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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130632, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311235

RESUMO

The roles of total soluble polyphenols (TSP) and insoluble tannins (IST) in the enzymatic browning during the storage of dried persimmon slices packaged by different methods was studied. The color evolution was comprehensively evaluated within 18 weeks of storage, as well as determination the content variation of TSP, IST, and carotenoids. A series of simulated reactions were conducted to investigate the involvement of TSP and IST in PPO-catalyzed reaction. The results showed that N2-opaque packaging was a good way to alleviate this browning issue. The IST contributed preponderantly to the browning during the whole storage, while the contribution of TSP was little. And the degradation of carotenoids might be related to the color deterioration in the early storage. The IST participated in PPO-catalyzed reaction directly with the insoluble state. By contrast, only a small amount of TSP participated in PPO-catalyzed browning reaction, since it preferentially interacted with IST.


Assuntos
Diospyros , Carotenoides , Frutas , Reação de Maillard , Taninos
2.
Planta ; 254(6): 113, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739601

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: High-throughput sequencing and yeast one and two-hybrid library screening reveal that DKGA2ox1 and miR171f_3 are involved in the regulation of scion dwarfing with 'Nan-tong-xiao-fang-shi' as interstocks. Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Nan-tong-xiao-fang-shi ('Nan-tong-xiao-fang-shi') interstocks play a critical role in the scion dwarfing. However, the understanding of the molecular signaling pathways that regulate the scion dwarfing with 'Nan-tong-xiao-fang-shi' as interstocks remain unclear. In this work, the regulatory network in the scion dwarfing with 'Nan-tong-xiao-fang-shi' as interstocks was identified. Using a yeast one-hybrid library screening, luciferase activity analysis, luciferase complementation imaging assays and GFP signal detection, a SPL transcription factor named Diospyros kaki SPL (DKSPL), potentially functioning as a transcriptional activator of the Diospyros kaki GA2ox1 (DKGA2ox1) gene, was identified as a key stimulating factor in the persimmon growth and development. The DKSPL was found in the nucleus, and might play a role in the transcriptional regulation system. A microRNA named miR171f_3 was identified, which might act as a negative regulator of Diospyros kaki SCR (DKSCR) in persimmon. The interactions between DKSCR and seven proteins were experimentally validated with a yeast two-hybrid library screening. Compared to the non-grafted wildtype persimmon, the tissue section of graft union healed well due to the increased expression of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase. These results indicate that DKGA2ox1 and miR171f_3 may co-promote the scion dwarfing by plant hormone signal transduction pathways.


Assuntos
Diospyros , MicroRNAs , Diospyros/genética , Frutas , MicroRNAs/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição
3.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(10): 2043-2052, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706804

RESUMO

A persimmon tannin-Aloe vera composite powder (PT-A) was investigated for its capacity to protect against ionizing radiation. Human hepatic cells (L02 cells) and human hepatoma cells (HepG2 cells) were pretreated with different concentrations of PT-A or the single compounds (PT or Aloe vera) and radiated with X-rays. After radiation and post-incubation for 12 h or 24 h, the cell viability, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were analyzed by Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8), 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining, and Hoechst 33258 staining/flow cytometry, respectively. CCK-8 results illustrated that the optimal radiation dose L02 cells was 8 Gy for L02 cells, and the cell activity was 71.72% (IC50 = 412.1 µg/mL) after post-radiation incubation of 12 h. For HepG2 cells, the optimal radiation dose was 8 Gy, and the cell activity was 62.37% (IC50 = 213.0 µg/mL). The cell apoptotic rate was the lowest at a PT-A concentration of 200 µg/mL in L02 cells (4.32%, P < 0.05), and at 100 µg/mL in HepG2 cells (9.80%, P < 0.05). ROS production induced by radiation could be effectively inhibited by 200 µg/mL of PT-A in L02 cells, and by 100 µg/mL of PT-A in HepG2 cells. The PT-A composite has good radioprotective effects on cell vitality and apoptosis of X-rays radiation exposure towards L02 cells and HepG2 cells compared to the persimmon tannin or Aloe vera. Therefore, PT-A composite might be useful as a natural, harmless anti-ionizing radiation agent, and has various clinical application prospects in future.


Assuntos
Aloe , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Diospyros , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Taninos/farmacologia , Raios X
4.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579162

RESUMO

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruit's phytochemical profile includes carotenoids, proanthocyanidins, and gallic acid among other phenolic compounds and vitamins. A huge antioxidant potential is present given this richness in antioxidant compounds. These bioactive compounds impact on health benefits. The intersection of nutrition and sustainability, the key idea behind the EAT-Lancet Commission, which could improve human health and decrease the global impact of food-related health conditions such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and obesity, bring the discussion regarding persimmon beyond the health effects from its consumption, but also on the valorization of a very perishable food that spoils quickly. A broad option of edible products with better storage stability or solutions that apply persimmon and its byproducts in the reinvention of old products or even creating new products, or with new and better packaging for the preservation of food products with postharvest technologies to preserve and extend the shelf-life of persimmon food products. Facing a global food crisis and the climate emergency, new and better day-to-day solutions are needed right now. Therefore, the use of persimmon waste has also been discussed as a good solution to produce biofuel, eco-friendly alternative reductants for fabric dyes, green plant growth regulator, biodegradable and edible films for vegetable packaging, antimicrobial activity against foodborne methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus found in retail pork, anti-Helicobacter pylori agents from pedicel extracts, and persimmon pectin-based emulsifiers to prevent lipid peroxidation, among other solutions presented in the revised literature. It has become clear that the uses for persimmon go far beyond the kitchen table and the health impact consumption demonstrated over the years. The desired sustainable transition is already in progress, however, mechanistic studies and clinical trials are essential and scaling-up is fundamental to the future.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/métodos , Diospyros/química , Frutas/química , Valor Nutritivo , Embalagem de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
5.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4539-4553, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431096

RESUMO

Persimmon is among the fruits with a significant postharvest loss over the last few years. Thus, it is important to investigate new technical feasibilities to obtain products with higher added value from this fruit. In this study persimmon puree films (Diospyros kaki L.) incorporated with glycerol and pectin by casting technique were formulated using a Plackett-Burman design and characterized. The puree showed high carbohydrate content (175.70 g/kg). In descending order, fructose, glucose, and maltohexaose were the sugars found in persimmon. All the independent variables studied-puree concentration, pectin, glycerol, and temperature-statistically influenced the tensile strength (0.75-1.30 MPa), elongation at break (17.69-26.02%), and Young's modulus (3.34-10.94 MPa) of the films. Water solubility ranged from 68.80% to 80.86%, which were very similar to other films based on puree fruit in the literature. Samples presented high vapor permeability (5.77-6.63 × 10-6 g/h/m/Pa) when compared to biodegradable films. Scanning electron microscopy showed smooth surfaces and good plasticizer dispersion. The colorimetric coordinates indicated the films are reddish and yellowish, giving them an orange-ish visual aspect. The films exhibited antimicrobial activity, especially against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. These results indicate that the developed films might be a good candidate for antimicrobial food packaging improving food quality and safety. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The production of fruit-film packaging with functional and biodegradable characteristics might reduce postharvest loss of fruit and have the potential to develop active food packaging. In this sense, this study is in line with precepts of the circular economy, once it takes advantage of exceeded resources that would be discarded by generating biodegradable films which can be used as edible packaging. Furthermore, given the antimicrobial potential of the films developed, they might be applied as active packaging to improve food safety and extend shelf life.


Assuntos
Diospyros , Embalagem de Alimentos , Glicerol , Pectinas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Diospyros/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Glicerol/química , Pectinas/química , Permeabilidade , Resistência à Tração
6.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361562

RESUMO

Fruit used in the common human diet in general, and kiwifruit and persimmon particularly, displays health properties in the prevention of heart disease. This study describes a combination of bioactivity, multivariate data analyses and fluorescence measurements for the differentiating of kiwifruit and persimmon, their quenching and antioxidant properties. The metabolic differences are shown, as well in the results of bioactivities and antioxidant capacities determined by ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH assays. To complement the bioactivity of these fruits, the quenching properties between extracted polyphenols and human serum proteins were determined by 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy studies. These properties of the extracted polyphenols in interaction with the main serum proteins in the human metabolism (human serum albumin (HSA), α-ß-globulin (α-ß G) and fibrinogen (Fgn)), showed that kiwifruit was more reactive than persimmon. There was a direct correlation between the quenching properties of the polyphenols of the investigated fruits with serum human proteins, their relative quantification and bioactivity. The results of metabolites and fluorescence quenching show that these fruits possess multiple properties that have a great potential to be used in industry with emphasis on the formulation of functional foods and in the pharmaceutical industry. Based on the quenching properties of human serum proteins with polyphenols and recent reports in vivo on human studies, we hypothesize that HSA, α-ß G and Fgn will be predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD).


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Antioxidantes/química , Diospyros/química , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Polifenóis/farmacologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252019

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped novel bacterial strain, designated MAH-29T, was isolated from rhizospheric soil of a persimmon tree. The colonies were light pink coloured, smooth, spherical and 0.1-0.8 mm in diameter when grown on Reasoner's 2A (R2A) agar for 2 days. Strain MAH-29T was able to grow at 20-37 °C, at pH 5.0-8.5 and at 0-2.0 % NaCl. Cell growth occurred on nutrient agar and R2A agar. The strain was positive in both oxidase and catalase tests. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, the isolate was identified as a member of the genus Niastella and was closely related to Niastella vici DJ57T (97.7 % similarity), Niastella koreensis GR20-10T (97.1 %) and Niastella yeongjuensis GR20-13T (97.0 %). Strain MAH-29T has a draft genome size of 8 876 333 bp (31 contigs), annotated with 6920 protein-coding genes, 61 tRNA and four rRNA genes. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain MAH-29T and three closely related type strains were in the range of 78.2-83.2 % and 22.1-27.0 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G and iso-C17:0 3OH. On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization results, genotypic analysis and chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain MAH-29T represents a novel species within the genus Niastella, for which the name Niastella soli sp. nov. is proposed, with MAH-29T (=KACC 19969T=CGMCC 1.16606T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/classificação , Diospyros/microbiologia , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Árvores/microbiologia , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
8.
Plant Sci ; 310: 110958, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315584

RESUMO

'Nantongxiaofangshi' (Diospyros kaki Thunb., D. kaki Thunb.) is a local cultivar of persimmon with dwarf-like traits in Jiangsu, China. Closely spaced planting afforded by dwarfism is usually one of the most important ways to promote fruit cultivation and production. However, the understanding of dwarfism in D. kaki Thunb. is very limited at the molecular level, which hinders the further increase of the fruit production. In this work, a persimmon transgenic system was successfully established, and the field experiments of grafting phenotype were carried out. The results showed that D. kaki Thunb. could be used as an interstock to induce dwarfing in grafted scions, and the dwarf character was better when interstock lengths were between 20 and 25 cm. Furthermore, the key genes related to dwarfism in D. kaki Thunb. were screened and verified, and subsequently, the regulatory role of related genes in persimmon dwarfism was figured out. It was found that the gene encoding gibberellin 2-oxidase-1 (DkGA2ox1) involved in GA biosynthesis was associated with the dwarfing in D. kaki Thunb. Overexpression of DkGA2ox1 in Diospyros lotus resulted in a typical dwarf phenotype. Meanwhile, the microRNA data showed that the miR171f_3 demonstrated the active involvement in GA pathway response in persimmon dwarfism. DkGA2ox1 and MIR171f_3, as two highly expressed genes in D. kaki Thunb. interstock, could be used as stimulus signals to affect the content of GA in scion, however, the specific transmission mechanism still needs to be further explored. Ultimately, the bioactive GA level was decreased, resulting in the scion dwarfism.


Assuntos
Diospyros/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Diospyros/genética , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 356, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are important plant secondary metabolites that confer flavor, nutritional value, and resistance to pathogens. Persimmon is one of the PA richest crops. Mature fruits can be inedible because of the astringency caused by high PA levels and need to go through a de-astringency treatment before consumption. The molecular basis for PA accumulation is poorly known, particularly transcriptional regulators. We characterised three genotypes ('Luotiantianshi' (LT), 'Mopanshi' (MP), and 'Youhou' (YH)) with different PA accumulation patterns using an approach that combined PacBio full-length sequencing and Illumina-based RNA sequencing to build high-quality full-length transcriptomes. Additionally, we analysed transcriptome dynamics of the three genotypes (LT, MP, and YH) at four key fruit developmental stages. RESULTS: A total of 96,463 transcripts were obtained. We identified 80,075 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), 71,137 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 27,845 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), principal component analysis (PCA), and differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) analyses indicated that the four different developmental stages within a genotype exhibited similar transcriptome activities. A total of 2,164 transcripts specific to each fruit developmental stage were detected. The transcripts specific to early stages were attributed to phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. Co-expression network analyses revealed MEbrown and MEblue modules were strongly associated to PA accumulation. From these two modules, 20 hub TFs are potential regulators for PA accumulation. Among them, Cluster_78388 (SBP protein), Cluster_63454 (bZIP protein), and Cluster_66595 (MYB protein) appear to involve in the PA biosynthesis in Chinese genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first high-quality reference transcriptome for commercial persimmon. Our work provides insights into the molecular pathways underlying PA accumulation and enhances our global understanding of transcriptome dynamics throughout fruit development.


Assuntos
Diospyros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diospyros/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Proantocianidinas/biossíntese , Proantocianidinas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
10.
J Exp Bot ; 72(18): 6437-6446, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185065

RESUMO

BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT (BZR) transcription factors are critical components of the brassinosteroid signalling pathway, but their possible roles in fruit ripening have rarely been reported. In this study, four BZR sequences were isolated from persimmon fruit. Among the four BZR genes, DkBZR1/2 were expressed in persimmon fruit; DkBZR1 protein amount decreased and dephosphorylated DkBZR2 gradually accumulated during the storage period. DkBZR1/2 proteins were localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm and accumulated in the nucleus after 24-epibrassinolide treatment. DkBZR1 suppressed the transcription of Diospyros kaki endo-1,4-betaglucanase 1 (DkEGase1) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 (DkACS1) by binding to the BR response element (BRRE) in their promoters, and DkBZR2 activated the transcription of pectate lyase 1 (DkPL1) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase 2 (DkACO2) by binding to the E-box motif in their promoters. Transient overexpression of DkBZR2 promoted the conversion of acid-soluble pectin to water-soluble pectin and increased ethylene production in persimmon fruit. Our findings indicate that DkBZR1 and DkBZR2 serve as repressors and activators of persimmon fruit ripening, respectively.


Assuntos
Diospyros , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Diospyros/genética , Diospyros/metabolismo , Etilenos , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(20): 5628-5637, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983017

RESUMO

Fruits of nonastringent persimmon cultivars, as compared to astringent ones, were more resistant to Alternaria infection despite having lower polyphenol content. Metabolic analysis from the pulp of nonastringent "Shinshu", as compared to the astringent "Triumph", revealed a higher concentration of salicylic, coumaric, quinic, 5-o-feruloyl quinic, ferulic acids, ß-glucogallin, gallocatechin, catechin, and procyanidins. Selected compounds like salicylic, ferulic, and ρ-coumaric acids inhibited in vitro Alternaria growth, and higher activity was demonstrated for methyl ferulic and methyl ρ-coumaric acids. These compounds also reduced in vivo Alternaria growth and the black spot disease in stored fruits. On the other hand, methyl gallic acid was a predominant compound in the "Triumph" pulp, as compared to the "Shinshu" pulp, and it augmented Alternaria growth in vitro and in vivo. Our results might explain the high sensitivity of the cultivar "Triumph" to Alternaria. It also emphasizes that specific phenolic compounds, and not the total phenol, affect susceptibility to fungal infection.


Assuntos
Diospyros , Alternaria , Adstringentes , Frutas/química , Polifenóis/análise
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 140: 111745, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020246

RESUMO

Traditionally, Diospyros lotus Linn is used for insomnia and other associated disorders. Insomnia is a worldwide disorder with different etiology which is treated with different synthetic medicine associated with addiction. Natural products are generally devoid of such addition with good efficacy. Current research was conducted to evaluate the sedative and hypnotic effects of dimeric naphthoquinones such as dinaphthodiospyrol A (1), dinaphthodiospyrol B (2), dinaphthodiospyrol C (3), dinaphthodiospyrol D (4), dinaphthodiospyrol E (5) and dinaphthodiospyrol F (6) isolated from the chloroform fractions of D. lotus. The sedative and hypnotic effects at the dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg (each compound) were assessed through open field and phenobarbital induced sleep test, respectively. In the case of open field test the administration of tested compounds significantly hindered the movement of animals, while in case of hypnotic effect the tested samples significantly improved the onset and duration of sleep as compared to control. The overall effects were in a dose dependent manner. The compounds were also assessed for acute toxicity, but no toxicity was observed. In this regard, our research triumphantly announced the strong chemical base for the folkloric values of the plant with their fringe benefits and implemented a platform for further aspects of mechanistic and clinical studies. A possible mechanism of in vivo inhibition was studied by using docking simulations on GABA receptors. Binding orientations and types of interactions revealed that a possible mechanism behind these pharmacological actions might be interaction with GABA receptors.


Assuntos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diospyros , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Naftoquinonas/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1874-1882, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058211

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of polysaccharide extracts from persimmon (PPE) on the proliferation of Lactobacillus and the gut microbiota of mice. Lactobacillus strains were cultured in medium containing PPE, and differential gene expression was evaluated using transcriptomics. In addition, 16S rDNA was employed to analyze the abundance and diversity of fecal colonies in mice, and the influence of PPE on the intestinal flora in mice was further examined. The results showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Lactobacillus acidophilus CICC 6075 could proliferate in PPE medium. Gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that glucose metabolism-related genes, such as phosphoyruvate hydratase (eno) and PTS mannose transporter subunit IIAB (manX), were up-regulated. The metabolic pathways of fructose and mannose were also significantly up-regulated. After gavage of mice with PPE, 16S rDNA sequencing of mouse feces indicated that the beneficial bacteria in the intestines proliferated and the abundance of harmful bacteria was reduced. PPE can maintain the balance of intestinal microorganisms in mice. Therefore, PPE has a significant positive effect on both Lactobacillus proliferation and gut microbiota of mice.


Assuntos
Diospyros/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
J Med Food ; 24(10): 1100-1112, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872072

RESUMO

Medicinal plants were used to prevent and treat numerous gastrointestinal disorders owing, in part, to their antioxidant capacity. The protective effects of Diospyros kaki fruit aqueous extract (DKFAE) against castor oil (CO)-induced diarrhea was studied. The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties were investigated using colorimetric and biochemical analyses. In vivo, 60 male rats were divided into 6 groups of 10 animals each (n = 10): control (C), CO, CO+various doses of DKFAE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.), and CO+loperamide (LOP, 10 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.).The DKFAE was rich in tannins and showed interesting antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis resulted in the identification of 16 phenolic compounds, among which quinic acid was the main one. The in vivo study showed that diarrhea was accompanied by an oxidative stress status as measured by an increase of lipid peroxidation, a decrease of glutathione and thiol group levels, as well as antioxidant enzyme activity depletion, such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. The DKFAE administration significantly decreased the gastrointestinal transit in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, DKFAE protected against CO-induced diarrhea and intestinal fluid accumulation. Interestingly, DKFAE pretreatment counteracted all the oxidative stress status deregulation induced by CO intoxication. D. kaki fruit could be suggested for its strong protective effect against CO-induced acute diarrhea, which could be explained, in part, to its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Diospyros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antidiarreicos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 106, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants represent an intricate and innovative source for the discovery of novel therapeutic remedies for the management of infectious diseases. The current study aimed at discovering new inhibitors of Leishmania spp., using anti-leishmanial activity-guided investigation approach of extracts from Diospyros gracilescens Gürke (1911) (Ebenaceae), targeting the extracellular (promastigotes) and intracellular (amastigotes) forms of Leishmania donovani. METHODS: The plant extracts were prepared by maceration using H20: EtOH (30:70, v/v) and further fractionated using a bio-guided approach. Different concentrations of D. gracilescens extracts, fractions and isolated compounds were tested in triplicate against L. donovani promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro. The antileishmanial potency and cytotoxicity on RAW 264.7 cells were determined using the resazurin colorimetric assay. The time kill kinetic profile of the most active sample was also investigated. The structures of all compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS and by comparison of their data with those reported in the literature. RESULTS: The hydroethanolic crude extract of D. gracilescens trunk showed the most potent antileishmanial activity (IC50 = 5.84 µg/mL). Further fractionation of this extract led to four (4) fractions of which, the hexane fraction showed the most potent activity (IC50 = 0.79 µg/mL), and seven (07) compounds that exhibited moderate potency (IC50 = 13.69-241.71 µM) against L. donovani. Compound 1-deoxyinositol (7) inhibited the promastigote and amastigote forms of L. donovani with IC50 values of 241.71 µM and 120 µM respectively and also showed the highest selectivity against L. donovani promastigotes (SI > 5.04). To the best of our knowledge, the antileishmanial activity of this compound is being reported here for the first time. The promising hexane fraction showed significant inhibition of parasites growth at different concentrations, but with no evidence of cidal effect over an exposure period of 120 h. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained indicated that the hydroethanolic extract from the D. gracilescens trunk and the derived hexane fraction have very potent inhibitory effect on cultivated promastigotes and amastigotes of L. donovani parasite. The isolated compounds showed a lesser extent of potency and selectivity. However, further structure-activity-relationship studies of 1-deoxyinositol could lead to more potent and selective hit derivatives of interest for detailed drug discovery program against visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Diospyros/química , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Camarões , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7286, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790314

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) induced by dysregulation of the immune response in the intestinal mucosa. Although the underlying mechanisms of UC development are not fully understood, disruption of gut microbiota, "dysbiosis", is thought to lead to the development of IBD. Persimmon (Ebenaceae Diospyros kaki Thunb.)-derived tannin, which is a condensed polymeric tannin consisting of catechin groups, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we assessed the effect of persimmon-derived tannin on a murine model of UC established by dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in female mice. Dietary supplementation of tannin significantly decreased disease activity and colon inflammation. A hydrolysate of tannin directly suppressed expression of inflammatory genes in macrophages in vitro. In faecal microbiota, the relative abundance of Bacteroides was increased significantly by tannin supplementation. Alpha-diversity indices in colitis-induced mice were significantly higher in the tannin diet group compared with the control diet group. Additionally, expansion of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus, which is associated with disease progression of IBD, was remarkably suppressed in the tannin diet group. These results suggest that persimmon-derived tannin ameliorates colon inflammation in UC through alteration of the microbiota composition and immune response, which may be a promising candidate for IBD therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Taninos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Diospyros/química , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Taninos/administração & dosagem , Taninos/farmacologia
17.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 85(7): 1729-1736, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877300

RESUMO

Pectin in Diospyros kaki (persimmon) is a complex polysaccharide and is classified as a dietary fiber. Pectin is characterized by the presence of side chains of neutral sugars, such as galactose residues; however, the structure and properties of these sugars vary greatly depending on the plant species from which it is derived. Here, we report the structural features of pectin extracted from persimmon. The polysaccharide was low-methoxy pectin with a degree of methyl esterification <50% and ratio of side chain galactan to arabinan in the rhamnogalacturonan-I region of pectin of 3-20. To investigate the physiological function of pectin from persimmon, we performed a coculture assay using Caco-2 cells. As a result, it was shown that the proliferation of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells was promoted, and further, the importance of arabinogalactan among the pectin structures was shown.


Assuntos
Diospyros/química , Galactanos/química , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Pectinas/química , Células CACO-2 , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/citologia
18.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805791

RESUMO

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki), a familiar and widespread fruit worldwide, is known to exhibit several physiological effects because of the presence of pharmacologically active compounds called phytochemicals. However, its high-molecular-weight compounds, particularly polysaccharides, have not been extensively studied. In this study, D. kaki extract (DK) was fractionated into low- and high-molecular-weight fractions (DK-L and DK-H, respectively) through ethanol fractionation, and their effects on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiwrinkle activities were investigated by an in vitro system. DK-H contained significantly higher contents of neutral sugar, uronic acid, and polyphenols compared to DK and DK-L. Furthermore, DK-H exhibited significantly improved pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiwrinkle properties, compared to those of DK and DK-L, demonstrating that DK-H may play an important role in mediating the beneficial effects of persimmon. Sugar composition analysis and molecular characterization indicated that DK-H consisted of a galacturonic acid (GalA)-rich polysaccharide with a molecular weight of >345 kDa that mainly comprised GalA and small amounts of neutral sugar and polyphenol residues. These results suggest that the bioactive fraction DK-H is likely to be a GalA-rich pectic polysaccharide containing a small number of polyphenol residues, which may be a novel candidate in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diospyros/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Elastase Pancreática/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , República da Coreia
19.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920571

RESUMO

Agrofood coproducts are used to enrich meat products to reduce harmful compounds and contribute to fiber and polyphenol enrichment. Pork liver pâtés with added persimmon coproducts (3 and 6%; PR-3 and PR-6, respectively) were developed. Therefore, the aim was to study the effect of their in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on: the free and bound polyphenol profile (HPLC) and their colon-available index; the lipid oxidation (TBARs); and the stability of the fatty acid profile (GC). Furthermore, the effect of lipolysis was investigated using two pancreatins with different lipase activity. Forty-two polyphenols were detected in persimmon flour, which were revealed as a good source of bound polyphenols in pâtés, especially gallic acid (164.3 µg/g d.w. in PR-3 and 631.8 µg/g d.w. in PR-6). After gastrointestinal digestion, the colon-available index in enriched pâté ranged from 88.73 to 195.78%. The different lipase activity in the intestinal phase caused significant differences in bound polyphenols' stability, contributing to increased lipid oxidation. The fatty acids profile in pâté samples was stable, and surprisingly their PUFA content was raised. In conclusion, rich fatty foods, such as pâté, are excellent vehicles to preserve bound polyphenols, which can reach the colon intact and be metabolized by the intestinal microbiome.


Assuntos
Diospyros , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Carne de Porco/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/farmacocinética , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Polifenóis/farmacocinética
20.
J Food Biochem ; 45(4): e13685, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682148

RESUMO

Date plum persimmon (Diospyros lotus L.) is a fruit crop from the Ebenaceae family. Its microorganism-fermented extract (DPEML) was shown to exhibit a hypoglycemic effect in our previous work. Here, we investigated the effects of DPEML fermented by Microbacterium flavum YM18-098 and Lactobacillus plantarum B7 on the high glucose-induced apoptosis of MIN6 cells and explored its potential cell protective mechanisms. DPEML ameliorated the apoptosis of MIN6 cells cultured under high glucose conditions, thereby improving cell viability. DPEML upregulated the Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio to obstruct an intrinsic apoptotic pathway and concomitantly downregulated the expression of the apoptosis-linked proteins, AIF, and Cyt-C, in high glucose-induced MIN6 cells. Furthermore, DPEML promoted the insulin secretion of MIN6 cells grown under chronically high-glucose conditions by upregulating Ins mRNA expression. In summary, our study suggested that DPEML is a promising functional food for the development of therapeutics for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: We investigated the effects of DPEML fermented by Microbacterium flavum YM18-098 and Lactobacillus plantarum B7 on the high glucose-induced apoptosis of MIN6 cells and explored its potential cell protective mechanisms. DPEML ameliorated the apoptosis of MIN6 cells cultured under high glucose conditions, thereby improving cell viability. DPEML upregulated the Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio to obstruct an intrinsic apoptotic pathway and concomitantly downregulated the expression of the apoptosis-linked proteins, AIF and Cyt-C, in high glucose-induced MIN6 cells. Furthermore, DPEML promoted the insulin secretion of MIN6 cells grown under chronically high-glucose conditions by upregulating Ins mRNA expression. We suggested that DPEML is a promising functional food for the development of therapeutics for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diospyros , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Apoptose , Glucose , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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