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1.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(4): 543-552, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749893

RESUMO

Obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have a significant global impact, and their complications are quickly becoming a reason for primary care visits and hospitalizations. This article provides an overview of NAFLD and obesity, pathogenesis of NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria, and a review of practice guidelines. The current mainstay of treatment for NAFLD are lifestyle modifications and include a plan to eat, move, and change behavior. The future holds potential for new drug therapies in treating NAFLD. More research is needed to move these treatments forward.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dietoterapia , Exercício Físico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Comportamento Sedentário
2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684443

RESUMO

Although there is a general assumption that a phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet promotes overweight in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), it is unclear if this presumption is supported by scientific evidence. This systematic review aimed to determine if patients with PKU are at a higher risk of overweight compared to healthy individuals. A literature search was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases. Risk of bias of individual studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies, and the quality of the evidence for each outcome was assessed using the NutriGrade scoring system. From 829 articles identified, 15 were included in the systematic review and 12 in the meta-analysis. Body mass index (BMI) was similar between patients with PKU and healthy controls, providing no evidence to support the idea that a Phe-restricted diet is a risk factor for the development of overweight. However, a subgroup of patients with classical PKU had a significantly higher BMI than healthy controls. Given the increasing prevalence of overweight in the general population, patients with PKU require lifelong follow-up, receiving personalised nutritional counselling, with methodical nutritional status monitoring from a multidisciplinary team in inherited metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Fenilalanina/efeitos adversos , Fenilcetonúrias/complicações , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores , Dietoterapia/efeitos adversos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Fenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Viés de Publicação , Fatores de Risco
3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579149

RESUMO

No dietary intervention that focuses on the diet quality of postpartum women has been developed in Japan, although most postpartum women experience an insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals. We aimed to examine whether dietary intervention, based on the health belief model, at both 1 and 3 months postpartum affects nutrient intake and food group consumption at 6 months postpartum. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo between 2015 and 2016. Healthy women at 1 month postpartum were randomly allocated to either an intervention group (n = 100) or a control group (n = 94). Dietary intervention included dietary assessment, individual feedback, and dietary guidance. The dietary intakes between the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. At 6 months postpartum, the energy-adjusted intakes of protein, total dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin B6, and ß-carotene were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. The changes in energy-adjusted intakes of total dietary fiber and iron from 1 month postpartum to 6 months postpartum were significantly different between the two groups. Dietary intervention based on the health belief model improved nutrition at 6 months postpartum, although the impact was limited.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio
4.
Am J Cardiol ; 160: 46-52, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583808

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinically significant arrhythmia, and it increases stroke risk. A preventive approach to AF is needed because virtually all treatments such as cardioversion, antiarrhythmic drugs, ablation, and anticoagulation are associated with high cost and carry significant risk. A systematic review was performed to identify effective lifestyle-based strategies for reducing primary and secondary AF. A PubMed search was performed using articles up to March 1, 2021. Search terms included atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, exercise, diet, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, stress, tobacco smoking, alcohol, Mediterranean diet, sodium, and omega-3 fatty acids. Additional articles were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles. The control of hypertension, ideally with a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor, is effective for preventing primary AF and recurrence. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common cause of AF, and treating it effectively reduces AF episodes. Alcohol increases the risk of AF in a dose-dependent manner, and abstinence reduces risk of recurrence. Sedentary behavior and chronic high-intensity endurance exercise are both risk factors for AF; however, moderate physical activity is associated with lower risk of AF. Recently, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists have been associated with reduced risk of AF. Among overweight/obese patients, weight loss of ≥10% is associated with reduced AF risk. Lifestyle changes and risk factor modification are highly effective for preventing AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Dietoterapia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Treino Aeróbico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Comportamento Sedentário , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/terapia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Perda de Peso
5.
Ludovica pediátr ; 24(1): 48-53, Ene-Jun 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Redbvs, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1293223

RESUMO

El término escorbuto procede de una palabra del antiguo escandinavo, scorbruck, que significa "hinchazones ulceradas". Es una entidad infrecuente en pediatría, causada por deficiencia nutricional exógena de ácido ascórbico. Los seres humanos, a diferencia de otros seres vivos, no pueden sintetizar la vitamina C y, en consecuencia, dependen estrictamente de su aporte exógeno. El escorbuto puede simular varios desórdenes reumatológicos. Aunque es poco común, puede presentarse como pseudovasculitis o artritis crónica. Para el diagnóstico en pacientes que presentan síntomas músculo esqueléticos se requiere un alto índice de sospecha. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 9 años que desarrolló la enfermedad por un hábito alimentario selectivo de larga evolución, sin ingesta de frutas ni verduras. El objetivo del presente reporte es alertar al pediatra acerca del desarrollo de escorbuto como potencial consecuencia de las dietas restrictivas, y la importancia de realizar una anamnesis alimentaria completa ante la sospecha diagnóstica


The term scurvy comes from a word from the old Scandinavian, scorbruck, which means ulcerated swellings. Scurvy is an infrequent entity in pediatrics caused by exogenous nutritional deficiency of ascorbic acid. Human beings, unlike other living beings, can not synthesize vitamin C and, consequently, they depend strictly on their exogenous contribution. Scurvy can simulate several rheumatological disorders. Although it is uncommon, it can present as pseudovasculitis or chronic arthritis. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose patients with musculoskeletal symptoms. We report a case of a 9-year-old male patient who developed the disease due to a long-term selective eating habit, without fruits or vegetables intake. The objective of this report is to alert the pediatrician about the development of scurvy as a potential consequence of restrictive diets, and the importance of performing a complete dietary history to suspect diagnosis


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Ácido Ascórbico , Escorbuto , Dietoterapia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575895

RESUMO

For many years, the main nitrogen source for patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) was phenylalanine-free amino acid supplements. Recently, casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) supplements have been prescribed due to its functional and sensorial properties. Nevertheless, many doubts still persist about the metabolic effects of GMP compared to free amino acids (fAA) and intact proteins such as casein (CAS). We endeavour to compare, in rats, the metabolic effects of different nitrogen sources. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were fed equal energy density diets plus CAS (control, n = 8), fAA (n = 8) or GMP (n = 8) for 8 weeks. Food, liquid intake and body weight were measured weekly. Blood biochemical parameters and markers of glycidic metabolism were assessed. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was analysed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Food intake was higher in rats fed CAS compared to fAA or GMP throughout the treatment period. Fluid intake was similar between rats fed fAA and GMP. Body weight was systematically lower in rats fed fAA and GMP compared to those fed CAS, and still, from week 4 onwards, there were differences between fAA and GMP. None of the treatments appeared to induce consistent changes in glycaemia, while insulin levels were significantly higher in GMP. Likewise, the production of GLP-1 was higher in rats fed GMP when compared to fAA. Decreased urea, total protein and triglycerides were seen both in fAA and GMP related to CAS. GMP also reduced albumin and triglycerides in comparison to CAS and fAA, respectively. The chronic consumption of the diets triggers different metabolic responses which may provide clues to further study potential underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Caseínas/metabolismo , Dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Peso Corporal , Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Ratos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371973

RESUMO

We conducted a meta-analysis exploring the effect of a low fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides, and polyols diet (LFD) on the overall symptoms, quality of life, and stool habits of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects method. The effect size was presented as weighted standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were conducted to determine the potential effects of covariates on the outcome. Twenty-two papers were included. The LFD group showed a moderate reduction in symptom severity and a slight improvement in quality of life compared to the control group (SMD, -0.53 and 0.24; 95% CI, -0.68, -0.38 and 0.02, 0.47, respectively). IBS symptom improvement was consistent between subgroups stratified according to proportions of female patients, study durations, IBS subtypes, assessment methods, and control interventions. Three studies regarding stool habits change in IBS-D patients showed a significant decrease in stool frequency (mean differences [MD], -5.56/week; 95% CI, -7.40, -3.72) and a significant improvement in stool consistency (MD, -0.86; 95% CI, -1.52, -0.19) in the LFD group compared to the control group. This is the most updated meta-analysis including studies that adopted diverse control interventions such as dietary interventions, supplementation, habitual diets, and lifestyle changes.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Fermentação , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/dietoterapia , Dietoterapia/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dissacarídeos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Monossacarídeos , Oligossacarídeos , Polímeros , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445002

RESUMO

Malnutrition and muscle wasting are associated with impaired physical functioning and quality of life in oncology patients. Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are considered at high risk of malnutrition and impaired function. Due to continuous improvement in upper GI cancer survival rates, there has been an increased focus on multimodal interventions aimed at minimizing the adverse effects of cancer treatments and enhancing survivors' quality of life. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined nutritional and exercise interventions in improving muscle wasting, physical functioning, and quality of life in patients with upper GI cancer. A comprehensive search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and CINHAL. Of the 4780 identified articles, 148 were selected for full-text review, of which 5 studies met the inclusion criteria. Whilst reviewed studies showed promising effects of multimodal interventions on physical functioning, no significant differences in postoperative complications and hospital stay were observed. Limited available evidence showed conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of these interventions on preserving muscle mass and improving health-related quality of life. Further studies examining the impact of nutrition and exercise interventions on upper GI patient outcomes are required and would benefit from reporting a core outcome set.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia , Terapia por Exercício , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299281

RESUMO

Placental development is modified in response to maternal nutrient restriction (NR), resulting in a spectrum of fetal growth rates. Pregnant sheep carrying singleton fetuses and fed either 100% (n = 8) or 50% (NR; n = 28) of their National Research Council (NRC) recommended intake from days 35-135 of pregnancy were used to elucidate placentome transcriptome alterations at both day 70 and day 135. NR fetuses were further designated into upper (NR NonSGA; n = 7) and lower quartiles (NR SGA; n = 7) based on day 135 fetal weight. At day 70 of pregnancy, there were 22 genes dysregulated between NR SGA and 100% NRC placentomes, 27 genes between NR NonSGA and 100% NRC placentomes, and 22 genes between NR SGA and NR NonSGA placentomes. These genes mediated molecular functions such as MHC class II protein binding, signaling receptor binding, and cytokine activity. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed significant overrepresentation of genes for natural-killer-cell-mediated cytotoxicity in NR SGA compared to 100% NRC placentomes, and alterations in nutrient utilization pathways between NR SGA and NR NonSGA placentomes at day 70. Results identify novel factors associated with impaired function in SGA placentomes and potential for placentomes from NR NonSGA pregnancies to adapt to nutritional hardship.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Dietoterapia/métodos , Feto/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Peso Fetal/fisiologia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Ovinos , Transcriptoma
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209583

RESUMO

The intake of food may be an initiator of adverse reactions. Food intolerance is an abnormal non-immunological response of the organism to the ingestion of food or its components in a dosage normally tolerated. Despite the fact that food intolerance is spread throughout the world, its diagnosing is still difficult. Histamine intolerance (HIT) is the term for that type of food intolerance which includes a set of undesirable reactions as a result of accumulated or ingested histamine. Manifestations may be caused by various pathophysiological mechanisms or a combination of them. The problem with a "diagnosis" of HIT is precisely the inconstancy and variety of the manifestations in the same individual following similar stimuli. The diagnosing of HIT therefore requires a complex time-demanding multidisciplinary approach, including the systematic elimination of disorders with a similar manifestation of symptoms. Among therapeutic approaches, the gold standard is a low-histamine diet. A good response to such a diet is considered to be confirmation of HIT. Alongside the dietary measures, DAO supplementation supporting the degradation of ingested histamine may be considered as subsidiary treatment for individuals with intestinal DAO deficiency. If antihistamines are indicated, the treatment should be conscious and time-limited, while 2nd or 3rd generation of H1 antihistamines should take precedence.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Intolerância Alimentar/diagnóstico , Histamina/efeitos adversos , Dietoterapia/métodos , Humanos
15.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(7): 593-598, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dysphagia is a common symptom with associated complications ranging from mild discomfort to life-threatening pulmonary compromise. Videofluoroscopic swallow is the 'gold standard' evaluation for oropharyngeal dysphagia, but little is known about how patients' performance changes over time. METHOD: This was a retrospective cohort study evaluating dysphagia patients' clinical course by serial videofluoroscopic swallow study. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis were used to identify correlations between pneumonia outcomes, diet allocation, aetiology and comorbidities. RESULTS: This study identified 104 patients (53 per cent male) stratified into risk groups by penetration-aspiration scale scores. Mean penetration-aspiration scale worsened over time (p < 0.05), but development of pneumonia was not associated with worsened penetration-aspiration scale score over time (p = 0.57) or severity of dysphagia (p = 0.88). CONCLUSION: Our dataset identified a large cohort of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and demonstrated mean penetration-aspiration scale tendency to worsen. Identifying prognostic factors associated with worsening radiological findings and applying this to patients at risk of clinical swallowing difficulty is needed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Gastrostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Aspirativa/epidemiologia , Aspiração Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico por imagem , Dietoterapia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aspiração Respiratória/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068047

RESUMO

Adverse food reactions include immune-mediated food allergies and non-immune-mediated intolerances. However, this distinction and the involvement of different pathogenetic mechanisms are often confused. Furthermore, there is a discrepancy between the perceived vs. actual prevalence of immune-mediated food allergies and non-immune reactions to food that are extremely common. The risk of an inappropriate approach to their correct identification can lead to inappropriate diets with severe nutritional deficiencies. This narrative review provides an outline of the pathophysiologic and clinical features of immune and non-immune adverse reactions to food-along with general diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Special emphasis is placed on specific nutritional concerns for each of these conditions from the combined point of view of gastroenterology and immunology, in an attempt to offer a useful tool to practicing physicians in discriminating these diverging disease entities and planning their correct management. We conclude that a correct diagnostic approach and dietary control of both immune- and non-immune-mediated food-induced diseases might minimize the nutritional gaps in these patients, thus helping to improve their quality of life and reduce the economic costs of their management.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Intolerância Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Dietoterapia/efeitos adversos , Dietoterapia/métodos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Intolerância Alimentar/diagnóstico , Intolerância Alimentar/imunologia , Intolerância Alimentar/terapia , Humanos
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066243

RESUMO

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a unique form of non-immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy, restricted to the esophagus, characterized by esophageal eosinophil-predominant inflammation and dysfunction. The diagnosis requires an esophago-gastroduodenoscopy with esophageal biopsies demonstrating active eosinophilic inflammation with 15 or more eosinophils/high-power field, following the exclusion of alternative causes of eosinophilia. Food allergens trigger the disease, withdairy/milk, wheat/gluten, egg, soy/legumes, and seafood the most common. Therapeutic strategies comprise dietary restrictions, proton pump inhibitors, topical corticosteroids, biologic agents, and esophageal dilation when strictures are present. However, avoidance of trigger foods remains the only option targeting the cause, and not the effect, of the disease. Because EoE relapses when treatment is withdrawn, dietary therapy offers a long-term, drug-free alternative to patients who wish to remain off drugs and still be in remission. There are currently multiple dietary management strategies to choose from, each having its specific efficacy, advantages, and disadvantages that both clinicians and patients should acknowledge. In addition, dietary regimens should be tailored around each individual patient to increase the chance of tolerability and long-term adherence. In general, liquid elemental diets devoid of antigens and elimination diets restricting causative foods are valuable options. Designing diets on the basis of food allergy skin tests results is not reliable and should be avoided. This review summarizes the most recent knowledge regarding the clinical use of dietary measures in EoE. We discussed endpoints, rationale, advantages and disadvantages, and tailoring of diets, as well as currently available dietary regimens for EoE.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Esofagite Eosinofílica/dietoterapia , Humanos
18.
Vet J ; 273: 105691, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148606

RESUMO

There is a paucity of information regarding the phenomenon of weight regain after successful weight reduction in cats. This study aimed to estimate post-weight reduction maintenance energy requirements (MER) required to maintain stable weight in a group of pet cats. Nineteen cats that had successfully completed a controlled weight reduction programme were enrolled. For inclusion, at least 2 months of follow-up had to be available for review, and the maximum change in weight during maintenance was ±2%. Post-weight-reduction MER was estimated by determining dietary energy consumption from owner diary records. The Friedman test was used to compare bodyweight and energy intake at different stages of weight management. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to identify factors associated with post-weight-reduction MER. The median (interquartile range) duration of weight maintenance was 179 days (119-408 days) and, during this time, MER was 273 ± 56.7 kJ per kg0.67 ideal bodyweight (IBW) per day. Post-weight-reduction MER was greater than metabolisable energy intake at the end (233 ± 29.5 kJ IBW per kg0.67 per day; P < 0.001) but not the start (255 ± 38.6 kJ per kg0.67 IBW per day; P = 0.148) of the weight reduction period. Using simple and multiple linear regression, the only variable that was associated with post-weight reduction MER was the mean ME intake during weight reduction (r2 = 0.349, P = 0.008). Post-weight-reduction MER at the lower limits of MER recommendations for pet cats might predispose to weight regain during the weight maintenance phase.


Assuntos
Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Dietoterapia/veterinária , Ingestão de Energia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Obesidade/veterinária , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 154: 112328, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111488

RESUMO

Carotenoids in food substances are believed to have health benefits by lowering the risk of diseases. Lutein, a carotenoid compound, is one of the essential nutrients available in green leafy vegetables (kale, broccoli, spinach, lettuce, and peas), along with other foods, such as eggs. As nutrition plays a pivotal role in maintaining human health, lutein, as a nutritional substance, confers promising benefits against numerous health issues, including neurological disorders, eye diseases, skin irritation, etc. This review describes the in-depth health beneficial effects of lutein. As yet, a minimal amount of literature has been undertaken to consider all its promising bioactivities. The step-by-step biosynthesis of lutein has also been taken into account in this review. Besides, this review demonstrates the drug interactions of lutein with ß-carotene, as well as safety concerns and dosage. The potential benefits of lutein have been assessed against neurological disorders, eye diseases, cardiac complications, microbial infections, skin irritation, bone decay, etc. Additionally, recent studies ascertained the significance of lutein nanoformulations in the amelioration of eye disorders, which are also considered in this review. Moreover, a possible approach for the use of lutein in bioactive functional foods will be discussed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Luteína/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dietoterapia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Interações Alimento-Droga , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Luteína/administração & dosagem , Luteína/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , beta Caroteno/administração & dosagem
20.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), accounting for approximately 15% of breast cancers, lack targeted therapy. A hallmark of cancer is metabolic reprogramming, with one-carbon metabolism essential to many processes altered in tumor cells, including nucleotide biosynthesis and antioxidant defenses. We reported that folate deficiency via folic acid (FA) withdrawal in several TNBC cell lines results in heterogenous effects on cell growth, metabolic reprogramming, and mitochondrial impairment. To elucidate underlying drivers of TNBC sensitivity to folate stress, we characterized in vivo and in vitro responses to FA restriction in two TNBC models differing in metastatic potential and innate mitochondrial dysfunction. METHODS: Metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells (high mitochondrial dysfunction) and nonmetastatic M-Wnt cells (low mitochondrial dysfunction) were orthotopically injected into mice fed diets with either 2 ppm FA (control), 0 ppm FA, or 12 ppm FA (supplementation; in MDA-MB-231 only). Tumor growth, metabolomics, and metabolic gene expression were assessed. MDA-MB-231 and M-Wnt cells were also grown in media with 0 or 2.2 µM FA; metabolic alterations were assessed by extracellular flux analysis, flow cytometry, and qPCR. RESULTS: Relative to control, dietary FA restriction decreased MDA-MB-231 tumor weight and volume, while FA supplementation minimally increased MDA-MB-231 tumor weight. Metabolic studies in vivo and in vitro using MDA-MB-231 cells showed FA restriction remodeled one-carbon metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, and glucose metabolism. In contrast to findings in the MDA-MB-231 model, FA restriction in the M-Wnt model, relative to control, led to accelerated tumor growth, minimal metabolic changes, and modest mitochondrial dysfunction. Increased mitochondrial dysfunction in M-Wnt cells, induced via chloramphenicol, significantly enhanced responsiveness to the cytotoxic effects of FA restriction. CONCLUSIONS: Given the lack of targeted treatment options for TNBC, uncovering metabolic vulnerabilities that can be exploited as therapeutic targets is an important goal. Our findings suggest that a major driver of TNBC sensitivity to folate restriction is a high innate level of mitochondrial dysfunction, which can increase dependence on one-carbon metabolism. Thus, folate deprivation or antifolate therapy for TNBCs with metabolic inflexibility due to their elevated levels of mitochondrial dysfunction may represent a novel precision-medicine strategy.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/dietoterapia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/dietoterapia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo
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