. We conclude that the PDV is the main SCFA releasing and the liver the main SCFA metabolizing organ. Splanchnically released SCFAs appear to be important energy substrates to peripheral organs not only in the fasted but also in the postprandial state.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using a multicatheterized pig model, we identified the portal-drained viscera as the main releasing compartment of the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate in the fasted and postprandial states. Low hepatic acetate metabolism resulted in a high splanchnic release, whereas all other SCFAs were extensively cleared resulting in low but significant splanchnic releases. Muscle and kidneys are the main peripheral SCFA metabolizing organs during fasting and in the postprandial state.


Assuntos
Jejum/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Animais , Cateterismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Rim/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Suínos
10.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684626

RESUMO

The daily intake of dietary fiber is well below the recommended levels in the US. The effect of adopting a low-fat vs. a low-carbohydrate weight loss diet on fiber intake is of interest but not well-documented, especially when both approaches promote high-quality food choices. The objective of this paper is to compare the quantity and sources of dietary fiber between a healthy low-fat (HLF) vs. healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) diet group when consumed over 12 months in a weight loss diet study. In this secondary analysis of the Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) study, the amount and sources of dietary fiber were examined in generally healthy adults, 18-50 years of age, Body Mass Index (BMI) 28-40 kg/m2, randomized to HLF or HLC for 12 months, who had available 24-h recalls at 0 (n = 609), 3 (n = 549), 6 (n = 491), and 12 (n = 449) months. The dietary intake was estimated by the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). The sources of fiber were determined for the major food groups. Significantly more total dietary fiber was consumed by HLF at every post-randomization time point, and, at 12 m, was 23.04 ± 9.43 g vs. 18.61 ± 8.12 g for HLF vs. HLC, respectively, p < 0.0001. In both diet groups at 12 months, the highest amount of dietary fiber came from non-starchy vegetables (4.13 ± 3.05 g and 5.13 ± 3.59 g). The other primary sources of fiber at 12 months for the HLF group were from whole grains (3.90 ± 3.13 g) and fruits (3.40 ± 2.87 g), and, for the HLC group, were from plant protein and fat sources, such as nuts and seeds, their butters, and avocados (2.64 ± 2.64 g). In the DIETFITS study, the difference in the total fiber intake for the HLF vs. HLC groups was more modest than expected. The HLC group consumed reasonably high amounts of fiber from high-protein and high fat plant-based sources.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Verduras , Perda de Peso , Grãos Integrais , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Anim Sci ; 99(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687291

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding fermented wheat bran (FWB) and yeast culture (YC) on growth performance, immune levels, and intestinal microflora in growing-finishing pigs. In total, 96 crossbred pigs were randomly distributed into four treatments with four replicates pens and six pigs per pen. This study was performed using a 2 × 2 factor design: 1) CON (basal diet), 2) FWB (basal diet + 5% FWB), 3) YC (basal diet + 2% YC), and 4) FWB + YC (basal diet + 5% FWB + 2% YC). Dietary FWB supplementation significantly increased the average daily gain and significantly decreased the feed gain ratio of growing-finishing pigs (P < 0.05). Supplementation of FWB and YC improved the immune capacity and reduced the inflammation level of growing-finishing pigs (P < 0.05). In addition, pigs fed FWB, YC, and FWB + YC diets showed better intestinal development and morphology compared with those CON pigs. The relative abundance of Streptococcus in the FWB group was significantly lower than that in the CON group (P < 0.05), and the relative abundance of probiotics (unclassified_f_Lachnospiraceae, Turicibacter) increased significantly (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the relative abundance of probiotics (Lactobacillus, norank_f_Muribaculaceae) in the YC group was significantly increased compared with the CON group (P < 0.05). The results of this study observed positive effects of FWB and YC on growing-finishing pigs, which provides insights into the application of biological feed in swine industry.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Suínos
12.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684594

RESUMO

A high intake of dietary fibre has been associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases. This study aimed to review the current evidence on dietary fibre in relation to asthma, rhinitis and lung function impairment. Electronic databases were searched in June 2021 for studies on the association between dietary fibre and asthma, rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung function. Observational studies with cross-sectional, case-control or prospective designs were included. Studies on animals, case studies and intervention studies were excluded. The quality of the evidence from individual studies was evaluated using the RoB-NObs tool. The World Cancer Research Fund criteria were used to grade the strength of the evidence. Twenty studies were included in this systematic review, of which ten were cohort studies, eight cross-sectional and two case-control studies. Fibre intake during pregnancy or childhood was examined in three studies, while seventeen studies examined the intake during adulthood. There was probable evidence for an inverse association between dietary fibre and COPD and suggestive evidence for a positive association with lung function. However, the evidence regarding asthma and rhinitis was limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed on dietary fibre intake and asthma, rhinitis and lung function among adults and children.


Assuntos
Asma/complicações , Asma/fisiopatologia , Dieta , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Rinite/complicações , Rinite/fisiopatologia , Fibras na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Anim Sci ; 99(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664661

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the enzyme activities of an enzymatic complex produced by Pleurotus ostreatus in different pH and the effects of adding increased application rates of this enzymatic complex on the fermentation profile, chemical composition, and in situ ruminal disappearance of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) at the onset of fermentation and 30 d after ensiling. The lignocellulolytic enzymatic complex was obtained through in vitro cultivation of P. ostreatus. In the first experiment, the activities of laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase, endo- and exo-glucanase, xylanase, and mannanase were determined at pH 3, 4, 5, and 6. In the second experiment, five application rates of enzymatic complex were tested in a randomized complete block design (0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 mg of lignocellulosic enzymes/kg of fresh whole-plant corn [WPC], corresponding to 0, 0.587, 1.156, 1.734, and 2.312 g of enzymatic complex/kg of fresh WPC, respectively). There were four replicates per treatment (vacuum-sealed bags) per opening time. Bags were opened 1, 2, 3, and 7 d after ensiling (onset of fermentation period) and 30 d after ensiling to evaluate the fermentation profile, chemical composition, and in situ dry matter and neutral fiber detergent disappearance of WPCS. Laccase had the greatest activity at pH 5 (P < 0.01), whereas manganese peroxidase and LiP had the greatest activity at pH 4 (P < 0.01; P < 0.01). There was no effect of the rate of application of enzymatic complex, at the onset of fermentation, on the fermentation profile (P > 0.21), and chemical composition (P > 0.36). The concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate quadratically decreased (P < 0.01) over the ensiling time at the onset of fermentation, leading to a quadratic increase of lactic acid (P = 0.02) and a linear increase of acetic acid (P = 0.02) throughout fermentation. Consequently, pH quadratically decreased (P < 0.01). Lignin concentration linearly decreased (P = 0.04) with the enzymatic complex application rates at 30 d of storage; however, other nutrients and fermentation profiles did not change (P > 0.11) with the enzymatic complex application rates. Addition of lignocellulolytic enzymatic complex from P. ostreatus cultivation to WPC at ensiling decreased WPCS lignin concentration 30 d after ensiling; however, it was not sufficient to improve in situ disappearance of fiber and dry matter.


Assuntos
Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Carboidratos , Fibras na Dieta , Fermentação , Silagem/análise
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13217-13226, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706532

RESUMO

The enzymatic production of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOs) from destarched wheat bran with a GH11 xylanase was studied. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOs) produced were separated into different fractions according to their degree of polymerization (DP) and the nature of their substituents: arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOs) with a DP from 2 to 3 and DP from 2 to 6 and feruloylated arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (FAXOs) esterified by ferulic and p-coumaric acids with a DP from 3 to 6. Both AXOs (short and long DP) and FAXOs stimulated the growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Prevotella copri similarly but not Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The utilization of AXOs and FAXOs as a carbon source resulted in the increase in turbidity, decrease in pH, and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the culture broth. The highest amount of SCFAs was produced by F. prausnitzii using FAXOs. Results suggest that FAXOs and AXOs have the potential to be considered as prebiotics.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Probióticos , Bactérias/genética , Carbono , Oligossacarídeos , Polimerização , Prebióticos , Prevotella , Xilanos
15.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 105: 103722, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607692

RESUMO

Previous research indicates equine fecal inoculates produce comparable results to cecal fluid when used for in vitro procedures to analyze dry matter digestibility (DMD). Equine hindgut microbial communities represented in fecal samples have been shown to be affected by diet. The study's objective was to determine the effect of the donor diet on in vitro DMD when fecal donors were fed high starch, or high fiber diets. Six Quarter Horses were used in a crossover design to compare the effects of a grain versus forage diet on in vitro digestion of forages ranging from: CP 7.7 to 16.4 %DM, NDF 53 to 72 %DM. Feces from each horse were obtained on day 22 of each period and used to inoculate in vitro fermentation vessels in order to evaluate the effect of donor diet on the DMD, neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD), and acid detergent fiber digestibility (ADFD) of four forages. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS to evaluate digestibility differences in the diet by forage composition interaction. Fecal samples from horses on the grain diet promoted higher NDFD of forages with high NDF and low CP when CP and NDF were used as covariates (P = .04 and .03). There was a horse effect on DMD and NDFD (P ≤ .05). Findings suggest diet may influence the hindgut microbiome's ability to digest neutral detergent fiber and should be considered when selecting equine fecal samples for in vitro digestion procedures.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Digestão , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Fezes , Cavalos
16.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep ; 23(11): 19, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637057

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional constipation is a common pediatric GI disorder that is responsible for a significant portion of pediatric office visits each year. It presents a significant stressor for patients, their families, and providers alike. There are a variety of over the counter agents available for treatment of pediatric constipation. RECENT FINDINGS: Osmotic laxatives, such as polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350) and lactulose, remain the most effective and safe therapy for both long and short term treatment of pediatric functional constipation. Stimulant laxatives, like Senna and Bisacodyl, probiotics, fiber preparations, enemas, and suppositories make excellent choices for adjunct therapies in specific clinical scenarios. There are multiple over the counter pharmacologic agents with various mechanisms of action that have demonstrated efficacy in pediatric functional constipation. These therapies are generally safe and well tolerated by patients.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Laxantes , Criança , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactulose/uso terapêutico , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 500, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599144

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has been speculated to modulate feeding behavior through multiple factors, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Evidence on this relationship in humans is however lacking. We aimed to explore if specific bacterial genera relate to eating behavior, diet, and SCFA in adults. Moreover, we tested whether eating-related microbiota relate to treatment success in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Anthropometrics, dietary fiber intake, eating behavior, 16S-rRNA-derived microbiota, and fecal and serum SCFA were correlated in young overweight adults (n = 27 (9 F), 21-36 years, BMI 25-31 kg/m2). Correlated genera were compared in RYGB (n = 23 (16 F), 41-70 years, BMI 25-62 kg/m2) and control patients (n = 17 (11 F), 26-69 years, BMI 25-48 kg/m2). In young adults, 7 bacteria genera, i.e., Alistipes, Blautia, Clostridiales cluster XVIII, Gemmiger, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, and Streptococcus, correlated with healthier eating behavior, while 5 genera, i.e., Clostridiales cluster IV and XIVb, Collinsella, Fusicatenibacter, and Parabacteroides, correlated with unhealthier eating (all | r | > 0.4, FDR-corrected p < 0.05). Some of these genera including Parabacteroides related to fiber intake and SCFA, and to weight status and treatment response in overweight/obese patients. In this exploratory analysis, specific bacterial genera, particularly Parabacteroides, were associated with weight status and eating behavior in two small, independent and well-characterized cross-sectional samples. These preliminary findings suggest two groups of presumably beneficial and unfavorable genera that relate to eating behavior and weight status, and indicate that dietary fiber and SCFA metabolism may modify these relationships. Larger interventional studies are needed to distinguish correlation from causation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estudos Transversais , Fibras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 754-758, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622588

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of polystyrene (PS) and PS-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) electrospun materials on the adhesion ability of Porphyromonas gingivalis( P. gingivalis), a common periodontal pathogen. Methods: PS and PS-PVP electrospun materials were prepared with stainless steel needles in high-voltage electric field. The growth and adhesion of P. gingivalis on the surface of different materials were observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The changes in the amount of P. gingivalis biofilm formed on the surface of different materials were measured according to viable colony forming units (CFU). The effect of surface charge of the different materials on the adhesion ability of P. gingivalis was determined through changing the charge properties on the surface of the electrospun materials. Results: SEM images showed that both PS and PS-PVP can be used to form electrospun fibers with a diameter of 0.2 µm. SEM images and CFU counts of the biofilm at 24 h and 48 h showed that there was a smaller amount of P. gingivalis biofilm on the surface of the two materials ( P<0.05). After treatment with tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), the surface charge of the PS-PVP electrospun material changed from being negatively charged to being positively charged, and the amount of bacterial adhesion on the surface increased significantly in comparison to that of untreated PS and PS-PVP materials ( P<0.05). Conclusion: PS and PS-PVP electrospun materials can be used to reduce the adhesion ability of P. gingivalis on the surface of different materials, and this ability may be related to the surface charge properties of the materials.


Assuntos
Porphyromonas gingivalis , Povidona , Biofilmes , Fibras na Dieta , Poliestirenos , Povidona/farmacologia
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 506, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623524

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate diets containing monensin (MON) associated or not with virginiamycin (VM) or functional oil based on cashew nut shell and castor beans (FOcc) for beef cattle in feedlots on nutritional (intake and digestibility) and productive parameters. A total of 1410 non-castrated Nellore cattle were selected, with an average age of 18 months and with an initial mean body weight (BW) of 305 ± 41.52 kg. The diet showed a roughage to concentrate ratio of 23:77, with the supply of corn silage as a source of roughage. The following additive inclusions in the diet were evaluated: (1) MON: 27 mg MON/kg dry matter (DM); (2) MON + VM: 22 mg MON/kg DM + 19 mg VM/kg DM; and (3) MON + FOcc: 22 mg MON/kg DM + 500 mg FOcc/kg DM. Statistical analyses were obtained through a linear model using initial BW and days of feedlot as covariables and comparisons between treatments using mutually orthogonal linear contrasts with a 5% significance level. The association or not of MON with VM or FOcc does not affect any of the nutritional and productive parameters evaluated. Animals that receive diets with MON + VM have higher average daily gain and feed efficiency (FE) than those that receive MON + FOcc without showing differences in nutritional parameters. The supply of MON associated with VM or FOcc does not increase intake and productive performance and, consequently, efficiency of feedlot beef cattle. However, in the case of use associated with MON, the VM provides greater performance than FOcc without changing food intake.


Assuntos
Monensin , Virginiamicina , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Monensin/farmacologia
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