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1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 228: 103661, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785682

RESUMO

Online discussions about controversial topics seem more prone to misunderstanding and even polarization than similar discussions held face-to-face. Recent research uncovered an important reason why: certain behaviors that are used to communicate diplomacy and tact in face-to-face discussions - specifically, responsiveness and ambiguity - are more difficult to enact online. To improve online interaction experiences and understand the underlying mechanisms better, we ran three exploratory studies in which we tried to manipulate these diplomatic behaviors in online and face-to-face conversations. Study 1 and 2 aimed to increase ambiguity and responsiveness in online environments to test whether it would result in increased experiences of solidarity. To this end, Study 1 (N = 68, repeated measures) compared a regular chat function with a chat function in which interaction partners saw each other's typing in real time. In Study 2 (N = 74, repeated measures), we introduced a keyboard that allowed participants to make interjecting sounds alongside text-based communication. In contrast, Study 3 (N = 105, repeated measures) aimed to reduce responsiveness and ambiguity in face-to-face discussion to test whether this would hamper participants' ability to navigate disagreements while maintaining solidarity. We asked participants about their conversational experiences both quantitatively and qualitatively in all studies. We did not find the expected effects in any of the studies. The qualitative analyses of participants' behavior and commentary gave some insights into the reasons. Participants compensated for and/or distanced themselves from the manipulations. These behavioral adaptations all seemed to be socially motivated. We conclude by offering recommendations for research into online polarization.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Comunicação , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas
2.
Global Health ; 18(1): 56, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35619181

RESUMO

A challenging concept to teach, few combined courses on epidemic-related global health diplomacy and security exist, and no known courses are currently available that have been exclusively designed for African nationals. In response, the University of California, San Francisco's Center for Global Health Delivery, Diplomacy and Economics (CGHDDE) developed and delivered a workshop for LMIC learners to better understand how politics, policy, finance, governance and security coalesce to influence global health goals and outcomes.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , África/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Política
3.
Lancet ; 399(10341): 2156-2166, 2022 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594877

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, global health diplomacy, foreign policy for health, and global health policy have changed substantially. Diplomacy is a constitutive part of the system of global health governance. COVID-19 hit the world when multilateral cooperation was subject to major challenges, and global health has since become integral to geopolitics. The importance of global health diplomacy, especially at WHO, in keeping countries jointly committed to improving health for everyone, has once again been shown. Through a systematic review, this Series paper explores how international relations concepts and theories have been applied to better understand the role of power in shaping positions, negotiations, and outcomes in global health diplomacy. We apply an international relations perspective to reflect on the effect that those concepts and theories have had on global health diplomacy over the past two decades. This Series paper argues that a more central role of international relations concepts and theories in analysing global health diplomacy would help develop a more nuanced understanding of global health policy making. However, the world has changed to an extent that was not envisioned in academic discourse. This shift calls for new international relations concepts and theories to inform global health diplomacy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diplomacia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Política Pública
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 828, 2022 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding people's subjective experiences of everyday lives with chronic health conditions such as diabetes is important for appropriate healthcare provisioning and successful self-care. This study explored how individuals with type 2 diabetes in northern Vietnam handle the everyday life work that their disease entails. METHODS: Detailed ethnographic data from 27 extended case studies conducted in northern Vietnam's Thái Bình province in 2018-2020 were analyzed. RESULTS: The research showed that living with type 2 diabetes in this rural area of Vietnam involves comprehensive everyday life work. This work often includes efforts to downplay the significance of the disease in the attempt to stay mentally balanced and ensure social integration in family and community. Individuals with diabetes balance between disease attentiveness, keeping the disease in focus, and disease discretion, keeping the disease out of focus, mentally and socially. To capture this socio-emotional balancing act, we propose the term "everyday disease diplomacy." We show how people's efforts to exercise careful everyday disease diplomacy poses challenges to disease management. CONCLUSIONS: In northern Vietnam, type 2 diabetes demands daily labour, as people strive to enact appropriate self-care while also seeking to maintain stable social connections to family and community. Health care interventions aiming to enhance diabetes care should therefore combine efforts to improve people's technical diabetes self-care skills with attention to the lived significance of stable family and community belonging.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diplomacia , Antropologia Cultural , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Humanos , Autocuidado/psicologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
6.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 48(2): 315-327, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938308

RESUMO

We remember the past in order not to repeat it, but does remembrance of war in fact shape support for military or diplomatic approaches to international conflict? In seven samples from five countries (collected online, total N = 2,493), we examined support for military and diplomatic approaches to conflict during war commemorations (e.g., Veterans Day). During war commemorations in the United States, support for diplomacy increased, whereas support for military approaches did not change. We found similar results in the United Kingdom and Australia on Remembrance Day, but not in Germany, or France, nor in Australia on Anzac Day. Furthermore, support for diplomacy was predicted by concern about loss of ingroup military lives during war, independently of concern about harm to outgroup civilians. These studies expand our understanding of how collective memories of war may be leveraged to promote diplomatic approaches to contemporary geopolitical conflict.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Militares , Austrália , França , Humanos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
7.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 29(5): 1019-1024, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927681

RESUMO

Actualizing the vision of Global Digital Health is a central issue on the Global Health Diplomacy agenda. The COVID-reinforced need for accelerated digital health progress will require political structures and processes to build a foundation for Global Digital Health. Simultaneously, Global Health Diplomacy uses digital technologies in its enactment. Both phenomena have driven interest in the term "Digital Health Diplomacy." A review of the literature revealed 2 emerging but distinct definitions that have been published very recently, each with its associated discourse and practice. This multiplicity of ideas demonstrates the myriad ways in which global digital and political systems are becoming increasingly entangled. Untangling these, this paper proposes and discusses 3 dimensions of Digital Health Diplomacy: "Diplomacy for digital health," "Digital health for diplomacy," and "Digital health in diplomacy." It calls upon digital health professionals, diplomats, political and social scientists, epidemiologists, and clinicians to discuss, critique, and advance this emerging domain.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diplomacia , Saúde Global , Humanos
8.
Global Health ; 17(1): 137, 2021 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global health diplomacy (GHD) focuses on the actions taken by diverse stakeholders from different nations -governments, multilateral agents, and civil society- to phenomena that can affect population health and its determinants beyond national borders. Although the literature on conceptual advancements of GHD exists, empirical studies about how health becomes an issue of relevance for foreign policy are scarce. We present an analysis of the entry processes of health into the foreign policy and diplomatic domains in Mexico from the perspective of key informants of three different sectors. METHODS: A purposive sample of high-rank representatives of three sectors involved in GHD was designed: Two from Health Sector (HS), four from Foreign Affairs Sector (FAS), and three from Non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted exploring the topics of: (1) Health concerns entering diplomatic and foreign policy; (2) Processes that allow actors to influence foreign policy and negotiation and; (3) Impact of multilateral negotiations on decision-making at the national level. RESULTS: Our analysis suggests that GHD in Mexico is hierarchically driven by the FAS and health concerns only enter foreign policy when they are relevant to national priorities (such as trade or security). HS possesses a lesser degree of influence in GHD, serving as an instance of consultation for the FAS when deciding on health-related issues at global meetings (i.e., World Health Assembly). NGOs resort to lobbying, advocacy, networking, and coalition-working practices with other sectors (academy, think-tanks) to prevent harmful impacts on local health from multilateral decisions and as a mean to compensate its power asymmetry for influencing GHD processes in relation to the government. CONCLUSIONS: GHD in Mexico occurs in a context of asymmetric power relationships where government actors have the strongest influence. However, NGOs' experience in raising awareness of health risks needs to be weighted by government decision-makers. This situation calls for capacity building on intersectoral communication and coordination to create formal mechanisms of GHD practices, including the professionalization and training on GHD among government agencies.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Saúde Global , Governo , Política de Saúde , Humanos , México , Política Pública
9.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 152, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The steady rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide has been a key global health challenge. Governments have the primary responsibility for taking action to prevent and control NCDs. Given the growing importance of globalization of healthcare as well as the increasing use of soft power, governments need to identify challenges and opportunities to enhance global health diplomacy (GHD) for NCD prevention and control. The purpose of this qualitative research was to explain the challenges and opportunities of GHD for NCDs in Iran. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2020 using a qualitative approach and through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 21 experts and specialists in related fields such as health policy, healthcare management, epidemiology and other related specialties. The participants were selected from all levels of diplomacy, including global, regional and national levels, with at least 3 years of experience in managerial, executive and scientific activities. Data analysis was performed by content analysis with an inductive approach. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. RESULTS: The identified challenges were categorized into five main themes, including content challenges, structural challenges, process challenges, governance challenges and cultural challenges. Opportunities extracted from the interviews were also categorized into four main themes, including strong political will, utilizing the capacity of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), multisectoral collaborations and a well-developed health system. CONCLUSIONS: NCD prevention and control requires a multilateral collaboration-based solution. Recognition of the challenges and opportunities in GHD can help draw significant lessons for building the necessary capacities and implementing more effective policies to prevent and control NCDs.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
10.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 19(3): 68-93, sep.-dic. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357359

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) En este artículo se sostiene una mirada crítica a la construcción de una infancia latinoamericana imaginada desde la posición de los Estados Unidos, a través de la política cultural del panamericanismo; ello a partir de un análisis de la participación infantil hemisférica en el festejo del Día de las Américas (14 de abril) como un proyecto político-cultural de la Unión Panamericana. Por medio de un análisis de fuentes primarias a partir de los métodos de la historia cultural, se aprecia la nueva visibilidad en la esfera pública de los niños como impulsores culturales de una nueva política hemisférica construida desde Washington, D. C. La resultante construcción metafórica de una mirada (neo)colonizadora que infantilizaba a los países latinoamericanos se intensificaba cuando se movilizaba a los niños y niñas como agentes de la política exterior.


Abstract (analytical) This article takes a critical look at the construction of Latin American childhood imagined from the vantage point of the United States through the cultural politics of Pan Americanism. It analyzes children's participation in the celebrations of Pan American Day (April 14) as a political-cultural project of the Pan American Union. Through cultural historical analysis of primary sources, the article argues that children gained political visibility in the public sphere as cultural agents of a new hemispheric political initiative led by Washington, D. C. The resulting metaphorical construction of Latin America as childlike in the (neo)colonial gaze infantilized the region's inhabitants, a historical tendency that intensified when children were mobilized as agents of hemispheric diplomacy.


Resumo (analítico) Este artigo apresenta um olhar crítico sobre a construção de uma infância latino-americana imaginada a partir da posição dos Estados Unidos, por meio da política cultural do pan-americanismo, a partir de uma análise da participação infantil hemisférica na celebração do Dia das Américas (14 de abril) como projeto político-cultural da União Pan-Americana. Por meio de uma análise das fontes primárias dos métodos de história cultural, podese apreciar a nova visibilidade na esfera pública das crianças como impulsionadores culturais de uma nova política hemisférica construída a partir de Washington, D. C. A construção metafórica resultante de um olhar (neo) colonizador que infantilizou os países latino-americanos se intensificava quando as crianças eram mobilizadas como agentes de política externa.


Assuntos
Política , Diplomacia , História
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831511

RESUMO

The African continent is home to 15% of the world's population and suffers from a disease burden of more than 25% globally. In this COVID-19 era, the high burden and mortality are further worsened due to inequities, inequalities such as inadequate health systems, scarce financial and human resources, as well as unavailability of inexpensive medicines of good quality, safety, and efficacy. The Universal Health Coverage ensures that people have access to high-quality essential health services, secure, reliable, and affordable essential medicines and vaccines, as well as financial security. This paper aimed at addressing the critical need for a continental African Medicines Agency (AMA) in addressing the inequities and the role of global health diplomacy in building consensus to support the ratification of the Treaty of AMA. A literature review was done in Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE/PubMed, and Google Scholar search engine to identify the critical literature in the context of study objectives. All the articles published after 2015 till 2021 in the context of AMA were included. African Health Strategy 2016-2030 highlighted the importance of an African regulatory mechanism for medicines and medical products. Through global health diplomacy (GHD), the African Union and its partners can negotiate and cooperate in providing infrastructural, administrative, and regulatory support for establishing the AMA. The paper emphasizes the South-South cooperation and highlights the contributions of India and China in the supply of medicines and vaccines to Africa. A strong AMA created through GHD can be a vital instrument in utilizing Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) flexibilities extension and an ideal partner for European and other regional regulatory authorities seeking to stem the tide of counterfeit, sub-standard, or fake products.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diplomacia , Saúde Global , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1193, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The growing globalization has changed the goals and methods of diplomacy. Due to the challenges and complexities of dealing with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) at the national and international levels, policy makers require global health diplomacy (GHD) to achieve the goals of prevention and control of NCDs. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the challenges and opportunities in GHD for NCDs. METHODS: A systematic review of articles was conducted by searching MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase and by using Google and Google Scholar search engines. Additional articles were identified by reviewing reference lists and a number of special journals. The inclusion criteria include literature published in English from 2007 to 2020, and the exclusion criteria are literature published in any language other than English, absence of full text, dissertations, and duplicates. Overall, 32 articles met the requirements for inclusion in this review and were analyzed using content analysis in MAXQDA 10. FINDINGS: There are 32 published articles on GHD for NCDs. Identified challenges were classified into three levels: global (global health governance), national (Governance at the state level, health sector, and civil society), and industry. The progress on global health issues has created opportunities for the development of GHD for the prevention and control of NCDs. These opportunities were divided into three levels: international, national, and individual level. CONCLUSION: Various challenges at the global level, national level, and industry led to less engagement of policymakers in GHD for prevention and control of NCDs and, as a consequence, a less coordinated approach to address prevention and control of NCDs worldwide. So, there is a need for more efforts of collective action and negotiation for tackling NCDs. Policymakers and managers of the health system should increase the advocacy, building a coalition with civil society, use negotiation and diplomacy to engage with other sectors and organizations, manage industry conflicts, and leverage foreign policy to promote health and welfare.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde Global , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Pública
15.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 37(10): 920-926, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647881

RESUMO

TITLE: La genèse des neurosciences - Entre technosciences* et diplomatie de l'innovation**, des années 1940 aux années 1970. ABSTRACT: À partir des années 1940, plusieurs dynamiques permirent de renforcer le champ des sciences du cerveau et du système nerveux dans un processus interdisciplinaire, favorisé par l'idée que les biochimistes viendraient désormais éclairer les mécanismes physiologiques du système nerveux. Plus globalement, des grands programmes de recherche comme le projet Manhattan*** ou bien la réalisation de l'ENIAC (electronic numerical integrator and computer), avaient mis en évidence l'interpénétration, sans dépendance unilatérale de l'une à l'égard de l'autre, des sciences et des techniques. L'illusion d'une technique « appliquant ¼ les découvertes scientifiques s'évanouit alors. Le concept de « technosciences ¼*, en permettant de sortir de cette dichotomie, permet de mieux comprendre comment, entre les années 1940 et 1970, diverses trajectoires convergèrent pour donner naissance aux « neurosciences modernes ¼ [1, 2].


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Invenções , Neurociências , Saúde Global , Humanos
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6658070, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485525

RESUMO

In light of the devastation caused by COVID-19, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and vaccine research and development (R&D) have been occupying a prominent position in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). Most countries, international organizations, and charitable organizations have been engaged in the R&D of COVID-19 vaccines to ensure timely affordability and accessibility to all countries. Concomitantly, the World Trade Organization (WTO) provides some provisions and enforcements regarding copyrights, patents, trademarks, geographical indications, and industrial designs. Given these safeguards, it is considered that intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become major barriers to the affordability and accessibility of vaccines/medicines/technology, particularly to the developing/least developed countries. Realizing the gravity of the pandemic impact, as well as its huge population and size, India has elevated this issue in its global health diplomacy by submitting a joint proposal with South Africa to the World Trade Organization (WTO) for a temporary waiver of IPRs to ensure timely affordability and accessibility of COVID-19 medical products to all countries. However, the issue of the temporary waive off had become a geopolitical issue. Countries that used to claim per se as strong advocates of human rights, egalitarianism, and healthy democracy have opposed this proposal. In this contrasting milieu, this paper is aimed at examining how the TRIPS has become a barrier for developing countries' development and distribution of vaccines/technology; secondly, how India strategizes its role in the WTO in pursuant of its global health diplomacy? We conclude that the IPRs regime should not become a barrier to the accessibility/affordability of essential drugs and vaccines. To ensure access, India needs to get more engaged in GHD with all the involved global stakeholders to get strong support for their joint proposal. The developed countries that rejected/resisted the proposal can rethink their full support.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Diplomacia/métodos , Indústria Farmacêutica/métodos , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Humanos/métodos , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 655021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322467

RESUMO

Undoubtedly, the COVID-19 pandemic is not the first and most frightening global pandemic, and it may not be the last. At the very least, this phenomenon has though seriously challenged the health systems of the world; it has created a new perspective on the value of national, regional, and international cooperation during crises. The post-coronavirus world could be a world of intensified nationalist rivalries on the economic revival and political influence. However, strengthening cooperation among nations at different levels will lead to the growth of health, economy, and security. The current situation is a touchstone for international actors in coordinating the efforts in similar future crises. At present, this pandemic crisis cannot be resolved except through joint international cooperation, global cohesion, and multilateralism. This perspective concludes that the pandemic could be an excellent opportunity for the scope of global health diplomacy (GHD) and how it can be applied and practiced for strengthening five global arenas, namely (1) International Cooperation and Global Solidarity, (2) Global Economy, Trade and Development, (3) Global Health Security, (4) Strengthening health systems, and (5) Addressing inequities to achieve the global health targets. GHD proves to be very useful for negotiating better policies, stronger partnerships, and achieving international cooperation in this phase with many geopolitical shifts and nationalist mindset among many nations at this stage of COVID-19 vaccine roll-out.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diplomacia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nurs Forum ; 56(3): 604-611, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursing organizations play an important role in fulfilling the professional demands of nurses. The Iranian Nursing Organization (INO) is also using diplomatic activities in this direction. AIM: This study was conducted to explain the diplomatic activities of INO. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted using conventional content analysis. A purposive sampling approach was used. Data were collected via in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews with 21 nurses at various INOs in different cities from March to July 2020. The data collection process continued until data saturation. Interviews were analyzed using Graneheim and Lundman's (2004) guidelines. The MAXQDA software (v. 10) was used. FINDING: The results showed that the diplomatic activities of INO comprise professional (three categories), social (two categories), and diplomacy in power network (two categories). CONCLUSION: INO carries out diplomatic activities at organizational, national and international levels and pursues its professional nursing goals through diplomacy. INO also uses social diplomacy and political diplomacy to influence decision-makers in the community and network of power.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sociedades de Enfermagem
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