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1.
Theriogenology ; 177: 73-83, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678544

RESUMO

The dairy industry is searching for new technologies to address low (<50%) estrus detection. However, the lack of information on the potential economic benefits regarding new technology implementation has led some dairy producers to continue using conventional estrus detection methods (e.g. visual observation of standing to be mounted). The objective of this study was to compare the costs of infrared thermography (IRT), visual observation (VO) and ovulation synchronization (Ovsynch: OVS) as breeding strategies at different accuracy levels (Sensitivity [Se], Specificity [Sp]) and pregnancy rates (PR). The costs associated with Breeding, Feeding, Operation Costs, Return to Equity and Culling Risk per estrus detection rate (ER; 30-100%, conception rate for OVS; 30-100%), PR [PR per Parity group; 1-2 (50%), 3-4 (43%), and >4 (41%)], and ER accuracy determined the potential financial benefit of each breeding method for a representative farm. Breeding Cost results (Canadian dollars per cow; CAD/cow) showed a higher cost of OVS (138.99) as compared to VO (115.78) and IRT (127.69). Pregnancy Costs were affected by Breeding Cost; however, ER had a significant effect on PR expense for each method, IRT (ER; 30%: 210.38; 100%: 132.19), VO (ER; 30%: 205.93; 100%: 129.39), and OVS (ER; 30%: 247.21; 100%: 155.33). The minimum Se level with a positive Financial Effect for IRT and VO was 60% with a Sp of 100%, and for the OVS was Se 65% and Sp 100%. However, when the Se was 100% a positive Financial Effect was observed with a minimum Sp of 85% for IRT and 75% for VO. Culling Risk was reduced if ER increases differently depending on the parity group. Implementing of IRT as an estrus detection method yields a competitive breeding cost compared to VO and OVS. Further, breeding methods must accomplish at least ∼60% accuracy to have a positive net return.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Inseminação Artificial , Alberta , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Dinoprosta , Detecção do Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Gravidez
2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118453, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737025

RESUMO

Whether propylene oxide (PO) exposure is associated with hyperglycemia were rarely explored. We aimed to determine the relationship between PO exposure and glucose metabolism, and potential role of oxidative stress. Among 3294 Chinese urban adults, urinary PO metabolite (N-Acetyl-S-(2-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine, 2HPMA), biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-20-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) and lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostane, 8-iso-PGF2α) in urine were determined. The associations of 2HPMA with 8-OHdG, 8-iso-PGF2α, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and risk of diabetes were explored. The roles of 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α on association of 2HPMA with FPG and risk of diabetes were detected. After adjusted for potential confounders, each 1-unit increase in log-transformed concentration of 2HPMA was associated with a 0.15-mmol/L increase in FPG level, and the adjusted OR (95% CI) of diabetes by the associations of log-transformed urinary 2HPMA concentrations was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.03-2.11). Combination effects of 2HPMA with 8-OHdG or 8-iso-PGF2α on risk of diabetes were detected, and elevated 8-iso-PGF2α significantly mediated 34.5% of the urinary 2HPMA-associated FPG elevation. PO exposure was positively associated with FPG levels and risk of diabetes. PO exposure combined with DNA oxidative damage or lipid peroxidation may increase the risk of diabetes, and lipid peroxidation may partially mediate the PO exposure-induced FPG elevation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Jejum , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia , Dano ao DNA , Dinoprosta , Compostos de Epóxi , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo
3.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 351-354, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730309

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Ovsynch protocol in the treatment of post-service subestrus in individual dairy cows compared to a single administration of PGF2α. The study was performed on 517 Polish Friesian Holstein cows with post-service anestrus over four years in 3 dairy herds under a herd health program. Cows (n=240) diagnosed ultrasonographically as non-pregnant and with a mature corpus were treated with a single PGF2α administration and inseminated at detected estrus. Cows without corpus (n=277) were treated with the Ovsynch protocol. The estrus detection rate after PGF2α administration, percentages of cows pregnant after the treatment and at day 260, intervals from parturition to treatment and from treatment to conception and pregnancy loss rates were calculated. The overall percentage of cows pregnant after treatment did not differ between animals treated with the Ovsynch protocol and with PGF2α (38.9% vs. 42.5%; p>0.05). In herd A the percentage of cows pregnant after treatment was significantly lower (p⟨0.05) for the Ovsynch group than for the PGF2α group (30.2% vs. 61.2%). In contrast, in herd C the percentage of cows pregnant after treatment was significantly higher (p⟨0.05) in the Ovsych group than in the PGF2α group (39.6% vs. 28.8%). The overall estrus detection rate after administration of PGF2α was 59.6%. However, it was significantly lower (p⟨0.05) in herd C (44.7%) than in herds A (79.6%) and B (76.3%). The overall pregnancy loss rate ranged from 5.1% to 13.3% and did not differ significantly between herds and treatment groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, Ovsynch protocol can be a useful alternative for treatment of post-service suboestrus in individual cows in dairy herds with insufficient oestrus detection.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Inseminação Artificial , Gravidez
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(12): 12953-12967, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593225

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate reproductive management programs for submission of Holstein heifers for first insemination with conventional or sexed semen. In experiment 1, nulliparous Holstein heifers (n = 462) were submitted to a 5-d progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID)-Synch protocol [d 0, GnRH + PRID; d 5, PGF2α - PRID; d 6, PGF2α; d 8, GnRH + TAI] and were randomly assigned for PRID removal on d 5 or 6 of the protocol followed by timed artificial insemination (TAI) with conventional semen. Delaying PRID removal decreased early expression of estrus before scheduled TAI (0.9 vs. 12.2%), and pregnancies per AI (P/AI) did not differ between treatments. In experiment 2, nulliparous Holstein heifers (n = 736) from 3 commercial farms were randomized within farm to 1 of 3 treatments for first AI with sexed semen: (1) CIDR5 [d -6, GnRH + controlled internal drug release (CIDR); d -1, PGF2α - CIDR; d 0, PGF2α; d 2, GnRH + TAI]; (2) CIDR6 (d -6, GnRH + CIDR; d -1, PGF2α; d 0, PGF2α - CIDR; d 2, GnRH + TAI); and (3) EDAI (PGF2α on d 0 followed by once-daily estrous detection and AI). Delaying CIDR removal decreased early expression of estrus before scheduled TAI (0.004 vs. 27.8%); however, CIDR5 heifers tended to have more P/AI at 35 (53 vs. 45 vs. 46%) and 64 (52 vs. 45 vs. 45%) days after AI than CIDR6 and EDAI heifers, respectively. Overall, CIDR5 and CIDR6 heifers had fewer days to first AI and pregnancy than EDAI heifers which resulted in less feed costs than EDAI heifers due to fewer days on feed until pregnancy. Despite greater hormonal treatment costs for CIDR5 heifers, costs per pregnancy were $16.66 less for CIDR5 than for EDAI heifers. In conclusion, delaying PRID removal by 24 h within a 5-d PRID-Synch protocol in experiment 1 suppressed early expression of estrus before TAI, and P/AI for heifers inseminated with conventional semen did not differ between treatments. By contrast, although delaying CIDR removal by 24 h within a 5-CIDR-Synch protocol in experiment 2 suppressed early expression of estrus before TAI, delaying CIDR removal by 24 h tended to decrease P/AI for heifers inseminated with sexed semen. Further, submission of heifers to a 5-d CIDR-Synch protocol for first AI tended to increase P/AI and decrease the cost per pregnancy compared with EDAI heifers.


Assuntos
Detecção do Estro , Sincronização do Estro , Animais , Bovinos , Dinoprosta , Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Progesterona , Sêmen
5.
Theriogenology ; 175: 155-162, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555714

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the economic performance of an ear tag automated activity monitor system (AAM) versus a timed-AI (TAI) protocol in Holstein heifers. In total, 340 heifers were enrolled onto the study at 13.5 mo of age and randomly assigned to receive either an AAM (n = 170) or TAI (n = 170) protocol before breeding eligibility (D 0). Heifers in the AAM group were fitted with an ear tag AAM and bred based on high activity alert from the system. Heifers in the TAI group received a progesterone releasing intravaginal device on D -8, followed by device removal and prostaglandin on D -3 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone with TAI on D 0. In both treatments, the majority of heifers received sex-sorted semen for the first AI and conventional semen for subsequent AIs, with three opportunities to become pregnant. All heifers were diagnosed for pregnancy approximately 25 d post AI using transrectal ultrasonography, with confirmation at 30 and 45 d. Non-pregnant heifers in the TAI group, were resynchronized using the same TAI protocol. A partial budget was used to compare the costs and benefits of switching from a TAI to an AAM protocol in heifers, including protocol, labour, and rearing costs for each treatment, as well as estimated calf and milk value. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to determine the effect of pregnancy per AI (P/AI), outsourcing AI, AAM tag cost and herd size on the net outcome. There was no difference in overall P/AI or days to pregnancy between treatments. However, number of AI was greater in the TAI than the AAM group. For the first AI, the P/AI was less in the TAI compared to the AAM group; however, the interval to first AI was less in TAI. There was minimal difference in performance for the second and third AI. There was a net gain of $11.97 per heifer when switching from a TAI to AAM protocol, due to the increased P/AI to the first AI and reduced cost of hormones. Several variables in the sensitivity analyses affected the net outcome. Considering only the first AI, switching to an AAM collar and a larger herd size all increased the net gain. Considering a greater P/AI to the first AI in the TAI group, outsourcing AI, using more AAM ear tags, and smaller herd sizes resulted in a net loss when switching from TAI to AAM. The AAM system resulted in exceptional P/AI and may be an economically viable alternative to improve heifer reproductive efficiency in herds with suboptimal P/AI to TAI.


Assuntos
Detecção do Estro , Sincronização do Estro , Animais , Bovinos , Dinoprosta , Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Gravidez , Progesterona
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(11): 12105-12116, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482970

RESUMO

Inadequate luteolysis in fertility programs is a problem for lactating dairy cows treated with a single dose of PGF2α. The proportion of cows with complete luteolysis can be increased by administering 2 doses of PGF2α 24 h apart. This study hypothesized that a double dose of cloprostenol sodium (1.0 mg) could take the place of 2 doses 24 h apart due to its enhanced half-life. Cows were allocated to receive 1 of 3 treatments: negative controls: 0.5 mg of cloprostenol sodium (single; n = 337); positive controls: two 0.5-mg doses of cloprostenol sodium 24 h apart (two/24; n = 313); and treated: 1.0 mg of cloprostenol sodium (double; n = 298) at the final PGF2α of Double-Ovsynch. Cows received artificial insemination (AI) 16 h after final GnRH of Double-Ovsynch. Pregnancy diagnosis was determined at 24, 34, 62, and 184 d post-AI. Pregnancy loss was categorized in the following periods: between 24 to 34, 34 to 62, and 62 to 184 d post-AI. Ultrasonography (B-mode and color Doppler) was used to assess luteal function pre- and posttreatment with various doses of cloprostenol sodium. Luteal volume and luteal blood flow (LBF) from d 7 and 14 corpora lutea were determined before treatment (d -1), and 2 and 4 d after treatment. No evidence was observed of an effect of treatment on pregnancy rates per AI at 24, 34, or 62 d post-AI. No effect was observed of treatment on pregnancy losses occurring between d 24 and 34, 34, and 62, and between 62 and 184 d post-AI. However, third-plus parity cows treated with the single treatment had greater pregnancy loss compared with two/24 and double between d 24 and 34 post-AI. Third-plus parity cows that received the double treatment had lower LBF 2 and 4 d after treatment compared with cows treated with single. Amount of LBF present 4 d after treatment was not a predictor of pregnancy or pregnancy loss. A double dose (1.0 mg) of cloprostenol sodium may be a feasible alternative for fertility programs based on nondifferent outcomes to the two/24 treatment, lower pregnancy losses, and reduced LBF disappearance following treatment in third-plus parity cows in comparison with the single treatment.


Assuntos
Cloprostenol , Sincronização do Estro , Animais , Bovinos , Corpo Lúteo , Dinoprosta , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona
7.
Theriogenology ; 174: 169-175, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455244

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate pregnancy rates (PR) and ovulatory characteristics of Nelore cows receiving PGF2α at the time of AI (artificial insemination) in a progesterone(P4)/estradiol-based timed-AI protocol. We also compared the effects of PGF2α treatment at AI in cows inseminated with conventional or sex-sorted semen, with the absence or expression of estrus. In experiment 1, a total of 701 suckled, multiparous Nelore cows from two commercial beef farms were submitted to the same protocol. All cows received a 12.5 mg (IM) injection of dinoprost tromethamine (Dinoprost; Lutalyse®; PGF treatment) at days 7 and 9 of a timed-AI protocol. Following P4 device removal (day 11; D11), AI was performed 48 h later with conventional or sex-sorted semen from two different sires. At AI, cows received an additional dose of 12.5 mg (IM) of Dinoprost (PGF treatment) or 2.5 mL (IM) of sterile saline (Control). Estrus behavior was determined at D11 by activation of an estrus detection device (Estrotect®). The overall PR was 32.8% (n = 348) at Farm 1 and 42.3% (n = 353) at Farm 2 (P = 0.01). Despite PR differences between farms, the same factors affected PR at Farms 1 and 2. Body condition score (P = 0.02), estrus behavior (P = 0.01), and type of semen (P < 0.001) were factors affecting PR. Conventional semen had a 2.73x greater chance of successful pregnancy than sex-sorted semen. Cows displaying estrus had a 2.5x greater chance of successful pregnancy than cows that did not display estrus. No treatment effect (P = 0.67) was detected in cows receiving conventional or sex-sorted semen. However, there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for an interaction between treatment (PGF or control) and estrus behavior (estrus or no estrus). PGF2α at the time of AI tended to increase PR of cows that did not display estrus (P < 0.10). In experiment 2, 29 suckled, multiparous Nelore cows were compared using B-mode and Doppler ultrasongraphy to assess the ovulatory characteristics of cows receiving the 12.5 mg (IM) injection of Dinoprost (PGF treatment) or saline solution (control) at D11. No significant effects of PGF2α treatment at D11 were observed in follicular characteristics and/or ovulation performance. It was concluded that fertility of sex-sorted semen was lower than conventional semen, regardless of the PGF2α treatment. The 12.5 mg treatment of Dinoprost at AI did not accelerate the occurrence of ovulation; however, it was interesting to note that PGF2α treatment at timed-AI appeared to increase the fertility of cows that did not display estrus, independent of semen type.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta , Sêmen , Animais , Bovinos , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Estro , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Gravidez , Progesterona
8.
Theriogenology ; 173: 221-229, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399386

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to play an important role in maintaining basal and stress-related homeostasis by interacting with endocrine mediators and prostaglandins (PGs). Although a growing body of evidence shows that GCs exert their regulatory action at a multitude of sites in the reproductive axis through corticosteroid receptors, little is known about the direct role of cortisol, an active form of GCs, in the equine endometrium. Thus, the study aimed to determine the effect of cortisol on PGF2α synthesis in the endometrial tissue and cells in vitro. In Exp.1, the immunolocalization and the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) in the endometrium throughout the estrous cycle were established. In Exp. 2 and 3, the effects of cortisol on PGF2α secretion and transcripts associated with the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in endometrial tissues, and cells were defined. Endometrial tissues obtained from the early, mid, and late luteal phases and the follicular phase of the estrous cycle were exposed to cortisol (100, 200, and 400 nM) for 24 h. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells (early phase of estrous cycle) were exposed to cortisol (100 nM) for 24 h. Then, PGF2α secretion and transcripts associated with the AA cascade (PLA2G2A, PLA2G4A, PTGS2, and PGFS) were assessed. GCR was expressed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus in the luminal and glandular epithelium as well as in the stroma. Endometrial GCR protein abundance was up-regulated at the late luteal phase compared to the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Cortisol dose-dependently decreased PGF2α secretion, PLA2G2A and PLA2G4A transcripts in endometrial tissues. Additionally, cortisol treatment decreased PGF2α secretion from endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. Moreover, it affected PLA2G2A, PLA2G4A, and PTGS2 transcripts in endometrial stromal cells. These findings suggest that cortisol suppresses the synthesis of PGF2α by affecting the AA cascade in the equine endometrium during the estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta , Hidrocortisona , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Cavalos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(9): 1443-1447, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334510

RESUMO

We determined a comprehensive immunohistochemistry of putative isoforms of enzymes for prostaglandin (PG) F2α and PGE2 biosynthesis and these PGs levels in placenta and fetal membrane of normal pregnant rats in vivo. Placenta and fetal membrane showed positive immunoreactions for phospholipase A2 group 4A, but not group 2A, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 rather than COX-2. They showed positive immunoreactions for at least one isoform of each of PGF synthase and PGE synthase with tissue-dependent variations. PGF2α and PGE2 levels in both tissues were highest on day 12 and declined and remained low thereafter. Obtained data would be the basic information on the primary PGs synthesis in rat placenta and fetal membrane in normal pregnancy.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta , Prostaglandinas F , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Membranas Extraembrionárias , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Placenta , Gravidez , Prostaglandinas , Ratos
10.
Exp Eye Res ; 211: 108734, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428458

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the metabolite differences between patients with keratoconus and control subjects and identify potential serum biomarkers for keratoconus using a non-targeted metabolomics approach. Venous blood samples were obtained from patients with keratoconus (n = 20) as well as from age-, gender- and race-matched control subjects (n = 20). Metabolites extracted from serum were separated and analyzed by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Processing of raw data and analysis of the data files was performed using Agilent Mass Hunter Qualitative software. The identified metabolites were subjected to a principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis. Appropriate statistical tests were used to analyze the metabolomic profiling data. Together, the analysis revealed that the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate from the steroidal hormone synthesis pathway was significantly upregulated in patients with keratoconus (p < 0.05). Also, a combination of eicosanoids from the arachidonic acid pathway, mainly prostaglandin F2α, prostaglandin A2, 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2, and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were collectively up-regulated as a group in keratoconus patients (p < 0.05). On the other hand, glycerophospholipid PS(17:2(9Z,12Z)/20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)) was found to be significantly upregulated in the metabolomics profiles of control subjects (p < 0.05). The differently regulated metabolites provide insights into the pathophysiology of keratoconus and could potentially be used as biomarkers for keratoconus to aid in screening for individuals at risk hence, enabling early diagnosis and timely monitoring of disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/sangue , Ceratocone/sangue , Metabolômica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Dinoprosta/sangue , Dinoprostona/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Masculino , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prostaglandinas A/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(11): 12153-12163, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454771

RESUMO

Incomplete luteal regression after treatment with a single dose of PGF2α during an Ovsynch protocol decreases fertility to timed artificial insemination (AI). An additional treatment with PGF2α 24 h after the first dose has been recommended to increase the proportion of cows with complete luteal regression and subsequent pregnancy per AI (P/AI). This is, however, associated with additional costs of labor and product. The objective was to develop a stochastic partial budget model to estimate the economic impact of an additional PGF2α treatment on d 8 during an Ovsynch protocol in primiparous and multiparous cows. A systematic review of the literature and a meta-analytical assessment was performed to evaluate the effects of adding a second PGF2α treatment during the Ovsynch protocol on P/AI in lactating dairy cows. Thirteen randomized controlled experiments from 11 published manuscripts including 9,735 cows were used. We were able to retrieve information regarding parity from 9 experiments from 7 manuscripts (2,367 primiparous cows and 5,356 multiparous cows). An additional dose of PGF2α yielded a 5.60 risk difference in P/AI [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.69-7.52]. In primiparous cows and multiparous cows, an additional dose of PGF2α yielded a 4.24 (95% CI = 0.31-8.17) and a 5.31 risk difference in P/AI (95% CI = 2.75-7.87). Revenue was based on the associated improvement in reproductive performance because of an increase in P/AI multiplied by the value of a pregnancy (PGVAL). Median PGVAL was €252, ranging from €42 (fifth percentile) to €623 (95th percentile). Based on parity, median PGVAL was €205 (5th percentile = €43; 95th percentile = €651) and €264 (5th percentile = €88; 95th percentile = €598) for primiparous (n = 1,252) and multiparous cows (n = 3,003), respectively. Using a stochastic simulation model with 10,000 iterations, adding a second PGF2α dose on d 8 was more profitable (€7.76/cow; 5th percentile = €0.01; 95th percentile = €29.40) compared with a single PGF2α administration on d 7. In primiparous cows, adding a second PGF2α treatment was more profitable (€1.99/cow; 5th percentile = -€3.08; 95th percentile = €22.52) in 67% of all simulated iterations. In multiparous cows, adding a second PGF2α treatment was more profitable (€7.92/cow; 5th percentile = -€0.09; 95th percentile = €28.22) in 95% of all simulated iterations. In conclusion, there was a clear benefit of an additional PGF2α treatment during the Ovsynch protocol on P/AI (+5.6 percentage units). Despite additional costs for hormones and labor, an additional treatment with PGF2α on d 8 was more profitable in 95% of all scenarios because of the associated increase in fertility. It turned out, however, that adding a second PGF2α treatment was more profitable in multiparous cows compared with primiparous cows.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta , Sincronização do Estro , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Gravidez , Progesterona , Prostaglandinas F , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
12.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279378

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to evaluate oxidant-antioxidant balance as well as lysosomal and anti-protease activities in ovarian cancer since it has been emphasized that the crucial inducing factor of carcinogenesis may be reactive oxygen/nitrogen species or, more precisely, oxidative stress-induced inflammation. The study involved 15 women with ovarian cancer, aged 59.9 ± 7.8 years, and 9 healthy women aged 56.3 ± 4.3 years (controls). The study material was venous blood collected from fasting subjects. In erythrocytes, the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, as well as concentrations of conjugated dienes (CDs) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), were investigated. CD, TBARS, and vitamins A and E plasma concentrations were also determined. Moreover, total antioxidant capacity and concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, as well as activities of acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, cathepsin D, and α1-antitrypsin, were studied in serum. The vitamin E and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α concentrations as well as arylsulfatase activity were lower in the women with cancer compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.03, p = 0.001, respectively). In contrast, cathepsin D activity was lower in the controls (p = 0.04). In the peripheral blood of the women with cancer, oxidant-antioxidant and lysosomal disturbances were observed.


Assuntos
Lisossomos/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Idoso , Catalase/sangue , Catepsina D/sangue , Dinoprosta/sangue , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina E/sangue
13.
Theriogenology ; 172: 223-229, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284217

RESUMO

This study was conducted to (i) evaluate the requirement for the administration of GnRH coincident with insertion of a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) and (ii) the effect of supplementing with 400 IU eCG at PRID removal on pregnancy per AI (P/AI) in spring and autumn calving suckled beef cows, subjected to a 7-d CO-Synch + PRID timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. Suckled beef cows (n = 1408) on 62 commercial farms were enrolled and randomly assigned to either of three treatments: 1) cows received a PRID and 100 µg GnRH on Day -10, followed by 25 mg PGF2α at PRID removal (Day -3) and 100 µg GnRH 72 h later (Day 0) at TAI (Treatment 1; n: spring = 236, autumn = 248); 2) as Treatment 1, but without GnRH at PRID insertion on Day -10 (Treatment 2; n: spring = 232, autumn = 227); 3) as Treatment 1, but cows also received 400 IU eCG at PRID removal on Day -3 (Treatment 3; n: spring = 233, autumn = 232). At Day -10, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to evaluate the presence or absence of a corpus luteum (CL) and follicle(s) ≥ 10 mm in diameter. Body condition score (BCS) was assessed on a scale of 1-5. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out 30-35 d after TAI by transrectal ultrasonography. Data were analyzed using the GENMOD and LOGISTIC procedures of SAS. There was a treatment by season interaction for P/AI (P < 0.001). In spring, overall P/AI was 59.1% (414/701) and was affected by treatment (59.3 v 49.6 v 68.2%, for Treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively P < 0.05). In contrast, in autumn, overall P/AI (51.5%, 364/707) was unaffected (P > 0.05) by treatment (50.1 v 53.7 v 48.7% for Treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Overall, eCG had a positive effect on P/AI for cows lacking a CL at treatment initiation (P < 0.05). In addition, in cows with low BCS (≤2.25), eCG supplementation tended (P = 0.09) to improve P/AI. Seasonal differences in response to synchronization treatment may be reflective of different management regimens (grazing v confinement) and breed type and remain to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta , Sincronização do Estro , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Ovulação , Gravidez , Progesterona , Estações do Ano
14.
Theriogenology ; 173: 32-36, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265698

RESUMO

The present study aims to evaluate the effect of administering prostaglandin (250 µg cloprostenol) and oxytocin (10 UI) or a GnRH agonist (4.2 µg buserelin acetate) on rams' physiological responses to electroejaculation and the ejaculate's characteristics. The study was performed with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, according to whether it used oxytocin and prostaglandin (OXPGF) or GnRH. Therefore, there were four treatments: GControl = saline; GOXPGF = administration of PGF2α and oxytocin; GGnRH = administration of GnRH; administration of GOXPGF + GnRH = GnRH and PGF2α + oxytocin. An interaction between the hormonal treatments in the heart rate occurred: while the heart rate decreased when using OXPGF alone (control: 113.7 bpm vs. GOXPGF: 103.5 bpm, pooled SEM; P = 0.02), it did not modify when applying both treatments simultaneously and administering GnRH (GGnRH: 109.1 bpm vs. GOXPGF + GnRH: 111.5 bpm respectively, pooled SEM = 4.5). The respiratory rate also decreased with the administration of OXPGF (38.7 vs. 46.3 with and without OXPGF, pooled SEM = 10.0, P = 0.003). Administering OXPGF also tended to decrease the temperature (38.77 °C vs. 38.94 °C, with and without OXPGF, respectively, pooled SEM = 0.06; P = 0.056). Blood glucose increased with the administration of OXPGF from 58.7 mg/dL to 62.4 mg/dL (pooled SEM = 1.3, P = 0.014) and varied with time. CK concentrations increased from 641.8 mg/dL to 881.7 mg/dL (pooled SEM = 50.6) with the administration of OXPGF. GnRH administration decreased cortisol concentration from 7.3 ng/mL to 2.1 ng/mL (pooled SEM = 1.4; P = 0.04). The treatments had no effects on the time required for EE, the pulse at which the animals began and ended the ejaculation, or the vocalizations emitted during EE. There were no effects in any evaluated sperm variable. The research concluded that the administration of oxytocin and analogs of PGF2alpha decreased the stress response to electroejaculation, as well as administering GnRH agonist was slightly effective as it only decreased cortisol concentration. Also, these treatments, either alone or combined, did not affect the characteristics of the ejaculate collected.


Assuntos
Cloprostenol , Ocitocina , Animais , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Ejaculação , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Masculino , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(10): 11210-11225, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304872

RESUMO

Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding rumen-protected Met (RPM) in the pre- and postpartum total mixed ration (TMR) on pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) and pregnancy loss in multiparous Holstein cows. We also evaluated multiple secondary reproductive physiological outcomes before and after AI, including uterine health, ovarian cyclicity, response to synchronization of ovulation, and markers of embryo development and size. A total of 470 multiparous Holstein cows [235 at the University of Wisconsin (UW) and 235 at Cornell University (CU)] were used for this experiment. Experimental treatment diets were applied at the pen level (2 and 4 close-up pens at CU and UW, respectively, and 12 and 6 postfresh pens at CU and UW, respectively); thus, pen was the experimental unit, and cow was the observational unit. Cows were enrolled and randomly assigned to be fed the experimental treatment diets at approximately 4 wk before parturition until 67 d of gestation [147 d in milk (DIM)] after their first service. Close-up dry cow and replicated lactation pens were randomly assigned to treatment diets: RPM, prepartum = 2.83% (UW) and 2.85% (CU), postpartum = 2.58% (UW) and 2.65% (CU); and control (CON), prepartum = 2.30% (UW) and 2.22% (CU), postpartum = 2.09% (UW) and 2.19% (CU; Met as percentage of metabolizable protein). Vaginal discharge and uterine cytology (percentage of polymorphonuclear leucocytes) were evaluated at 35 ± 3 DIM. Cows received timed AI (TAI) at 80 ± 3 DIM after synchronization of ovulation with the Double-Ovsynch protocol. Ovarian cyclicity status, response to synchronization of ovulation, and luteal function were determined by measuring circulating concentrations of progesterone at 35 and 49 ± 3 DIM, 48 and 24 h before TAI, and 8, 18, 22, 25, and 29 d after TAI. Interferon-stimulated gene expression in white blood cells were compared on 18 d after TAI (CU only) and pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations at 22, 25, 29, 32, and 67 d after TAI. Pregnancy status was determined using pregnancy-specific protein B at 25 and 29 d after TAI, and by transrectal ultrasonography at 32, 39, and 67 d after TAI. Embryo and amniotic vesicle size were determined at 32 and 39 d after TAI. Pregnancy per AI (25 d: 64.7 vs. 64.0%, 32 d: 54.3 vs. 55.1% for CON and RPM, respectively) and pregnancy loss (25 to 67 d: 22.6 vs. 19.2% for CON and RPM, respectively) for synchronized cows did not differ. The proportion of cows with purulent vaginal discharge (CON = 7.7 vs. RPM = 4.6%) and cytological endometritis (CON = 20.8 vs. RPM = 23.6%) did not differ. Cyclicity status, ovarian responses to the synchronization protocol, and synchronization rate also did not differ. In addition, fold change for interferon-stimulated genes, concentrations of pregnancy-specific protein B, and embryo size were not affected by treatments. In conclusion, feeding RPM in the pre- and postpartum TMR at the amounts used in this experiment did not affect uterine health, cyclicity, embryo development, or reproductive efficiency in dairy cows.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Rúmen , Animais , Bovinos , Dinoprosta , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Metionina , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Progesterona
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 343, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus is an autoimmune disease in which topical steroids are the first line of treatment. The adverse effects of systemic corticosteroids prescribed for resistant oral lichen planus cases advocate alternative modalities. Lycopene is an antioxidant with a wide range of beneficial properties. This trial aimed to evaluate the effect of pure lycopene as compared to systemic corticosteroids (Prednisolone) on the symptoms, signs and oxidative stress in patients with erosive oral lichen planus recalcitrant to topical steroids. METHODS: Twenty patients were randomly divided into the test (lycopene) and control (corticosteroids) groups. Numeric rating scale and Escudier et al. (Br J Dermatol 4:765-770, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2007.08106.x ) lesion scores were assessed at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 from baseline. Serum levels of 8-isoprostane were measured in all patients at baseline and at the end of treatment (week 8). RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in signs and symptoms after the end of treatment in each group. However, no significant difference was found between the lycopene and the corticosteroids group. Moreover, a significant reduction in 8-isoprostane levels was observed in the lycopene group from baseline and as compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the study results, lycopene is a safe and effective therapeutic modality for resistant oral lichen planus. 8-isoprostane is a biomarker of lipid peroxidation that can be reduced by lycopene. Trial registration ID: PACTR202003484099670. 'Retrospectively registered on 11/3/2020'.


Assuntos
Líquen Plano Bucal , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Líquen Plano Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Licopeno , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
Aust Vet J ; 99(10): 449-455, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of melatonin administration in combination with the CoSynch-56 protocol on the conception rate after artificial insemination (AI) in beef heifers. METHODS: Eighty-six beef heifers were allocated to four treatments in combination with CoSynch-56 treatment. All heifers, excluding the control group (CTR = 25), were injected with melatonin on day 1. The melatonin (MT = 20) and MT + human chorionic gonadotropin (MT + hCG = 21) groups received no further treatment with melatonin. Each heifer was treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on day 4, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on day 11, and GnRH and AI 56 h later. The fourth group (2MT = 20) was injected again with melatonin concurrent with AI, and the MT + hCG group received hCG on day 19. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed using transrectal ultrasonography 45 days after AI and blood samples were collected via caudal venipuncture on days 0-1, 14-15, 24 and 59. Concentrations of progesterone (P4) and the activities of oxidative stress-related enzymes were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The conception rate was greater in the 2MT group (75%) than in the other groups, while there was no significant difference among the CTR (44%), MT (45%) and MT + hCG (38.1%) groups. Treatment with melatonin increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and decreased malondialdehyde concentrations but did not significantly affect the concentration of P4. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the administration of melatonin twice during the CoSynch-56 protocol may increase conception rates in beef heifers.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro , Melatonina , Animais , Bovinos , Dinoprosta , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Melatonina/farmacologia , Gravidez , Progesterona
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 397, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250554

RESUMO

Ovsynch is a widely accepted estrus synchronization protocol for improving the reproductive performance of water buffaloes who manifest low reproductive efficiency. Recently, some modified protocols based on Ovsynch such as 2 injections of prostaglandin 14 days apart following the Ovsynch are also introduced to enhance the reproductive potential of this species. In the present study, a meta-analytical assessment was performed with the objective to evaluate the reproductive performance of water buffaloes synchronized with Ovsynch or modified Ovsynch programs. Meta-analysis of the fixed or random effects model was determined by the heterogeneity among the studies. Reproductive outcome of interest was pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) measured on day 25 (25-100). A total of 32 articles including 4003 buffaloes using either Ovsynch or modified Ovsynch protocol were reviewed. In the random effects model for buffaloes, the overall proportion of P/AI was 42.55% [95% confidence interval (CI): 37.48-47.70; n = 3,089] and 46.44% (95% CI: 39.63-53.31; n = 914) on day 25 after AI for Ovsynch and modified Ovsynch, respectively. Results for P/AI were then categorized by ovarian activity, where P/AI was available for 3575 cyclic buffaloes and 320 non-cyclic buffaloes. For cyclic buffaloes, the overall proportion of P/AI was 47.54% (95% CI: 42.72-52.38; n = 2911) and 57.97% (95% CI: 54.12-61.77; n = 664) on day 25 after AI for Ovsynch and modified Ovsynch, respectively. In the fixed effects model for non-cyclic buffaloes, the overall proportion of P/AI was 19.68% (95% CI: 13.48-26.58; n = 167) and 33.01% (95% CI: 25.50-40.94; n = 153) on day 25 after AI for Ovsynch and modified Ovsynch, respectively. In conclusion, a benefit for P/AI is detected in buffaloes with the modified Ovsynch protocol. Besides, whichever estrus synchronization protocols (Ovsynch or modified Ovsynch), cyclic buffaloes have higher P/AI compared with non-cyclic buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Dinoprosta , Animais , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0250124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac surgery (CS) in pediatric patients induces an overt oxidative stress (OS) response. Children are particularly vulnerable to OS related injury. The immaturity of their organs and antioxidant systems as well as the induction of OS in cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery may have an important impact on outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe the OS response, measured by urinary free 8-iso-PGF2α, in infants undergoing CS and to evaluate the relationship between OS response and post-operative clinical outcomes. METHODS: Infants with congenital heart disease undergoing CS with or without CPB were eligible for enrollment. Children were classified as neonates (<30 days) or infants (30 days-6 months) based on the age at surgery. Perioperative continuous non-invasive neuromonitoring included amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram and cerebral regional oxygen saturation measured with near-infrared spectroscopy. Urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels were measured before, immediately post-, and 24-hours post-surgery, and the 8-iso-PGF2 clearance was calculated. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients (60% neonates) were included. Urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels 24 hours after surgery (8.04 [6.4-10.3] ng/mg Cr) were higher than pre-operative levels (5.7 [4.65-7.58] ng/mg Cr) (p<0.001). Those patients with a severe degree of cyanosis caused by Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) had the highest post-operative 8-iso-PGF2α levels. Patients with intra-operative seizures had higher post-operative 8-iso-PGF2α levels. 8-iso-PGF2α clearance at 24 hours post-surgery was different between newborns and infant patients, and it was inversely correlated with days of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.05), ICU LOS (p = 0.05) and VIS score at 24 hours (p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Children undergoing CS, particularly neonatal patients, experience a significant post-operative OS response that might play an important role in postoperative morbidity. TGA patients undergoing arterial switch operations demonstrate the highest post-operative OS response. Rapid clearance of isoprostanes, which occurs more frequently in older patients with more mature antioxidant systems, might be associated with better clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
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