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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274554, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099283

RESUMO

Species with low effective population sizes are at greater risk of extinction because of reduced genetic diversity. Such species are more vulnerable to chance events that decrease population sizes (e.g. demographic stochasticity). Dipodomys elator, (Texas kangaroo rat) is a kangaroo rat that is classified as threatened in Texas and field surveys from the past 50 years indicate that the distribution of this species has decreased. This suggests geographic range reductions that could have caused population fluctuations, potentially impacting effective population size. Conversely, the more common and widespread D. ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat) is thought to exhibit relative geographic and demographic stability. We assessed the genetic variation of D. elator and D. ordii samples using 3RAD, a modified restriction site associated sequencing approach. We hypothesized that D. elator would show lower levels of nucleotide diversity, observed heterozygosity, and effective population size when compared to D. ordii. We were also interested in identifying population structure within contemporary samples of D. elator and detecting genetic variation between temporal samples to understand demographic dynamics. We analyzed up to 61,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We found that genetic variability and effective population size in contemporary D. elator populations is lower than that of D. ordii. There is slight, if any, population structure within contemporary D. elator samples, and we found low genetic differentiation between spatial or temporal historical samples. This indicates little change in nuclear genetic diversity over 30 years. Results suggest that genetic diversity of D. elator has remained stable despite reduced population size and/or abundance, which may indicate a metapopulation-like system, whose fluctuations might counteract species extinction.


Assuntos
Dipodomys , Variação Genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Dipodomys/genética , Densidade Demográfica , Texas
2.
Integr Comp Biol ; 62(2): 237-251, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587374

RESUMO

The gut microbial communities of mammals provide numerous benefits to their hosts. However, given the recent development of the microbiome field, we still lack a thorough understanding of the variety of ecological and evolutionary factors that structure these communities across species. Metabarcoding is a powerful technique that allows for multiple microbial ecology questions to be investigated simultaneously. Here, we employed DNA metabarcoding techniques, predictive metagenomics, and culture-dependent techniques to inventory the gut microbial communities of several species of rodent collected from the same environment that employ different natural feeding strategies [granivorous pocket mice (Chaetodipus penicillatus); granivorous kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami); herbivorous woodrats (Neotoma albigula); omnivorous cactus mice (Peromyscus eremicus); and insectivorous grasshopper mice (Onychomys torridus)]. Of particular interest were shifts in gut microbial communities in rodent species with herbivorous and insectivorous diets, given the high amounts of indigestible fibers and chitinous exoskeleton in these diets, respectively. We found that herbivorous woodrats harbored the greatest microbial diversity. Granivorous pocket mice and kangaroo rats had the highest abundances of the genus Ruminococcus and highest predicted abundances of genes related to the digestion of fiber, representing potential adaptations in these species to the fiber content of seeds and the limitations to digestion given their small body size. Insectivorous grasshopper mice exhibited the greatest inter-individual variation in the membership of their microbiomes, and also exhibited the highest predicted abundances of chitin-degrading genes. Culture-based approaches identified 178 microbial isolates (primarily Bacillus and Enterococcus), with some capable of degrading cellulose and chitin. We observed several instances of strain-level diversity in these metabolic capabilities across isolates, somewhat highlighting the limitations and hidden diversity underlying DNA metabarcoding techniques. However, these methods offer power in allowing the investigation of several questions concurrently, thus enhancing our understanding of gut microbial ecology.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Quitina , Dipodomys , Herbivoria , Peromyscus , Roedores
3.
Genome Biol Evol ; 14(1)2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026029

RESUMO

Kangaroo rats in the genus Dipodomys are found in a variety of habitat types in western North America, including deserts, arid and semiarid grasslands, and scrublands. Many Dipodomys species are experiencing strong population declines due to increasing habitat fragmentation, with two species listed as federally endangered in the United States. The precarious state of many Dipodomys populations, including those occupying extreme environments, make species of this genus valuable subjects for studying the impacts of habitat degradation and fragmentation on population genomic patterns and for characterizing the genomic bases of adaptation to harsh conditions. To facilitate exploration of such questions, we assembled and annotated a reference genome for the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) using PacBio HiFi sequencing reads, providing a more contiguous genomic resource than two previously assembled Dipodomys genomes. Using the HiFi data for D. spectabilis and publicly available sequencing data for two other Dipodomys species (Dipodomys ordii and Dipodomys stephensi), we demonstrate the utility of this new assembly for studies of congeners by conducting inference of historic effective population sizes (Ne) and linking these patterns to the species' current extinction risk statuses. The genome assembly presented here will serve as a valuable resource for population and conservation genomic studies of Dipodomys species, comparative genomic research within mammals and rodents, and investigations into genomic adaptation to extreme environments and changing landscapes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Dipodomys , Animais , Dipodomys/genética , Ecossistema , Humanos , Roedores/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
J Exp Biol ; 225(2)2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019972

RESUMO

Small bipedal hoppers, including kangaroo rats, are not thought to benefit from substantial elastic energy storage and return during hopping. However, recent species-specific material properties research suggests that, despite relative thickness, the ankle extensor tendons of these small hoppers are considerably more compliant than had been assumed. With faster locomotor speeds demanding higher forces, a lower tendon stiffness suggests greater tendon deformation and thus a greater potential for elastic energy storage and return with increasing speed. Using the elastic modulus values specific to kangaroo rat tendons, we sought to determine how much elastic energy is stored and returned during hopping across a range of speeds. In vivo techniques were used to record tendon force in the ankle extensors during steady-speed hopping. Our data support the hypothesis that the ankle extensor tendons of kangaroo rats store and return elastic energy in relation to hopping speed, storing more at faster speeds. Despite storing comparatively less elastic energy than larger hoppers, this relationship between speed and energy storage offers novel evidence of a functionally similar energy storage mechanism, operating irrespective of body size or tendon thickness, across the distal muscle-tendon units of both small and large bipedal hoppers.


Assuntos
Dipodomys , Locomoção , Animais , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Músculo Esquelético , Músculos , Tendões
5.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(6): 1435-1447, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605198

RESUMO

Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) use specialized bipedal hopping like that of kangaroos. In contrast to kangaroos that have elastic tendons capable of storing energy, kangaroo rats have inelastic tendons that are unable to store large amounts of energy. Thus, the musculature of the ankle joint provides the greatest power contribution to kangaroo rat hopping. Skeletal muscle can be characterized by several fiber types, including slow twitch (Type I) and fast twitch (Type II) fibers. Fast fibers are found in higher concentration in muscles that perform quick, dynamic movements, whereas slow fibers are found in higher proportion in muscles that perform slow, endurant movements. Using fiber type specific antibodies, we identified four pure (Types I, IIA, IIB, and IIX) and two hybrid (Types I/IIA and IIA/IIX) fiber types in six hindlimb muscles from three kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) to investigate the relationship between fiber composition and hindlimb muscle function. Hindlimb muscles (except soleus) were dominated by Type IIB fibers, which were largest in cross-sectional area, and are known to be best suited for rapid and explosive movements. Oxidative Type IIA and Type IIX fibers were found at moderate concentrations and likely function in maintaining continual saltatory locomotion. Thus, kangaroo rats can use these two fiber type populations as "gears" for both endurant and explosive behaviors.


Assuntos
Dipodomys , Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Locomoção/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Potoroidae
6.
J Anat ; 240(3): 466-474, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648184

RESUMO

Body size is a key factor that influences antipredator behavior. For animals that rely on jumping to escape from predators, there is a theoretical trade-off between jump distance and acceleration as body size changes at both the inter- and intraspecific levels. Assuming geometric similarity, acceleration will decrease with increasing body size due to a smaller increase in muscle cross-sectional area than body mass. Smaller animals will likely have a similar jump distance as larger animals due to their shorter limbs and faster accelerations. Therefore, in order to maintain acceleration in a jump across different body sizes, hind limbs must be disproportionately bigger for larger animals. We explored this prediction using four species of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.), a genus of bipedal rodent with similar morphology across a range of body sizes (40-150 g). Kangaroo rat jump performance was measured by simulating snake strikes to free-ranging individuals. Additionally, morphological measurements of hind limb muscles and segment lengths were obtained from thawed frozen specimens. Overall, jump acceleration was constant across body sizes and jump distance increased with increasing size. Additionally, kangaroo rat hind limb muscle mass and cross-sectional area scaled with positive allometry. Ankle extensor tendon cross-sectional area also scaled with positive allometry. Hind limb segment length scaled isometrically, with the exception of the metatarsals, which scaled with negative allometry. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that kangaroo rat hind limbs are built to maintain jump acceleration rather than jump distance. Selective pressure from single-strike predators, such as snakes and owls, likely drives this relationship.


Assuntos
Dipodomys , Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Dipodomys/fisiologia , Membro Posterior/anatomia & histologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Tendões/anatomia & histologia
7.
J Exp Biol ; 224(24)2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870703

RESUMO

The musculotendon work contributions across all joints during jumping by kangaroo rats are not well understood. Namely, measures of external joint work do not provide information on the contributions from individual muscles or in-series elastic structures. In this study, we examined the functional roles of a major ankle extensor muscle, the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and a major knee extensor muscle, the vastus lateralis (VL), through in vivo sonomicrometry and electromyography techniques, during vertical jumping by kangaroo rats. Our data showed that both muscles increased shortening and activity with higher jumps. We found that knee angular velocity and VL muscle shortening velocity were coupled in time. In contrast, the ankle angular velocity and LG muscle shortening velocity were decoupled, and rapid joint extension near the end of the jump produced high power outputs at the ankle joint. Further, the decoupling of muscle and joint kinematics allowed the LG muscle to prolong the period of shortening velocity near optimal velocity, which likely enabled the muscle to sustain maximal power generation. These observations were consistent with an LG tendon that is much more compliant than that of the VL.


Assuntos
Dipodomys , Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Tendões/fisiologia
8.
Integr Comp Biol ; 61(2): 442-454, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940620

RESUMO

Tails are widespread in the animal world and play important roles in locomotor tasks, such as propulsion, maneuvering, stability, and manipulation of objects. Kangaroo rats, bipedal hopping rodents, use their tail for balancing during hopping, but the role of their tail during the vertical evasive escape jumps they perform when attacked by predators is yet to be determined. Because we observed kangaroo rats swinging their tails around their bodies while airborne following escape jumps, we hypothesized that kangaroo rats use their tails to not only stabilize their bodies while airborne, but also to perform aerial re-orientations. We collected video data from free-ranging desert kangaroo rats (Dipodomys deserti) performing escape jumps in response to a simulated predator attack and analyzed the rotation of their bodies and tails in the yaw plane (about the vertical-axis). Kangaroo rat escape responses were highly variable. The magnitude of body re-orientation in yaw was independent of jump height, jump distance, and aerial time. Kangaroo rats exhibited a stepwise re-orientation while airborne, in which slower turning periods corresponded with the tail center of mass being aligned close to the vertical rotation axis of the body. To examine the effect of tail motion on body re-orientation during a jump, we compared average rate of change in angular momentum. Rate of change in tail angular momentum was nearly proportional to that of the body, indicating that the tail reorients the body in the yaw plane during aerial escape leaps by kangaroo rats. Although kangaroo rats make dynamic 3D movements during their escape leaps, our data suggest that kangaroo rats use their tails to control orientation in the yaw plane. Additionally, we show that kangaroo rats rarely use their tail length at full potential in yaw, suggesting the importance of tail movement through multiple planes simultaneously.


Assuntos
Dipodomys , Cauda , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Dipodomys/fisiologia , Cauda/fisiologia
9.
J Exp Biol ; 223(Pt 18)2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680898

RESUMO

The force-velocity (F-V) properties of isolated muscles or muscle fibers have been well studied in humans and other animals. However, determining properties of individual muscles in vivo remains a challenge because muscles usually function within a synergistic group. Modeling has been used to estimate the properties of an individual muscle from the experimental measurement of the muscle group properties. While this approach can be valuable, the models and the associated predictions are difficult to validate. In this study, we measured the in situ F-V properties of the maximally activated kangaroo rat plantarflexor group and used two different assumptions and associated models to estimate the properties of the individual plantarflexors. The first model (Mdl1) assumed that the percent contributions of individual muscles to group force and power were based upon the muscles' cross-sectional area and were constant across the different isotonic loads applied to the muscle group. The second model (Mdl2) assumed that the F-V properties of the fibers within each muscle were identical, but because of differences in muscle architecture, the muscles' contributions to the group properties changed with isotonic load. We compared the two model predictions with independent estimates of the muscles' contributions based upon sonomicrometry measurements of muscle length. We found that predictions from Mdl2 were not significantly different from sonomicrometry-based estimates while those from Mdl1 were significantly different. The results of this study show that incorporating appropriate fiber properties and muscle architecture is necessary to parse the individual muscles' contributions to the group F-V properties.


Assuntos
Dipodomys , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Animais , Contração Muscular , Músculo Esquelético
10.
J Cell Biol ; 219(8)2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435797

RESUMO

At cell division, the mammalian kinetochore binds many spindle microtubules that make up the kinetochore-fiber. To segregate chromosomes, the kinetochore-fiber must be dynamic and generate and respond to force. Yet, how it remodels under force remains poorly understood. Kinetochore-fibers cannot be reconstituted in vitro, and exerting controlled forces in vivo remains challenging. Here, we use microneedles to pull on mammalian kinetochore-fibers and probe how sustained force regulates their dynamics and structure. We show that force lengthens kinetochore-fibers by persistently favoring plus-end polymerization, not by increasing polymerization rate. We demonstrate that force suppresses depolymerization at both plus and minus ends, rather than sliding microtubules within the kinetochore-fiber. Finally, we observe that kinetochore-fibers break but do not detach from kinetochores or poles. Together, this work suggests an engineering principle for spindle structural homeostasis: different physical mechanisms of local force dissipation by the k-fiber limit force transmission to preserve robust spindle structure. These findings may inform how other dynamic, force-generating cellular machines achieve mechanical robustness.


Assuntos
Segregação de Cromossomos , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Rim/fisiologia , Cinetocoros/fisiologia , Mecanotransdução Celular , Fuso Acromático/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Dipodomys , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Rim/citologia , Rim/metabolismo , Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico , Fatores de Tempo , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
11.
J Anim Ecol ; 89(8): 1837-1850, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271948

RESUMO

Constraint-breaking adaptations are evolutionary tools that provide a mechanism for incumbent-replacement between species filling similar ecological roles. In common-garden experiments, we exposed populations of two desert rodents to two different viper species, testing their ability to adjust to novel predators that use different hunting strategies. We aimed to understand whether both predators and prey with constraint-breaking adaptations actually manifest comparative advantage over their counterparts. We used convergent species from desert dunes in the Mojave Desert in North America, Merriam's kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami and the sidewinder rattlesnake Crotalus cerastes, and from the Negev Desert in the Middle East, the greater Egyptian gerbil Gerbillus pyramidum and the Saharan horned viper Cerastes cerastes. Both Mojave species hold constraint-breaking adaptations in relation to their counterparts from the Negev. The rattlesnakes have heat sensing organs (pits) and the kangaroo rats have fur-lined cheek pouches that allow for greater foraging efficiency and food preservation. Using patch-use theory, we evaluated the rodents' risk-assessment from each snake-separately, together and in combination with barn owls. Initially each rodent species foraged less in the presence of its familiar snake, but within a month both foraged less in the presence of the pit-viper (sidewinder). Our findings indicate a level of learning, and behavioural plasticity, in both rodents and ability to assess the risk from novel predators. The kangaroo rats were capable of harvesting far greater amounts of resources under the same conditions of elevated risk. However, the reason for their advantage may lie in bi-pedal agility and not only their ability collect food more efficiently.


Assuntos
Dipodomys , Comportamento Predatório , África do Norte , Animais , Crotalus , América do Norte
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1917): 20192269, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822258

RESUMO

Human activities alter processes that control local biodiversity, causing changes in the abundance and identity of species in ecosystems. However, restoring biodiversity to a previous state is rarely as simple as reintroducing lost species or restoring processes to their pre-disturbance state. Theory suggests that established species can impede shifts in species composition via a variety of mechanisms, including direct interference, pre-empting resources or habitat alteration. These mechanisms can create transitory dynamics that delay convergence to an expected end state. We use an experimental manipulation of a desert rodent community to examine differences in recolonization dynamics of a dominant competitor (kangaroo rats of the genus Dipodomys) when patches were already occupied by an existing rodent community relative to when patches were empty. Recovery of kangaroo rat populations was slow on plots with an established community, taking approximately 2 years, in contrast with rapid recovery on empty plots with no established residents (approx. three months). These results demonstrate that the presence of an established alternate community inhibits recolonization by new species, even those that should be dominant in the community. This has important implications for understanding how biodiversity may change in the future, and what processes may slow or prevent this change.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Dipodomys/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Biodiversidade , Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , Roedores
13.
Artif Life ; 25(3): 236-249, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397600

RESUMO

Bipedal hopping is an efficient form of locomotion, yet it remains relatively rare in the natural world. Previous research has suggested that the tail balances the angular momentum of the legs to produce steady state bipedal hopping. In this study, we employ a 3D physics simulation engine to optimize gaits for an animat whose control and morphological characteristics are subject to computational evolution, which emulates properties of natural evolution. Results indicate that the order of gene fixation during the evolutionary process influences whether a bipedal hopping or quadrupedal bounding gait emerges. Furthermore, we found that in the most effective bipedal hoppers the tail balances the angular momentum of the torso, rather than the legs as previously thought. Finally, there appears to be a specific range of tail masses, as a proportion of total body mass, wherein the most effective bipedal hoppers evolve.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Dipodomys , Marcha , Locomoção , Algoritmos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Biologia Computacional , Dipodomys/genética , Dipodomys/fisiologia , Marcha/genética , Genoma/genética , Locomoção/genética , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Cauda/fisiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8196, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160640

RESUMO

Tendons must be able to withstand the forces generated by muscles and not fail. Accordingly, a previous comparative analysis across species has shown that tendon strength (i.e., failure stress) increases for larger species. In addition, the elastic modulus increases proportionally to the strength, demonstrating that the two properties co-vary. However, some species may need specially adapted tendons to support high performance motor activities, such as sprinting and jumping. Our objective was to determine if the tendons of kangaroo rats (k-rat), small bipedal animals that can jump as high as ten times their hip height, are an exception to the linear relationship between elastic modulus and strength. We measured and compared the material properties of tendons from k-rat ankle extensor muscles to those of similarly sized white rats. The elastic moduli of k-rat and rat tendons were not different, but k-rat tendon failure stresses were much larger than the rat values (nearly 2 times larger), as were toughness (over 2.5 times larger) and ultimate strain (over 1.5 times longer). These results support the hypothesis that the tendons from k-rats are specially adapted for high motor performance, and k-rat tendon could be a novel model for improving tissue engineered tendon replacements.


Assuntos
Tendões/fisiologia , Animais , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Dipodomys , Módulo de Elasticidade , Elasticidade , Feminino , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Pressão , Estresse Mecânico , Resistência à Tração
15.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 47(11): 2168-2177, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111328

RESUMO

The combined force-length (F-L) properties of a muscle group acting synergistically at a joint are determined by several aspects of the F-L properties of the individual musculotendon units. Namely, misalignment of the optimal lengths of the individual muscles will affect the group F-L properties. This misalignment, which we named [Formula: see text], arises from the properties of the muscles (i.e., optimum fiber length and pennation angle) and of their tendons (i.e., compliance and slack length). The aim of this study was to measure the F-L properties of kangaroo rat plantarflexors as a group and individually and determine the effects of [Formula: see text] on the group F-L properties. Specifically, we performed a sensitivity analysis to quantify how [Formula: see text] influences the tradeoff between maximizing the peak force vs. having a wider group F-L curve. In the kangaroo rat, we found that the optimal lengths of two bi-articular musculotendon units, the plantaris and the gastrocnemius, were misaligned by 1.8 mm, but this amount favored maximal peak force rather than increasing F-L curve width. Because we measured the misalignment in situ, we could directly assess the tradeoff between maximizing peak force vs. a wider F-L curve without making modeling assumptions about the individual muscle or tendon properties.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Tendões/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Dipodomys , Feminino , Masculino
16.
J Hered ; 110(5): 548-558, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715400

RESUMO

From a conservation management perspective it is important to understand how genetic diversity is partitioned across a species' range, including 1) identification of evolutionarily distinct units versus those recently isolated through anthropogenic activities and 2) the relative genetic contributions among components of fragmented (meta)populations. To address these questions, we investigated the phylogeography and metapopulation structure among relict populations of the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens) in the highly altered San Joaquin Desert Ecosystem. This keystone species underwent a ~97% range reduction over the past century, resulting in a current range that is highly fragmented, with 2 dominant northern and southern populations occurring 150 km apart. We sequenced >800 bp of mitochondrial DNA and genotyped 17 nuclear microsatellites in >275 D. ingens to assess the evolutionary relationship of these populations as well as the genetic structure within the northern metapopulation. A Bayesian Skyline Plot indicated that the species experienced a demographic expansion toward the end of the Pleistocene, with a recent population decline. Northern and southern D. ingens split 1857-13 443 years ago, prior to the massive conversion of the San Joaquin Valley to irrigated agriculture. We recommend that the northern and southern populations of D. ingens be re-classified as distinct population segments under the United States Endangered Species Act. We also observed population structure and asymmetrical migration within northern D. ingens where the Tumey Hills acted as a source contributing gene flow to all peripheral populations. This emphasized the importance of this location in the conservation of the metapopulation as a whole.


Assuntos
Dipodomys , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Densidade Demográfica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , DNA Mitocondrial , Estruturas Genéticas , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Vigilância da População
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(7): 1847-1854, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective management of ground squirrels relies on an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Rodenticides may be included in an IPM program, but they must be efficacious with minimal impact on nontarget species. A zinc phosphide-coated green bait may meet these requirements. We established a study in northeastern California to test zinc phosphide-coated cabbage as a management tool for Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi). We specifically addressed factors that would influence the efficacy of a baiting program, as well as potential exposure risk to nontarget species. RESULTS: We found that prebaiting was an important application strategy, and efficacy increased as ground squirrel abundance increased. Efficacy was also greater in western portions of the study area, likely due to greater bait consumption at western sites. Belding's ground squirrels fed most heavily on cabbage during mid-morning and late afternoon; bait applications shortly before these time periods would increase bait consumption while minimizing nontarget risk. Bait uptake was greatest around burrow entrances. The only nontarget species observed feeding on cabbage was the California kangaroo rat (Dipodomys californicus), although they were never observed feeding on treated cabbage. CONCLUSION: Zinc phosphide-coated cabbage can be an efficacious tool for managing ground squirrels, but there will be limitations on where and how it can be used effectively. It posed a low risk to nontarget species present in our study area, but nontarget risk could vary regionally. The use of a zinc phosphide-coated green bait should only be one part of an IPM strategy for managing ground squirrels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fosfinas/farmacologia , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Rodenticidas/farmacologia , Sciuridae/fisiologia , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Brassica , California , Dipodomys/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar
18.
J Exp Biol ; 221(Pt 22)2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420493

RESUMO

Kangaroo rats are small bipedal desert rodents that use erratic vertical jumps to escape predator strikes. In this study we examined how individual hind limb joints of desert kangaroo rats (Dipodomys deserti) power vertical jumps across a range of heights. We hypothesized that increases in net work would be equally divided across hind limb joints with increases in jump height. To test this hypothesis, we used an inverse dynamics analysis to quantify the mechanical output from the hind limb joints of kangaroo rats jumping vertically over a wide range of heights. The kangaroo rats in this study reached maximal jump heights up to ∼9-times hip height. Net joint work increased significantly with jump height at the hip, knee and ankle, and decreased significantly at the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. The increase in net work generated by each joint was not proportional across joints but was dominated by the ankle, which ranged from contributing 56% of the work done on the center of mass at low jumps to 70% during the highest jumps. Therefore, the results of this study did not support our hypothesis. However, using an anatomical model, we estimated that a substantial proportion of the work delivered at the ankle (48%) was transferred from proximal muscles via the biarticular ankle extensors.


Assuntos
Dipodomys/fisiologia , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Membro Posterior/anatomia & histologia , Articulações/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
19.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 301(11): 1928-1935, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288962

RESUMO

The uterine surface undergoes significant remodeling, termed the "plasma membrane transformation," during pregnancy to allow for implantation of the blastocyst and formation of the placenta in viviparous amniote vertebrates. Unlike other species within the superorder Euarchontoglires, which have a hemochorial (highly invasive) placenta, kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) exhibit a less invasive endotheliochorial placenta. We characterized the changes that occur to membrane molecules and the cellular ultrastructure of the uterine epithelium during early pregnancy in Merriam's kangaroo rat, Dipodomys merriami using electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy. Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) is an adhesion protein that forms the adherens junction and is localized to the lateral plasma membrane of uterine epithelium during the nonreproductive state but localizes nonspecifically in the uterine epithelium immediately preceding implantation. Desmosomes are a type of cadherin that form junctional complexes along the lateral plasma membrane of epithelium. Dsg-2, a marker for desmosomes, is localized along the lateral plasma membrane in non-pregnant animals but redistributes to the apical region of the lateral plasma membrane during early pregnancy. The shift in desmosome and cadherin distribution before implantation suggests that there is a reduction in lateral adhesion between epithelial cells to allow for invasion by the blastocyst. Surprisingly, although Kangaroo rats form a less invasive placenta, these same changes occur during pregnancy in species with highly invasive placentation, such as the laboratory rat and human. These commonalities suggest that it is not through the retention of lateral adhesion that the blastocyst is prevented from further invasion in this rodent species. Anat Rec, 301:1928-1935, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Útero/fisiologia , Útero/ultraestrutura , Animais , Dipodomys , Feminino , Gravidez , Útero/química
20.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(10): 1626-1632, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201962

RESUMO

A recent surge of studies have suggested that many novel genes arise de novo from previously noncoding DNA and not by duplication. However, most studies concentrated on longer evolutionary time scales and rarely considered protein structural properties. Therefore, it remains unclear how these properties are shaped by evolution, depend on genetic mechanisms and influence gene survival. Here we compare open reading frames (ORFs) from high coverage transcriptomes from mouse and another four mammals covering 160 million years of evolution. We find that novel ORFs pervasively emerge from noncoding regions but are rapidly lost again, while relatively fewer arise from the divergence of coding sequences but are retained much longer. We also find that a subset (14%) of the mouse-specific ORFs bind ribosomes and are potentially translated, showing that such ORFs can be the starting points of gene emergence. Surprisingly, disorder and other protein properties of young ORFs hardly change with gene age in short time frames. Only length and nucleotide composition change significantly. Thus, some transcribed de novo genes resemble 'frozen accidents' of randomly emerged ORFs that survived initial purging. This perspective complies with very recent studies indicating that some neutrally evolving transcripts containing random protein sequences may be translated and be viable starting points of de novo gene emergence.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Mamíferos/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Dipodomys/genética , Humanos , Camundongos/genética , Monodelphis/genética , Ratos/genética
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