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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246451, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495152

RESUMO

Dipteryx alata Vogel is a tree species widely found in Cerrado, settling preferentially in well drained soils. Studies related to ecophysiology of D. alata may contribute to the decision making about using seedlings of this species in projects aimed at the recovery of degraded areas where seasonal flooding happens. This study aimed to assess the effects of flooding on photosynthetic and antioxidant metabolism and quality of D. alata seedlings cultivated or not under flooding during four assessment periods (0, 20, 40, and 60 days), followed by 100 days after the end of each assessment period (0+100, 20+100, 40+100, and 60+100 days), allowing verifying the potential for post-flooding recovery. Flooded plants showed lower photosynthetic efficiency than non-flooded plants, regardless of the periods of exposure. However, this efficiency was recovered in the post-flooding, with values similar to that of the non-flooded seedlings. Moreover, the damage to FV/FM was evidenced by an increase in the period of exposure to flooding, but recovery was also observed at this stage of the photosynthetic metabolism. Seedling quality decreased under flooding, not varying between periods of exposure, but remained lower although the increase observed in the post-flooding period, with no recovery after flooding. The occurrence of hypertrophied lenticels associated with physiological changes and an efficient antioxidant enzyme system might have contributed to the survival and recovery of these seedlings. Thus, this species is sensitive to flooding stress but capable of adjusting and recovering metabolic characteristics at 100 days after the suspension of the water stress, but with no recovery in seedling quality. Thus, we suggested plasticity under the cultivation condition and determined that the time of 100 days is not enough for the complete resumption of growth.


Assuntos
Dipteryx , Plântula , Antioxidantes , Inundações , Fotossíntese
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16455, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020558

RESUMO

The remarkable phytogeographic characteristics of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) resulted in a vegetation domain composed of plants with high structural and functional diversity to tolerate climate extremes. Here we used a key Cerrado species (Dipteryx alata) to evaluate if species of this domain present a mechanism of stress memory, responding more quickly and efficiently when exposed to recurrent drought episodes. The exposure of D. alata seedlings to drought resulted in several changes, mainly in physiological and biochemical traits, and these changes differed substantially when the water deficit was imposed as an isolated event or when the plants were subjected to drought cycles, suggesting the existence of a drought memory mechanism. Plants submitted to recurrent drought events were able to maintain essential processes for plant survival when compared to those submitted to drought for the first time. This differential acclimation to drought was the result of orchestrated changes in several metabolic pathways, involving differential carbon allocation for defense responses and the reprogramming and coordination of primary, secondary and antioxidant metabolism. The stress memory in D. alata is probably linked the evolutionary history of the species and reflects the environment in which it evolved.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Dipteryx/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brasil , Clima , Dipteryx/metabolismo , Secas , Pradaria , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo
3.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722431

RESUMO

Fruits are sources of bioactive compounds that are responsible for several biological activities. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the chemical composition of the pulp of the Brazilian Savanna fruit Dipteryx alata; evaluate its toxic effects, influence on the life expectancy of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and its antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo; and describe the mechanisms involved. The chemical compounds identified include phenols, terpenes, fatty acid derivatives, vitamins, and a carboxylic acid. The in vitro antioxidant activity was demonstrated by radical scavenging methods. In vivo, the D. alata fruit pulp was not toxic and promoted resistance to oxidative stress in nematodes exposed to a chemical oxidizing agent. Furthermore, it promoted an increased life expectancy in wild-type nematodes and increased the expression of superoxide dismutase and the nuclear translocation of DAF-16. These results suggest that the beneficial effects identified are related to these two genes, which are involved in the regulation of metabolic activities, the control of oxidative stress, and the lifespan of C. elegans. These beneficial effects, which may be related to its chemical constituents, demonstrate its potential use as a functional and/or nutraceutical food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Dipteryx/química , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Pradaria , Expectativa de Vida , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/genética
4.
J Hered ; 111(4): 346-356, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402074

RESUMO

Dipteryx timber has been heavily exploited in South America since 2000s due to the increasing international demand for hardwood. Developing tools for the genetic identification of Dipteryx species and their geographical origin can help to promote legal trading of timber. A collection of 800 individual trees, belonging to 6 different Dipteryx species, was genotyped based on 171 molecular markers. After the exclusion of markers out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or with no polymorphism or low amplification, 83 nuclear, 29 chloroplast, 13 mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and 2 chloroplast and 5 mitochondrial INDELS remained. Six genetic groups were identified using Bayesian Structure analyses of the nuclear SNPs, which corresponded to the different Dipteryx species collected in the field. Seventeen highly informative markers were identified as suitable for species identification and obtained self-assignment success rates to species level of 78-96%. An additional set of 15 molecular markers was selected to determine the different genetic clusters found in Dipteryx odorata and Dipteryx ferrea, obtaining self-assignment success rates of 91-100%. The success to assign samples to the correct country of origin using all or only the informative markers improved when using the nearest neighbor approach (69-92%) compared to the Bayesian approach (33-80%). While nuclear and chloroplast SNPs were more suitable for differentiating the different Dipteryx species, mitochondrial SNPs were ideal for determining the genetic clusters of D. odorata and D. ferrea. These 32 selected SNPs will be invaluable genetic tools for the accurate identification of species and country of origin of Dipteryx timber.


Assuntos
Dipteryx/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Teorema de Bayes , Análise por Conglomerados , Dipteryx/classificação , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Geografia , Mutação INDEL , América do Sul , Árvores/genética
5.
Food Res Int ; 131: 109026, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247467

RESUMO

This work aimed to contribute to the nutritional and functional characterization of roasted baru nuts, a seed widely consumed and produced in Brazil. Baru nut was characterized in terms of its nutritional value and volatile composition (SPME-GC-MS analysis). The ultrasound assisted extraction was used to extract free and bound phenolic compounds that were identified by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method. Bioactivity assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity (ORAC and HOSC assay) and anticancer effect (inhibition of HT29 cell growth and targeting of cancer stemness) of baru nut extracts and phenolic compounds. Results showed that baru is a good source of protein and monounsaturated fatty acids, specifically oleic acid (47.20 g/100 g). The predominant volatile compounds are hexanal (71.18%) and 2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine (9.43%). The main phenolic compounds identified were gallic acid and its derivatives, such as gallic acid esters and gallotannins. Among all, gallic acid and methyl gallate seemed to be the main compounds responsible for the high antioxidant activity. The antiproliferative effect evaluated of baru extracts in HT29 cell line showed ability to impair cell growth in both monolayer and spheroid cultures and to reduce ALDH+ population. These results supply new information about the functional compounds presents in baru nut, which are important sources of natural antioxidants and antiproliferative compounds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Dipteryx/química , Valor Nutritivo , Nozes/química , Fenóis/análise , Brasil , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Gálico/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Células HT29 , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
6.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(2): 217-225, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030573

RESUMO

The expansion of land use for agricultural interests and the excessive use of herbicides are among the causes of biodiversity losses in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypothesis that Dipteryx alata Vogel, a common species in this biome, is sensitive to nicosulfuron because of its high phytotoxicity. We evaluated physiological, biochemical and morphological responses in D. alata plants exposed to increasing doses of the herbicide. Young plants were transplanted to 10 L pots containing substrate composed of soil and sand (2:1) after fertilization. After an acclimation period, the following doses of nicosulfuron were applied: 0 (control), 6, 12, 24, 48, and 60 g a.e. ha-1. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design factorial scheme with six doses of nicosulfuron, three evaluation times, and five replicates per treatment. The effects of the herbicide were assessed by measuring gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, membrane permeability, antioxidant enzymes and acetolactate synthase. Nicosulfuron altered the photosynthetic machinery and enzymatic metabolism of D. alata. Reductions in physiological traits, increased catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities, enhanced malondialdehyde concentrations rate of electrolyte leakage and decreased acetolactate synthase activity in response to nicosulfuron all suggest that D. alata is sensitive to this herbicide.


Assuntos
Dipteryx/fisiologia , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Piridinas/toxicidade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/toxicidade , Agricultura , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brasil , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Fotossíntese
7.
Genetica ; 148(1): 1-11, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858318

RESUMO

There is a high international demand for timber from the genus Dipteryx, or "shihuahuaco" as it is known in Peru. Developing tools that allow the identification and discrimination of Dipteryx species is therefore important for supporting management of natural populations and to underpin legal trade of its timber. The objective of this study was the molecular characterization of Dipteryx species in the Peruvian Amazonia. Two plastid regions (cpDNA: trnH-psbA and matK) were sequenced and 11 microsatellite markers (nDNA) were genotyped for 32 individuals identified as Dipteryx charapilla, D. micrantha morphotype 1 and D. micrantha morphotype 2. Using the concatenated sequences of the plastid genes, we identified ten haplotypes that were not shared between the species or between the D. micrantha morphotypes. Haplotypic diversity was greater in D. micrantha morphotype 2 and D. charapilla than in D. micrantha morphotype 1, which presented only one haplotype with a wide distribution in Peru. The microsatellites allowed the discrimination of the same three clades and identified diagnostic alleles for each clade. These results allowed us to demonstrate that the two morphotypes of D. micrantha are different at both the plastid and nuclear markers, which supports the existence of three genetically distinct species in Peru. This study provides information for the genetic discrimination of Dipteryx species and emphasises the importance of conserving the genetic variability of this genus in the Peruvian Amazonia.


Assuntos
Dipteryx/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Alelos , DNA de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Peru , Filogenia , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 21(6): 1016-1023, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237057

RESUMO

The presence of glandular appendages in the anthers is a rare condition in angiosperms. In Leguminosae it occurs in species of the Mimosoid clade and in early-branching clades of papilionoids such as Dipterygeae. In Dipterygeae such appendages surprisingly exhibit a secretory cavity instead of secretory emergences as is the case for the Mimosoid clade. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the function of anther glands in Dipteryx alata and Pterodon pubescens, species in the Dipterygeae clade that exhibit a pollen release mechanism that is intermediate between the explosive and valvular types. Flower buds and flowers were processed for surface, anatomical, histochemical and ultrastructural analyses. Anther glands consist of a cavity secreting sticky substances (oleoresins and polysaccharides) that play a key role during the flower's lifespan by aggregating pollen grains and attaching them to the floral visitor's body. Other floral features that are important for understanding the pollen release mechanism that is intermediate between the valvular and the explosive types are: (i) keel petals intertwined with tector trichomes; (ii) glandular appendages in the abaxial and lateral sepals and in petals composed of secretory ducts; and (iii) a continuous secretion process of the anther glands followed by an asynchronous dehiscence of anthers. The well-adapted papilionoid flag blossom with anther glands and keel petals intertwined with trichomes provided the foundation for a successful canalisation toward a pollen release mechanism intermediate between the explosive and valvular types inside early-branching papilionoids.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Dipteryx/metabolismo , Dipteryx/fisiologia , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(11): 4058-4064, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazilians and Slovakians evaluated the temporal profile and the acceptability of cachaça stored with different woods (Cumarurana (CM), Jatobá (JT) and, Louro-vermelho (LV), which are found in the Amazon rainforest, and also oak), with the aim of performing a cross-cultural comparison of the dynamic profile of the attributes perceived in the cachaças and the sensorial acceptance of the samples. RESULTS: Important differences were observed between the temporal sensorial profiles generated by the two groups and their preferences. Brazilians preferred cachaças stored with the traditional wood, oak, followed by those stored with JT and CM. In contrast, Slovakians preferred cachaças stored with JT, followed by those stored with LV and oak. For both countries, the dominance of wood flavor and vanilla attributes at the end of the analysis time was positively associated with acceptance, while the dominance of off-flavors and the wood flavor attribute at the beginning of the analysis time was negatively associated with acceptance for Brazilians and Slovakians, respectively. CONCLUSION: Brazilians preferred cachaça stored with oak wood, and Slovakians preferred cachaça stored with JT wood, with acceptability being strongly associated with the dominance of wood flavor and vanilla attributes at the end of the evaluation time. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Comportamento do Consumidor , Armazenamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Madeira/química , Adulto , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Dipteryx/química , Feminino , Humanos , Hymenaea/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saccharum/química , Eslováquia , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 752-761, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888806

RESUMO

Abstract Post-dispersal seed agents of mortality include pathogens, invertebrates, and vertebrates, which may shape tropical tree populations and communities. In this study I experimentally evaluated Dipteryx alata endocarp removal both in the interior and edge of Cerrado vegetation. Specifically, I simulated primary dispersion of endocarps by bats and evaluated secondary removal intensity according to habitat, season, and endocarp number. This study was developed in the Pombo Natural Municipal Park, a large Cerrado remnant with an area of 9,000 ha, located in the Western Brazil. In each of the two habitat types, I set down 45 points in which D. alata piles of 1, 3, 7, 15, and 40 endocarps were positioned. On average, endocarp removal in the interior was higher than in the edge, so that the intensity of removal varied from positive density-dependent (interior: rains), to negative density-dependent (edge: both seasons). Also, at both habitat types and seasons non removed endocarps were intensely attacked by fungus. Indeed, seed mortality by fungus infestation was positive density-dependent. The results indicate high propensity of endocarps to escape from removal in the edge, in principle, a defaunated area. As Dipteryx species strongly rely on caviomorph rodents for their dispersal, the scarcity of these vectors might reduce recruitment chances of D. alata in remnants of Cerrado. This imply in future changes in the vegetation structure from the edge to the interior towards low tree diversity.


Resumo A mortalidade pós-dispersão de sementes é causada por agentes como patógenos, invertebrados e vertebrados, os quais influenciam a dinâmica de populações e comunidades arbóreas. Nesse estudo, avaliei experimentalmente intensidade de remoção, por roedores, de endocarpos de Dipteryx alata na borda e interior da vegetação do Cerrado. Simulando a dispersão primária por morcegos, posicionei pilhas com diferentes números de endocarpos nos dois hábitats do cerrado e avaliei a remoção secundária, tanto na estação seca quanto na chuvosa. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos no Parque Natural Municipal do Pombo, um grande remanescente com 9000 ha (Três Lagoas, MS, Brasil). Em cada um dos habitat defini 45 pontos nos quais pilhas com 1, 3, 7, 15 e 40 endocarpos foram posicionadas. A remoção de endocarpos foi significativamente maior no interior em relação à borda, tal que a intensidade de remoção variou de positivamente dependente da densidade (interior: chuvas), a negativamente dependente da densidade (borda: ambas as estações). Além disso, tanto na borda, quanto interior, bem como nas duas estações os endocarpos não removidos foram intensamente infestados por fungos. Consequentemente, a mortalidade causada por esses patógenos foi densidade dependente. Os resultados sugerem que os endocarpos de D. alata teriam maiores chances de escapar à remoção na borda, em princípio, depauperada em termos de roedores dispersores. A escassez desses vetores reduziria as chances de recrutamento de D. alata, favorecendo mudanças futuras na estrutura da vegetação, a partir da borda, em termos de menor diversidade arbórea.


Assuntos
Animais , Árvores/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Dipteryx/fisiologia , Dispersão de Sementes , Roedores/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional
11.
J Med Food ; 20(11): 1121-1126, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072970

RESUMO

Worldwide prevalence of noncommunicable chronic degenerative diseases is among the main causes of death worldwide. The consumption of some foods such as nuts and seeds may be beneficial in preventing these diseases. Dipteryx alata Vogel (DA), known popularly as Baru, belongs to the family Fabaceae and is a native fruit tree from the Brazilian savanna. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of seeds of DA on the metabolic and oxidative profile of Wistar rats. Animals were divided randomly into four groups (n = 10): G1 (control group), and G2 (treated with DA 20%), G3 (treated with DA 30%), and G4 (treated with DA 40%). After 40 days, animals were euthanized and metabolic and oxidative profiles were analyzed (glycemia, cholesterol, triglycerides [TGs], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-c], very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [VLDL-c], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-c], C reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, Lee index, weight, visceral fat, ferric reducing ability of plasma, and ferric-xylenol orange method. The use of the seeds was effective in reducing TGs, VLDL-c, LDL-c, and increasing HDL-c but did not interfere in the percentage of weight gain, visceral fat, levels of total cholesterol, and oxidative stress. Based on our results, it is possible to say that the use of DA may improve the lipid profile of Wistar rats and we may suggest that the consumption of DA almonds or products prepared with them may be an effective option for the intake of healthy products.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Dipteryx/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
12.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(2)2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453176

RESUMO

The use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides a great volume of genome sequence data even for non-model species. The development of microsatellite markers using these data is a relatively quick and easy process. Dipteryx alata Vogel (Fabaceae) is an arboreal species from the Cerrado biome and is considered an important plant genetic resource. Here, we report the development of microsatellite markers for D. alata using NGS data. DNA samples from four individuals were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform and high-quality reads were assembled into contigs of the D. alata genome sequence. Microsatellite regions were identified using the IMEX webserver and primer pairs were designed using the Primer3 software. The amplification settings for each locus were optimized. Fluorescent-labeled primers were developed and used to genotype individuals derived from three natural populations of D. alata. Fifty-four microsatellite regions were identified, from which 27 were elected to primer design. Among the amplified loci, 11 were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from 2 to 10. The expected heterozygosity under Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) per locus varied from 0.191 to 0.807. Genotype and allele frequencies for all loci agreed with those expected under HWE and linkage disequilibrium was not significant for all pairs of loci. The probabilities of exclusion of paternity and of combined identity were equal to 0.993 and 5.65 x 10-8, respectively. The markers developed in this study are useful to several types of population genetic studies with D. alata and, eventually, for closely related species.


Assuntos
Dipteryx/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Frequência do Gene , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Braz J Biol ; 77(4): 752-761, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28355393

RESUMO

Post-dispersal seed agents of mortality include pathogens, invertebrates, and vertebrates, which may shape tropical tree populations and communities. In this study I experimentally evaluated Dipteryx alata endocarp removal both in the interior and edge of Cerrado vegetation. Specifically, I simulated primary dispersion of endocarps by bats and evaluated secondary removal intensity according to habitat, season, and endocarp number. This study was developed in the Pombo Natural Municipal Park, a large Cerrado remnant with an area of 9,000 ha, located in the Western Brazil. In each of the two habitat types, I set down 45 points in which D. alata piles of 1, 3, 7, 15, and 40 endocarps were positioned. On average, endocarp removal in the interior was higher than in the edge, so that the intensity of removal varied from positive density-dependent (interior: rains), to negative density-dependent (edge: both seasons). Also, at both habitat types and seasons non removed endocarps were intensely attacked by fungus. Indeed, seed mortality by fungus infestation was positive density-dependent. The results indicate high propensity of endocarps to escape from removal in the edge, in principle, a defaunated area. As Dipteryx species strongly rely on caviomorph rodents for their dispersal, the scarcity of these vectors might reduce recruitment chances of D. alata in remnants of Cerrado. This imply in future changes in the vegetation structure from the edge to the interior towards low tree diversity.


Assuntos
Dipteryx/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Dispersão de Sementes , Árvores/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Roedores/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(2): 306-313, mar./apr. 2017. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-966101

RESUMO

Savannah is the second biome in biodiversity in Brazil, presenting great vegetation endemism. Baruzeiro (Dipteryx alata Vog.), native from this biome, is an economically important species, with an incipient market due to the lack of commercial plantations. This highlights the need to develop and provide the basis for the domestication of this species. Thus, this study evaluated different concentrations of MS medium, using baruzeiro intact or cut seeds for in vitro establishment. Seeds from baruzeiro ripe fruits were decontaminated and were left intact or partially cut; subsequently, the seeds were inoculated into flasks with different concentrations of MS culture medium. The experimental design was completely randomized as a 5 x 2 factorial, consisting of 5 MS medium concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%) and 2 types of seeds (intact or partially cut seeds), with three replications. Each experimental unit consisted of five flasks and 10 plants. After five months of incubation, the contamination of explants, seed germination, the number of fully developed plants and the dry masses of shoot and root of baruzeiros were evaluated. Intact seeds provided better results for all characteristics evaluated. The increased concentration of MS medium resulted in mass gain of plants; however, the use of MS medium 0% provided greater percentage of fully developed plants, the most interesting feature for baruzeiro in vitro establishment.


O Cerrado é o segundo bioma em biodiversidade do Brasil, apresentando grande endemismo vegetal. O baruzeiro (Dipteryx alata Vog.) é uma espécie economicamente importante, com mercado incipiente devido à escassez de cultivos comerciais. Isto deixa notória a necessidade de desenvolver e aperfeiçoar subsídios para a domesticação dessa espécie. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar diferentes concentrações do meio MS, utilizando sementes de baruzeiro (Dipteryx alata Vog.) íntegras e com corte para o estabelecimento in vitro. Sementes retiradas de frutos maduros de baruzeiro foram descontaminadas e mantidas intactas ou receberam cortes parciais, sendo posteriormente inoculadas em frascos, com diferentes concentrações de meio de cultivo MS. O experimento foi instalado em sistema de delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 - meio MS (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%) x tipos de sementes (sementes íntegras e sementes com corte) com três repetições, totalizando 30 parcelas. Cada unidade experimental foi constituída de cinco frascos e 10 plantas. Após cinco meses, foram avaliados: a contaminação dos explantes, a germinação das sementes, o número de plantas totalmente desenvolvidas e as massas secas da parte aérea e da raiz dos baruzeiros. As sementes íntegras proporcionaram melhores resultados, para todas as características avaliadas. O aumento da concentração do meio MS colaborou no ganho de massa das plantas, no entanto, o uso do meio MS 0% foi o que proporcionou maior percentual de plantas formadas, a característica mais interessante para o estabelecimento in vitro do baruzeiro.


Assuntos
Sementes , Técnicas In Vitro , Cultivos Agrícolas , Pradaria , Dipteryx
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(1): 151-157, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26954302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Brazilian leguminous tree locally known in the Cerrado Biome as baru (Dipteryx alata Vog), provides a healthy edible oil source. The proteinaceous cake remaining after oil extraction could be transformed into new products to foodstuff development, such as protein concentrates and isolates, adding value to the production chain. In this study, it is described the preparation and characterization of baru nut protein isolate (BPI) from deffated baru flour, and measurements of its functional, nutritional, and thermal properties, in comparison to the more common vegetable (soybeans) and animal (casein and albumin) protein sources of the food industry. RESULTS: BPI presented higher protein content than soybean, casein and albumin commercial protein isolates, despite losses of albumins and low molecular weight globulins during the isolation procedure. Thermodynamics studies suggested that BPI has a well-conserved protein arrangement and lower thermostability than the other protein sources. BPI showed high in vitro digestibility and suitable and desirable functional properties such as water and oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, and foam formation and stability at mild and neutral pH. CONCLUSION: BPI could be used either as a substitute ingredient in oily food formulations or in the development of new products of its own. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Albuminas/química , Caseínas/química , Dipteryx/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Animais , Brasil , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Nozes/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Estabilidade Proteica , Solubilidade
16.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 29(6): 859-866, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-830666

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess and compare the fatty acid composition of edible seeds and a nut native to the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah) to that of traditional oilseeds. Methods: Baru almonds, Cerrado cashew nuts, and pequi almonds were extracted from the fruits using appropriate equipment. All edible seeds and nuts were roasted, except for the Brazil nut. The sample lipids were extracted via cold pressing. The fatty acids were esterified, and the fatty acid esters were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results: The native and traditional edible seeds and nuts contain mostly monounsaturated fatty acids (42.72 g to 63.44 g/100 g), except for the Brazil nut, which showed predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (45.48 g/100 g). Pequi almond had the highest saturated fatty acid content (36.14 g/100 g). The fatty acids with the highest concentration were oleic and linoleic acids, and palmitic acid was also found in considerable concentration in the oilseeds studied. The Cerrado cashew nut and the traditional cashew nut have similar fatty acid profiles. As for the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3, the baru almond showed the highest ratio, 9:1, which was the closest to the recommended intake of these fatty acids. Conclusion: The fatty acid profile of the edible seeds and nuts native to the cerrado is similar to those of traditional oilseeds. We suggest the inclusion of native oilseeds in the diet aiming at reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially the baru almond and the cerrado cashew nut, due to the fact they have high ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a composição de nozes e sementes comestíveis nativas do cerrado, no que diz respeito aos ácidos graxos, e comparar com oleaginosas tradicionais. Métodos: A amêndoa de baru, a castanha-de-caju-do-cerrado e a amêndoa de pequi foram extraídas dos frutos com equipamentos apropriados. Todas as nozes e sementes comestíveis foram torradas, exceto a castanha-do-brasil. Os lipídeos das amostras foram extraídos a frio, os ácidos graxos foram esterificados e os ésteres de ácidos graxos foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa. Resultados: As nozes e sementes comestíveis tradicionais e nativas possuem, predominantemente, ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (42,72 g a 63,44 g/100 g), exceto a castanha-do-brasil, que apresentou predominância de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (45,48 g/100 g). A amêndoa de pequi apresentou o maior teor de ácidos graxos saturados (36,14 g/100 g). Os ácidos graxos encontrados em maior concentração nas oleaginosas foram o ácido oleico e o linoleico; o ácido palmítico foi também detectado em proporções consideráveis. O perfil de ácidos graxos da castanha-de-caju-do-cerrado é comparável ao da castanha-de-caju tradicional. Quanto à relação entre ácidos graxos w-6 e w-3, a amêndoa de baru apresentou o valor de 9:1, mais próximo ao recomendado para consumo. Conclusão: O perfil de ácidos graxos das nozes e sementes comestíveis nativas do cerrado se assemelha ao das tradicionais. Sugere-se, portanto, a inclusão das oleaginosas nativas em planos alimentares que visem a redução do risco de doenças cardiovasculares, sobretudo a amêndoa de baru e a castanha-de-caju-do-cerrado, por suas elevadas concentrações de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados em relação aos ácidos graxos saturados.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Arachis , Sementes , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Anacardium , Bertholletia , Dipteryx , Nozes
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 32(5): 1138-1146, sept./oct 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-965683

RESUMO

Dipteryx alata Vog. (barueiro) is a native fruit of the Cerrado used in food and medicine. The species has never been domesticated and is currently at risk of extinction. Plant tissue culture is an important tool for the conservation of germplasm and for quick, large-scale propagation of quality seedlings. While, this technique has never been used with barueiro, it could be a valuable tool in the domestication of this species. The objective of this work is to evaluate concentrations of MS medium salts (25, 50, 75 and 100%) supplemented with coconut water (100 mL L-1), dwarf banana pulp (60 g L-1) or the absence of any supplement in the in vitro establishment of barueiro seeds (Dipteryx alata Vog). The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3x4 factorial scheme (three cultivation media types and four concentrations of MS salts) and three repetitions. The following characteristics were evaluated: germination rate, shoot length , largest root length , stem diameter , number of leaves , chlorophyll A , chlorophyll B , total chlorophyll, and the fresh and dry mass of the seedlings. The coconut water and banana pulp supplements did not improve the in vitro development of the barueiro seedlings and the full concentration of MS salts did not improve the initial development of the seedlings. However, the pure MS medium at a concentration of 25% MS salts was the best option for the in vitro establishment of Dipteyx alata.


O barueiro (Dipteryx alata Vog.) é uma fruteira nativa do bioma Cerrado e possui várias aplicabilidades, desde alimentares até medicinais. No entanto ainda não é uma espécie domesticada e encontra-se sob risco projetado de extinção. A cultura de tecidos vegetais constitui uma importante ferramenta para a conservação de germoplasma, além de proporcionar a rápida propagação de mudas de qualidade em larga escala. Porém, esta técnica não vem sendo utilizada em barueiro, podendo ser aplicada de forma valiosa contribuindo para seu processo de domesticação. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar concentrações de sais do meio MS (25, 50, 75 e 100%) suplementados com água de coco (100 mL L-1), polpa de banana nanica (60 g L-1) ou ausência de suplemento no estabelecimento in vitro de sementes de barueiro (Dipteryx alata Vog). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado (DIC) em esquema fatorial 3x4 (três meios de cultivo e quatro doses de sais MS) com três repetições. Foram avaliadas as características: taxa de germinação, comprimento da parte aérea e da maior raiz, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, teores de clorofila A, B e total , massa fresca e massa seca das plântulas. A água de coco e a polpa de banana como suplementos não forneceram vantagens no desenvolvimento in vitro de plântulas de barueiro e a concentração plena dos sais MS não forneceram vantagens ao desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas. Portanto, o meio MS puro a uma concentração de 25% dos sais MS é a formulação que melhor se aplica para o estabelecimento in vitro de Dipteyx alata.


Assuntos
Técnicas In Vitro , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pradaria , Dipteryx , Frutas
18.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 40(2): [213-220], fev., 25, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-972992

RESUMO

O presente estudo objetivou verificar a aceitabilidade sensorial de cupcakes adicionados de farinha de baru (FB) entrecrianças e determinar a composição físico-química da formulação padrão e daquela contendo FB com aceitaçãosensorial semelhante a padrão. Foram desenvolvidas as seguintes formulações de cupcakes: F1 - 0% (padrão) e asdemais adicionadas de 6% (F2), 12% (F3) e 18% (F4) de FB. Participaram da avaliação sensorial 59 provadores nãotreinados, de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre 8 e 10 anos. Maiores notas foram verificadas para F1 e F2 comparadasa F4 no atributo aparência. Para as características aroma, sabor, textura, cor, aceitação global e intenção de compra,F1 apresentou maior aceitação que F4, sem diferença entre as demais. Foram verificados maiores teores de umidade,cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, calorias e fibra alimentar em F3 comparado a F1, porém menor teor de carboidratos foiconstatado em F3. Assim, a elaboração dos produtos permitiu comprovar que um nível de adição de até 12% de FB emcupcakes (redução de 50% de farinha de trigo refinada) foi bem aceito pelos provadores infantis, obtendo-se aceitaçãosensorial semelhante ao produto padrão e com boas expectativas de comercialização.


The present study aimed to determine the sensory acceptability of cupcakes added baru flour (BF) among children anddetermine the physico-chemical composition of the standard formulation and that containing BF with similar sensoryacceptance standard. The following formulations were developed cupcake: F1 - 0% (standard) and other added 6%(F2), 12% (F3) and 18% (F4) of BF. Participated in the sensory evaluation 59 untrained, of both genders, aged between8 and 10 years. Higher scores were observed for F1 and F2, compared to F4 the appearance attribute. For aroma, taste,texture, color, overall acceptance and purchase intent, F1 to F4 showed greater acceptance, with no difference betweenthe others. Higher contents of moisture, ash, protein, lipid, dietary fiber and calories in F3 compared to F1 were checked,but lower carbohydrate content was observed in F3. Thus, the development of products able to prove that an additionlevel of 12% BF cupcakes (50% reduction of refined wheat flour) was well accepted by the children tasters, yieldingsimilar sensory acceptance to the product standard expectations and good marketing.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Dipteryx , Criança , Farinha , Triticum
19.
Genet Mol Res ; 14(2): 6744-61, 2015 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26125883

RESUMO

Biodiversity crises have led scientists to develop strategies for achieving conservation goals. The underlying principle of these strategies lies in systematic conservation planning (SCP), in which there are at least 2 conflicting objectives, making it a good candidate for multi-objective optimization. Although SCP is typically applied at the species level (or hierarchically higher), it can be used at lower hierarchical levels, such as using alleles as basic units for analysis, for conservation genetics. Here, we propose a method of SCP using a multi-objective approach. We used non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II in order to identify the smallest set of local populations of Dipteryx alata (baru) (a Brazilian Cerrado species) for conservation, representing the known genetic diversity and using allele frequency information associated with heterozygosity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We worked in 3 variations for the problem. First, we reproduced a previous experiment, but using a multi-objective approach. We found that the smallest set of populations needed to represent all alleles under study was 7, corroborating the results of the previous study, but with more distinct solutions. In the 2nd and 3rd variations, we performed simultaneous optimization of 4 and 5 objectives, respectively. We found similar but refined results for 7 populations, and a larger portfolio considering intra-specific diversity and persistence with populations ranging from 8-22. This is the first study to apply multi-objective algorithms to an SCP problem using alleles at the population level as basic units for analysis.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Alelos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dipteryx/genética , Variação Genética , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Frequência do Gene , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites
20.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 15(5): 1059-66, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25603895

RESUMO

The hindcast of shifts in the geographical ranges of species as estimated by ecological niche modelling (ENM) has been coupled with phylogeographical patterns, allowing the inference of past processes that drove population differentiation and genetic variability. However, more recently, some studies have suggested that maps of environmental suitability estimated by ENM may be correlated to species' abundance, raising the possibility of using environmental suitability to infer processes related to population demographic dynamics and genetic variability. In both cases, one of the main problems is that there is a wide variation in ENM development methods and climatic models. In this study, we analyse the relationship between heterozygosity (He) and environmental suitability from multiple ENMs for 25 population estimates for Dipteryx alata, a widely distributed, endemic tree species of the Cerrado region of central Brazil. We propose a new approach for generating a statistical distribution of correlations under randomly generated ENM. The confidence intervals from these distributions indicate how model selection with different properties affects the ability to detect a correlation of interest (e.g. the correlation between He and suitability). Additionally, our approach allows us to explore which particular ensemble of ENMs produces the better result for finding an association between environmental suitability and He. Caution is necessary when choosing a method or a climatic data set for modelling geographical distributions, but the new approach proposed here provides a conservative way to evaluate the ability of ensembles to detect patterns of interest.


Assuntos
Dipteryx/classificação , Dipteryx/genética , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Bioestatística , Brasil , Clima , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica Populacional
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