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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 390, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the last decades, filarial infections caused by Dirofilaria spp. have spread rapidly within dog populations of several European countries. Increasing scientific interest in filariasis, and the availability of new diagnostic tools, has led to improved knowledge of the biology, morphology, and epidemiology of different species of filarial worms. However, data are still scarce for a number of countries, including the Republic of Moldova. Thus, we assessed the epidemiological status of canine filariasis in the Republic of Moldova to address part of this knowledge gap. METHODS: A total of 120 blood samples were collected between June 2018 and July 2019 from dogs originating from the cities of Cahul and Chisinau. The samples were examined microscopically, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate filarioid species diversity. RESULTS: Microscopic examination revealed that 12 dogs (10.0%) were positive for circulating microfilariae. The molecular test showed that one dog was positive for Acanthocheilonema reconditum (0.8%), one for Dirofilaria immitis (0.8%), six for Dirofilaria repens (5.0%), and four (3.3%) harboured a co-infection with D. immitis and D. repens. Prevalence was significantly higher in dogs aged ≥ 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological survey presented here for the Republic of Moldova confirmed the presence D. immitis, D. repens and A. reconditum in dogs that had not received any heartworm preventive.


Assuntos
Acanthocheilonema/genética , Acantoqueilonemíase/veterinária , Dirofilaria/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Filariose/epidemiologia , Filariose/veterinária , Acanthocheilonema/classificação , Acantoqueilonemíase/epidemiologia , Animais , Dirofilaria/classificação , Dirofilaria immitis/genética , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Filariose/sangue , Masculino , Moldávia , Prevalência
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 393, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a life-threatening infection of dogs with a global distribution. Information on the prevalence of D. immitis and associated risk factors for canine heartworm antigen positivity-and thus disease-in Australia is scarce or outdated. The current reference method for D. immitis diagnosis in dogs is via the detection of heartworm antigen in blood using commercially available microwell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Heat treatment of canine plasma prior to testing has been suggested to increase test sensitivity. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of D. immitis in dogs confined to shelters in Queensland, Australia. The impact of heat treatment on antigen test results was also assessed. METHODS: Blood samples (n = 166) were collected directly from dogs in seven shelters across Queensland (latitudinal span of approx. 1700 km) into EDTA blood collection tubes. A commercially available ELISA (DiroCHEK®) was used to detect canine heartworm antigen in untreated and heat-treated plasma. Whole blood was concurrently tested for the presence of microfilariae and D. immitis DNA using a modified Knott's test and real-time PCR, respectively. Risk factors (age, gender, source, location) associated with the odds of positivity for canine heartworm were assessed using binary logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 16 dogs (9.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.9-15.2%) were positive for canine heartworm based on combined test results. Heat treatment did not impact on the positivity of D. immitis antigen within samples (Cohen's kappa = 0.98), but the optical density was significantly increased in paired plasma samples for D. immitis antigen-positive samples (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test, two-tailed P < 0.01). Location of the dog in a shelter in northern Queensland was the only risk factor significantly associated with the odds of a dog being more likely to be D. immitis antigen positive (odds ratio: 4.39; 95% CI: 1.26-13.51). All samples positive for the modified Knott's test were also positive for D. immitis DNA by PCR. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the presence of heartworm-positive dogs in shelters in Queensland, with positive animals significantly more likely to occur in northern Queensland than southern Queensland. Sustained testing for the presence of D. immitis microfilariae and antigen remain important diagnostic tools in areas with known and re-emerging canine heartworm activity.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Dirofilaria/química , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Animais , Dirofilaria/imunologia , Dirofilariose/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Queensland/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 298: 109555, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425345

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of different reagents as safe alternatives to 2% formalin in the modified Knott's test for the diagnosis of subcutaneous (Dirofilaria repens) and cardiopulmonary (D. immitis) dirofilariosis. A total of 61 blood samples from dogs naturally infected with D. immitis and D. repens were collected and analysed in two different laboratories (Lab 1, University of Parma and Lab 2, University of Napoli). For each blood sample the modified Knott's method was performed to identify and measure the mean length and width of the microfilariae (mfs) using 2% formalin (A), 2% acetic acid (B), 2% glacial acetic acid (C), 10% saponin (D) and distilled water (E). When compared to 2% formalin, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) among the mean length and width of either D. immitis or D. repens mfs with distilled water (E). The lengths and widths of mfs, however, were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) when using B, C, D likely due to more pronounced parasite dehydration. Despite differences in measurements, the morphological features of the head and tail of the two species were maintained, suggesting that all the solutions tested could be a suitable alternative to formalin. All alternative reagents caused more marked haemolysis compared to formalin, improving readability of slides. The values of the mean length and the mean width of D. immitis and the mean width of D. repens mfs obtained with formalin and distilled water were statistically different (P < 0.005) between the two laboratories. The difference in mf measurements between the two labs could be due to the use of reagents purchased from different manufacturing companies. Results suggest that distilled water could replace formalin in the modified Knott's test, as a safer reagent that allows morphology-based species differentiation of Dirofilaria spp.


Assuntos
Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Dirofilaria , Indicadores e Reagentes , Animais , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Dirofilaria/classificação , Dirofilaria/citologia , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Formaldeído/química , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Água/química
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1532-1534, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900191

RESUMO

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by human diroflarial infection is rare. We report a case of eosinophilic meningitis and concomitant intraocular dirofilarial infection in India. Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome identified the worm as Dirofilaria sp. genotype Hongkong, a close relative of D. repens nematodes.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria repens , Dirofilariose , Meningite , Animais , Dirofilaria , Genótipo , Hong Kong , Humanos , Índia
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 548, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are known as effective vectors of human and animal pathogens, worldwide. We have already indicated that some individuals in the Simulium turgaicum complex are annoying pests of humans and livestock in the Aras River Basin, Iran. However, there is no evidence of host preference and their possible vectorial role in the region. This study was conducted to capture the S. turgaicum (s.l.), to identify their host blood-meals, and to examine their potential involvement in the circulation of zoonotic microfilariae in the study areas. METHODS: Adult blackflies of the S. turgaicum complex were bimonthly trapped with insect net in four ecotopes (humans/animals outdoors, irrigation canals, lands along the river, as well as rice and alfalfa farms) of ten villages (Gholibaiglou, Gungormaz, Hamrahlou, Hasanlou, Khetay, Khomarlou, Larijan, Mohammad Salehlou, Parvizkhanlou and Qarloujeh) of the Aras River Basin. A highly sensitive and specific nested PCR assay was used for detection of filarial nematodes in S. turgaicum (s.l.), using nuclear 18S rDNA-ITS1 markers. The sources of blood meals of engorged specimens were determined using multiplex and conventional cytb PCR assays. RESULTS: A total of 2754 females of S. turgaicum (s.l.) were collected. The DNA of filarial parasites was detected in 6 (0.62%) of 960 randomly examined individuals. Sequence analysis of 420 base pairs of 18S rDNA-ITS1 genes identified Dirofilaria spp. including 5 D. immitis and 1 D. repens. Importantly, all filarial positive specimens have been captured from humans and animals outdoors. Cytb-PCR assays showed that in all ecotypes studied, members of the S. turgaicum complex had preferably fed on humans, dogs, bovids, and birds, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. immitis/D. repens detection in blackflies. Results showed that S. turgaicum (s.l.) was the most abundant (97%) and anthropophilic (45%) blackfly in all studied ecotypes/villages and that DNA of Dirofilaria spp. was detected in the flies taken from six villages. Dirofilariasis is a common zoonosis between humans and carnivores, with mosquitoes (Culicidae) as the principal vectors. Further investigations are needed to demonstrate that blackflies are actual vectors of Dirofilaria in the studied region.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria/genética , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Simuliidae/parasitologia , Animais , Dirofilaria/classificação , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Dirofilariose/transmissão , Vetores de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Gado/parasitologia , Masculino , Microfilárias/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Simuliidae/genética , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 287, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503664

RESUMO

The fast development of molecular taxonomy is impacting our knowledge of the world parasite diversity at an unprecedented level. A number of operational taxonomic units have been uncovered and new species described. However, it is not always that new parasite species are being described in compliance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. This is the case of "Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis", a nematode found in dogs, jackals and humans in Hong Kong and parts of India. This name has been proposed without a formal description and without the designation of a holotype, and therefore is an unavailable name. Finally, we argue that using the provisional status Candidatus in zoological nomenclature is inappropriate, considering this term is not considered in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria/classificação , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Animais , Dirofilaria/isolamento & purificação , Cães/parasitologia , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Tipagem Molecular , Filogenia
10.
Parasitol Int ; 77: 102117, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234557

RESUMO

In 2012, a novel canine Dirofilaria species, D. hongkongensis was identified in Hong Kong that caused human diseases and subsequently reported in an Austrian traveller returning from the Indian subcontinent. Here we present a case of human infection by D. hongkongensis manifested as recurrent shoulder mass. Diagnosis was achieved by cox1 gene sequencing of the excised specimen. The case illustrated that parasitic infection represents an important differential diagnosis for musculoskeletal lesions.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Ombro/patologia , Ombro/parasitologia , Idoso , Animais , Áustria , Biópsia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dirofilaria/patogenicidade , Dirofilariose/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Filogenia , Recidiva , Tela Subcutânea/parasitologia , Tela Subcutânea/patologia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
12.
Acta Trop ; 203: 105308, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862465

RESUMO

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) pose a major health problem in dogs globally, with the potential to cause zoonoses, in particular in developing countries where scientific knowledge on the topic is minimal. Blood samples and ticks were collected from stray dogs in Tamil Nadu, South India to assess the prevalence of CVBD-causing pathogens (Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon spp., filarioids and Leishmania spp.). Of the 230 dogs examined, 229 (99.6%) were infested by ticks (mean intensity, 5.65) with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides being morphologically identified in the 98.3% and 1.7% of the infested dogs, respectively. Overall, the 67.8% (n = 156) of dogs was positive for at least one pathogen with Hepatozoon canis being the most prevalent (37.8%) followed by Anaplasma platys (22.6%), Ehrlichia canis (16.1%) Babesia vogeli (10%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.4%) and Babesia gibsoni (0.4%). Two filarioids (Dirofilaria sp. "hongkongensis" and Brugia malayi, 0.4%) were diagnosed in sampled animals. Co-infection with H. canis and A. platys was the most prevalent (8.3%, P = 0.00001), whilst all animals scored negative for Leishmania spp.. Out of 295 ticks analysed, 215 R. sanguineus s.l. (75.4%) and 8 R. haemaphysaloides (88.9%) were positive for at least one pathogen with H. canis as the predominant species (42.5%), followed by A. platys (33.8%), E. canis (16.9%), B. vogeli (3.8%) and A. phagocytophilum (0.3%). Fifty-six dogs (35.9%) harboured the same pathogen as the respective tick specimens, while 29 dogs (18.6%) had a different pathogen. Thirteen sequence types (STs) were identified for H. canis, with ST2 (49.4%) as the most representative in dogs and ST1 (73.5%) in ticks. Similarly, seven STs were found for Anaplasma spp. (i.e., five for A. platys, one for A. phagocytophilum and one for Anaplasma sp.), with ST2 as the most representative in dogs (70.6%) and ST3 (52.5%) in ticks for A. platys. Only one ST was identified for B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, E. canis, D. sp. "hongkongensis" and B. malayi. Regular surveillance and adoption of adequate treatment and control measures are needed to reduce the risk of disease-causing pathogens in stray dogs and of pathogens with zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Brugia Malayi/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Dirofilaria/isolamento & purificação , Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Ehrlichia canis/isolamento & purificação , Eucoccidiida , Feminino , Índia/epidemiologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
13.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 18: 100326, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796197

RESUMO

Dirofilariosisis, is a mosquito borne anthropo-zoonotic disease caused by the filarial nematodes of the genus Dirofilaria. The current paper reports a species of Dirofilaria, which has not been recorded in Tamil Nadu, in addition to differentiating it from the existing species of Dirofilaria spp. through morphological and molecular techniques. Micrometry of the microfilaria detected by Knott's technique as well as in Giemsa stained blood smears revealed that the length was on an average 280 µm to 310 µm whereas the width was 5 to 8 µm. The microfilariae were unsheathed with blunt heads and tapering tails. For molecular confirmation, the blood sample was subjected to genomic DNA isolation. PCR amplification using specific primers for D. hongkongensis was carried out using thermal cycler with the isolated genomic DNA as template. Molecular analyses revealed the band size of about 230 bp which confirmed the presence of D. hongkongensis. Phylogenetic analysis was done using UPGMA and MLM method. Dirofilaria is recognized as a zoonotic entity throughout the world, and dirofilariasis should be considered an emerging zoonosis in southern India. The control of ubiquitous mosquito population is essential to prevent the transmission of microfilaria from animals to arthropods and from arthropods to humans.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Animais , Dirofilaria/classificação , Dirofilariose/classificação , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/classificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Índia , Microfilárias/classificação , Microfilárias/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Zoonoses/classificação , Zoonoses/parasitologia
14.
J Dermatol ; 46(10): 914-916, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389046

RESUMO

A 75-year-old man presented with a 1-cm large elastic soft subcutaneous nodule on the left side of the umbilicus, which when excised showed presence of a helminthic form within the granulomatous lesions. Morphologically, the helminth was considered to be of the genus Dirofilaria, and the patient showed increased serum antibody titer against canine filaria. The partial DNA sequence of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene locus of this clinical isolate showed the highest nucleotide identity (89.6%) with Dirofilaria repens; however, the phylogenetic analysis addressed the haplotype and Dirofilaria ursi as outgroups of the clusters of D. repens and Dirofilaria immitis, which are the causal agents of most human dirofilariasis. As like bear filaria D. ursi, a wide variety of other carnivore-parasitizing filaria species have rarely been reported in humans. The newly detected genetic haplotype in this case may correspond to one of these species of Dirofilaria, though the genetic references are not available thus far.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , Dirofilaria/genética , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Tela Subcutânea/parasitologia , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilaria/imunologia , Dirofilaria/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/sangue , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Tela Subcutânea/patologia , Umbigo
15.
J Vet Cardiol ; 23: 96-103, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174734

RESUMO

Four dogs, referred for management of heartworm (HW) disease, were found to have HWs entangled in their tricuspid valve apparatus. None of the dogs were actively hemolyzing or showed signs of acute cardiovascular collapse that would have necessitated emergency transvenous HW extraction, and surgery was not performed at time of presentation. The dogs received pimobendan and sildenafil within 24 h of identifying HW in the tricuspid valve apparatus, and the HW moved to the pulmonary arteries within 2 days in most cases (median 2 days, range 1-14 days). All dogs survived to discharge from the original hospital admission and were subsequently treated with adulticide (melarsomine) without complication. All dogs were HW antigen negative 6 months after their last melarsomine injection. Four dogs appeared to respond positively to medical management aimed at decreasing pulmonary arterial pressure and improving the right ventricular function, but movement of HW out of the heart for other reasons cannot be excluded. This therapeutic option is not advised when dogs with HW disease are presented for acute collapse, ongoing hemolysis, and hypotension as surgical extraction is still considered the best option in these cases. It remains unknown if medical management is a safe option for all dogs with intracardiac HW without clinical signs of caval syndrome. Controlled prospective studies are required to determine the efficacy and safety of this treatment regimen in comparison with surgical extraction.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Arsenicais/uso terapêutico , Dirofilaria/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Valva Tricúspide/parasitologia , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9209240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139659

RESUMO

Background: Human dirofilariasis is an emerging zoonosis in many countries. Dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens may present with diverse clinical manifestations in humans due to aberrant localization of worm lesions causing diagnostic dilemmas. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe and update the demography and clinical spectrum of human dirofilariasis in western Sri Lanka. Nematode or nematode fragments isolated from excision biopsies that were confirmed as D. repens at the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, between 2012 and 2018 were included. Data on age, gender, and clinical details were obtained from case files. Identity of worms was established by morphometry and cuticle characteristics on wet-mount preparation. Specimens from unusual case presentations were further analyzed by PCR with specific primers for internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. Results: Sixteen nematode specimens isolated from subconjunctiva (n=2), subcutaneous (n=13) and intramuscular (n=1) locations were identified as D. repens by morphometry (average length 11.5 cm) and the characteristic longitudinal striations on cuticle visualized by microscopy. The age distribution of cases ranged from 1 to 65 years with a mean of 21.5. Females were more frequently affected (n=10, 62.5%) and worm locations were commonest in the orbital region (5/16) and scrotum (3/16). Imaging techniques were of use in detecting infections in deeper tissue levels. PCR analysis of DNA extracted from a worm in an intramuscular granuloma of the temporal region elicited the expected band at 484bp for D. repens. Conclusions: Human dirofilariasis is on an upward trend in incidence. Imaging techniques were of use in clinical diagnosis and molecular speciation in establishing the species identity in unusual case presentations. We suggest a more conservative approach in the management of human dirofilariasis and recommend a one health approach for control.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dirofilaria/citologia , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico por imagem , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(4): 1752-1757, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874363

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are the main vectors of pathogens affecting wild animals, livestock and humans. Here, we used molecular tools to assess the local circulation of filarial parasites in mosquitoes collected during 2013 from natural, rural and urban habitats from southern Spain. We screened parasites in 22,791 female mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, Culex and Culiseta. Filarial worms were only detected in two mosquito pools. An Ae. caspius pool was positive for Setaria equina and an unidentified worm related to Onchocerca was detected in a Cx. pipiens pool. None of the mosquito pools were positive for Dirofilaria. These results underlay the role of Ae. caspius in the transmission of Setaria parasites among livestock and/or wildlife to humans in southern Spain.


Assuntos
Culicidae/parasitologia , Dirofilaria/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Onchocerca/isolamento & purificação , Setaria (Nematoide)/isolamento & purificação , Aedes/parasitologia , Animais , Culex/parasitologia , Feminino , Espanha , Urbanização
18.
Acta Trop ; 193: 227-235, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857861

RESUMO

Extra-intestinal nematodes of companion animals are of growing concern in veterinary medicine for their pathogenic potential and the current expansion throughout Europe. The present study has evaluated the occurrence of major canine and feline extra-intestinal nematodes in regions of Italy having epidemiological relevance. Associations of various recorded parameters related to the examined animals have been statistically evaluated, along with a comparative analysis with the most recent epidemiological data. Overall, 1055 dogs and 1000 cats were tested. Among extra-intestinal nematodes Angiostrongylus vasorum was the most common in dogs followed by Capillaria aerophila and Dirofilaria spp.; Aelurostrongylus abstrusus was the most recorded parasite in cats, followed by C. aerophila and Troglostrongylus brevior. The statistical analysis revealed that outdoor access is associated with A. vasorum, A. abstrusus and T. brevior infections, that were also more prevalent in animals with cardio-respiratory signs. Moreover, cats aged less than 12 months had more chances to be infected by lungworms. The data herein presented confirm the occurrence and the possible risk of expansion of different extra-intestinal parasitoses of dogs and cats in Italy, underlining the importance of a constant epidemiologic vigilance and of appropriate control methods.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Angiostrongylus , Animais , Capillaria , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Dirofilaria , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
19.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 62(1): 159-162, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706886

RESUMO

A 17-year-old male patient presented with cellulitis and mass in the eye noticed approximately 3 months back. The mass was about 1 cm in size and situated at the limbus. All preoperative routine investigations were normal. Surgical exploration revealed a sub-conjunctival cystic mass near the lateral rectus muscle about 1 cm in diameter; the mass was excised. Gross pathological examination revealed a thin-walled cystic mass. There was a hard nodule in the center. Microscopy revealed a wall of cysticercosis. Scolex was also seen. Surrounding tissue revealed sparse acute and chronic inflammatory cells. The case was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta, and was also included in their departmental presentation as an interesting case. A 60-year-old lady presented with complaints of itching over the forehead and right eye for 5 days. She was prescribed steroid eyedrops and antihistaminics. The itching aggravated with eyedrops along with watering and foreign body sensation. On revisit, the ophthalmologist noticed a worm in the right upper subconjunctival space. The worm was carefully removed in toto and sent to the laboratory for identification. The worm was thin, cylindrical, 8-10 cm long and white in color. After microscopic and gross examination of the worm, it was identified as Dirofilaria spp. CDC (Atlanta) confirmed the diagnosis of Dirofilaria. The patient was treated with antihistaminics and was relieved of symptoms without recurrence. A 45-year-old male patient had a painless mass in the eye for the last 3 months. He had no systemic illness. He gave a history of swimming pool use during that time. The mass was excised and submitted for histopathology. Numerous globular cysts representing thick-walled sporangia containing numerous spores diagnostic of Rhinosporidiosis were seen.


Assuntos
Cistos/parasitologia , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/parasitologia , Olho/parasitologia , Rinosporidiose/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Cistos/patologia , Cistos/cirurgia , Dirofilaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Oculomotores/parasitologia , Músculos Oculomotores/patologia , Rinosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Rhinosporidium/efeitos dos fármacos , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Med Princ Pract ; 28(1): 96-98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present case of a child with epididymal dirofil-ariasis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: An 11-year-old boy was admitted to the Clinic of Pediatric Urology for elective surgery treatment of epididymal cyst on the left side. After removal, the cyst was sent for histological examination. Microscopic examination of the histological slides revealed cross-sections of a nematode belonging to Dirofilaria spp., differentiated morphologically as D. repens. After surgery, the patient recovered completely. CONCLUSIONS: In most parts around the world, dirofilariasis is a rare and neglected infection. Nevertheless, the clinicians and pathologists must be informed about it.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/patologia , Espermatocele/parasitologia , Animais , Bulgária , Criança , Dirofilaria/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Espermatocele/cirurgia
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