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1.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(5): 425-437, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812478

RESUMO

Arts and culture organizations face numerous threats, and many of them are economically based in nature. As governments increasingly leverage arts and culture for a variety of policy-based agenda, it is an opportune time to evaluate the vulnerabilities facing and the sustainability of the population of arts and culture nonprofits, particularly under a variety of conditions. This should include cases when the unthinkable happens, as there is a need to understand the characteristics of the population before and after a catastrophic disaster. This research examines the population of nonprofit arts and culture organizations (NPACOs) in the United Sates and answers the questions, "Do catastrophic natural disasters impact the population of NPACOs? Do they alter patterns of formation and exit?" using quantitative analysis.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , Organizações , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos
2.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(5): 461-468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812481

RESUMO

Emergency management is a dynamic task that requires constant evaluation and research so as to improve processes and systems. Most importantly, the rise in emergencies has led to increased costs of managing them. These cost increases are happening at a time when US government agencies are experiencing budget-cuts. Therefore, a search for solutions to improve emergency management is critical, especially in the emergency response phase. The emergency response phase is particularly important because studies show that due to the confusion and panic caused when a disaster strikes, failures in command and control often lead to delays in action and increased operation costs. This article argues that Boyd's OODA loop, a command and control concept used by the US military for several years, presents opportunities as an off-the-shelf resource that can be adapted by nonmilitary response organizations at federal, state, local, and agency level. The study is an important contribution to the ongoing discourse on emergency management policy and practice in the United States.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Militares , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(7): 127-139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723354

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the risks that affect the Umm al-Nasr village (north of Gaza Strip), which include wars, floods, and the Corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which may require the emergency committee to identify places for sanitary isolation in the case of infection or provide shelters in the disasters such as wars and floods. A plan that contains procedures for managing the displacement of the citizens according to the type of the disaster and the suggested safe shelters were prepared. Individuals infected with COVID-19 are isolated in central places or their home. Responding procedures for the emergency committee in Umm al-Nasr municipality were prepared to deal with displaced people. A mathematical model was designed to simulate choosing a shelter for the citizens of this village depending on the type of crisis. The results showed the different conditions that may affect the displacement operation, such as the type of shelter, the allocated area, the number of displaced citizens, the type of disaster, and the required speed to reach the shelter. This study recommended advancing the capabilities of the community to confront risks and COVID-19. Besides, perfect planning plays a significant role in saving lives, time, and effort. Therefore, it is needed to cooperate with the local authorities, such as municipalities, ministry of health, civil defense, and international institutions to implement a response action during disasters, and the necessity of closing residential areas and isolating them if new cases of COVID-19 appear.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(7): 9-18, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723365

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has created new workforce considerations for emergency management community in addressing cumulative and cascading disasters. This research identifies how emergency management planning for both the changing dynamics of COVID-19 and the upcoming hurricane season may change under a compound threat. Many jurisdictions have faced challenges in providing adequate staffing of shelters before the pandemic. Now, fatigue among staff further exacerbates these challenges as resources are stretched thin. Six workshops, involving 265 national, state, and local leaders, staff, experts, and advocates from 22 states, and a range of disciplines (disaster planning, public health, social services, academia, and healthcare), were convened to identify concerns and potential strategies to address staffing, training, logistics, and support. Strategies proposed to increase the number and skill set of staff available involve increased reliance upon volunteers and nonprofit organizations. Mental health resources, personal protective equipment, sanitation supplies, and defining roles within emergency shelters were recommended to reduce fatigue and redistribute responsibilities. Findings illuminate additional research avenues regarding assessing the underlying stressors contributing to the planning process and effective means of implementing these interventions to bolster emergency management shelter operations during a prolonged pandemic and in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Recursos Humanos
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4579-4590, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730645

RESUMO

The article presents the project "Of Our Territory, We Know" (De Nosso Território Sabemos Nós), carried out in two communities in the mountain cities of the state of Rio de Janeiro that suffered the 2011 disaster, aiming at creating a device for online communication, associated with social cartography, seeking to establish a dialogue between the city management and citizens in a permanent and dynamic way. The device allows local needs to be visible for the creation of public policies. The implementation of the Extended Research Communities (Comunidades Ampliadas de Pesquisa), consisting of residents and their associations, participants of the municipal management, and researchers in a regime of ecology of knowledges, took place through cartographic workshops. The identification of the vulnerabilities and potentials of the communities, the emergence of memories and local knowledges allow the strengthening of community resilience. Therefore, the appraisal of the experience in the creation of social cartographies brings out the group's self-awareness. The mapping process demonstrated how unknown the territories are to the municipal management and even to their inhabitants.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Brasil , Cidades , Comunicação , Emergências , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770143

RESUMO

To ensure human resource availability for a smooth response during various types of disasters, there is a need to improve the intent of those involved in responding to each hazard type. However, Disaster Medical Assistance Team personnel's intent to engage with specific hazards has yet to be clarified. This study therefore aimed to clarify the factors affecting Disaster Medical Assistance Team members' (n = 178) intent to engage with each type of hazard through an anonymous web questionnaire survey containing 20 questions. Our results show that the intent to engage in disaster response activities was significantly lower for chemical (50), biological (47), radiological/nuclear (58), and explosive (52) incidents compared with natural (82) and man-made hazards (82) (p < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that incentives were the most common factor affecting responders' intent to engage with all hazard types, followed by self-confidence. Thus, creating a system that provides generous incentives could effectively improve disaster responders' intent to engage with specific hazards. Another approach could be education and training to increase disaster responders' confidence. We believe that the successful implementation of these measures would improve the intent of responders to engage with hazards and promote the recruitment of sufficient human resources.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Humanos , Intenção , Assistência Médica , Motivação
8.
Radiographics ; 41(7): 2111-2126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723695

RESUMO

Disaster planning is a core facet of modern health care practice. Owing to complex infrastructure requirements, radiology departments are vulnerable to system failures that may occur in isolation or during a disaster event when the urgency for and volume of imaging examinations increases. Planning for systems failures helps ensure continuity of service provision and patient care during an adverse event. Hazards to which a radiology department is vulnerable can be identified by applying a systematic approach with recognized tools such as the Hazard, Risk, and Vulnerability Analysis. Potential critical weaknesses within the department are highlighted by the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis tool. Recognizing the potential latent conditions and active failures that may impact systems allows implementation of strategies to prevent failure or to build resilience and mitigate the effects if they happen. Inherent system resilience to an adverse event can be estimated, and the ability of a department to operate during a disaster and the subsequent recovery can be predicted. The main systems at risk in a radiology department are staff, structure, stuff (supplies and/or equipment), and software, although individual issues and solutions within these are department specific. When medical imaging or examination interpretation needs cannot be met in the radiology department, the use of portable imaging modalities and teleradiology can augment the disaster response. All phases of disaster response planning should consider both sustaining operations and the transition back to normal function. Online supplemental material and the slide presentation from the RSNA Annual Meeting are available for this article. Work of the U.S. Government published under an exclusive license with the RSNA.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Serviço Hospitalar de Radiologia , Radiologia , Humanos , Radiografia
9.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(6): 661-663, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629120

RESUMO

While the opioid epidemic engulfing the United States and the globe is well-documented, the potential use of powerful fentanyl derivatives as a weapon of terror is increasingly a concern. Carfentanyl, a powerful and deadly fentanyl derivative, is seeing a surge in popularity as an illegal street drug, and there is increasing congressional interest surrounding the classification of opioid derivatives under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) given their potential to cause harm. The combination of the potency of opioid derivatives along with the ease of accessibility poses a potential risk of the use of these deadly agents as chemical weapons, particularly by terrorist organizations. Disaster Medicine specialists in recent years have established a sub-specialty in Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) to address and research the unique terrorism-related issues relating to mitigation, preparedness, and response measures to asymmetric, multi-modality terrorist attacks.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Terrorismo , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(6): 739-746, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Considering the pediatric peculiarities and the difficulty of assisting this population in mass-casualty situations, this study aims to identify the main topics regarding children's health care in mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) that are discussed in the Emergency Medicine area. METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and registered with the PROSPERO database of systematic reviews with the number CRD42021229552. The last update of the search in the databases was on May 27, 2021 and resulted in 45 documents to be analyzed. The inclusion criteria included the peer-reviewed academic papers in English, Portuguese, Spanish, and Italian languages; the databases used were PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE/Bireme (Virtual Library of Health - VLH), and Web of Science, which execute the query on the topic, keywords, or abstracts. Also, to be included, documents that were available with full-text access through CAPES, Google, or Google Scholar. Books, non-academic research, and content in languages other than the presented ones were represented as exclusion criteria. RESULTS: From the resulting papers, 21 articles served as the basis for this analysis. Revealed were the year of publication, the first author's institution nationality, topic, and disaster management phase for each study, which allow other researchers to understand the main topics regarding children's health care in MCIs. CONCLUSIONS: The topics regarding child's health care in MCIs found in the primary studies of this review, in order of frequency, were: Disaster Response (including the following sub-topics: simulation, education, quality of care, use of technological tools, and damage analysis); Triage; and Disaster Planning. The Emergency Medicine operation was focused on harm reduction after the occurrence of an MCI. Further studies focusing on the pre-disaster and post-disaster phases are needed.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Triagem
11.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(6): 684-690, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658320

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Different disaster activities should be performed smoothly. In relation to this, human resources for disaster activities must be secured. To achieve a stable supply of human resources, it is essential to improve the intentions of individuals responding to each type of disaster. However, the current intention of Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members has not yet been assessed. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To facilitate a smooth disaster response, this survey aimed to assess the intention to engage in each type of disaster activity among DMAT members. METHODS: An anonymous web questionnaire survey was conducted. Japanese DMAT members in the nuclear disaster-affected area (Group A; n = 79) and the non-affected area (Group N; n = 99) were included in the analysis. The outcome was the answer to the following question: "Will you actively engage in activities during natural, human-made, and chemical (C), biological (B), radiological/nuclear (R/N), and explosive (E) (CBRNE) disasters?" Then, questionnaire responses were compared according to disaster type. RESULTS: The intention to engage in C (50), B (47), R/N (58), and E (52) disasters was significantly lower than that in natural (82) and human-made (82) disasters (P <.001). The intention to engage in CBRNE disasters among younger participants (age ≤39 years) was significantly higher in Group A than in Group N. By contrast, the intention to engage in R/N disasters alone among older participants (age ≥40 years) was higher in Group A than in Group N. However, there was no difference between the two groups in terms of intention to engage in C, B, and E disasters. Moreover, the intention to engage in all disasters between younger and older participants in Group A did not differ. In Group N, older participants had a significantly higher intention to engage in B and R/N disasters. CONCLUSION: Experience with a specific type of calamity at a young age may improve intention to engage in not only disasters encountered, but also other types. In addition, the intention to engage in CBRNE disasters improved with age in the non-experienced population. To respond smoothly to specific disasters in the future, measures must be taken to improve the intention to engage in CBRNE disasters among DMAT members.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Adulto , Humanos , Intenção , Assistência Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
12.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(9): 712-716, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625759

RESUMO

While armed assailant attacks are rare in the hospital setting, they pose a potential risk to healthcare staff, patients, visitors and the infrastructure. Singapore hospitals have well-developed disaster plans to respond to a mass casualty incident occurring outside the hospital. However, lack of an armed assailant incident response plan can significantly reduce the hospital's ability to appropriately respond to such an incident. The authors describe various strategies that can be adopted in the development of an armed assailant incident response plan. Regular staff training will increase staff resilience and capability to respond to a potential threat in the future. The aim of this article is to highlight the need for the emergency preparedness units of all hospitals to work together with various stakeholders to develop an armed assailant incident response plan. This will be of great benefit for keeping healthcare facilities safe, both for staff as well as for the community.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Atenção à Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais , Humanos , Singapura
13.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(12): 80, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643813

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews the empirical literature on exposures to disaster or terrorism and their impacts on the health and well-being of children with disabilities and their families since the last published update in 2017. We also review the literature on studies examining the mental health and functioning of children with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Few studies have examined the effects of disaster or terrorism on children with disabilities. Research shows that children with disabilities and their families have higher levels of disaster exposure, lower levels of disaster preparedness, and less recovery support due to longstanding discriminatory practices. Similarly, many reports of the COVID-19 pandemic have documented its negative and disproportionate impacts on children with disabilities and their families. In the setting of climate change, environmental disasters are expected to increase in frequency and severity. Future studies identifying mitigating factors to disasters, including COVID-19; increasing preparedness on an individual, community, and global level; and evaluating post-disaster trauma-informed treatment practices are imperative to support the health and well-being of children with disabilities and their families.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas com Deficiência , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Terrorismo , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682491

RESUMO

This study developed guidelines for psychological first aid. This guideline promotes core response and disaster capabilities for disaster mental-health professionals, such as mental-health nurses and counseling psychologists at disaster sites. A research team composed of a first-aid professor and counseling psychology professor developed this psychological first-aid guideline to promote the psychological response required at disaster sites. The team verified each question's content adequacy at each guideline-development stage to determine the appropriateness of response to a disaster. The PFA performance stage and achievement objectives were moved to the next stage only when the research team fully agreed upon them. This guideline revised and supplemented the six steps suggested in the handbook to five steps through expert meetings. The modified part was made into one step, without separating the first rapport formation and safety check. The checklist for evaluation was developed after verification by a total of four people, including one emergency-rescue-department professor, one counseling psychology professor, one paramedic, and one health educator. Based on previous studies, the cutting point is 24 points. The final completed psychological first aid consists of five stages: rapport formation and safety verification, psychological stabilization, information collection, problem resolution, and recovery, with details to be carried out at each step. These guidelines contribute to the promotion of disaster-response capabilities of disaster psychologists. Continuous training and practical exercises based on the five stages will provide fundamental data for a disaster-simulation psychological-first-aid educational development.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Primeiros Socorros , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639364

RESUMO

It is important to provide nutritionally adequate food in shelters to maintain the health of evacuees. Since the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has released the "Nutritional Reference Values for Evacuation Shelters" (Reference Values) after every major natural disaster. There is clear evidence, however, that the Reference Values have only been used infrequently. This study aims to revise these guidelines to include the actual situation in the affected areas and the feasibility of the endeavor. This qualitative study uses group interviews with local government dietitians to propose revisions to Japan's Reference Values. These revisions include the following: issuing Reference Values within 1 week of a disaster, showing one type of values for meal planning for each age group, showing the minimum values of vitamins, upgrading salt to basic components, creating three phases of nutrition (Day 1, Days 1-3, and After Day 4), stipulating food amounts rather than nutrient values, and creating a manual. Local government officials could use the Reference Values as guidelines for choosing food reserves, and dietitians could use them while formulating supplementary nutrition strategies for a model menu in preparation for disasters.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Terremotos , Nutricionistas , Abrigo de Emergência , Humanos , Japão , Saúde Pública , Valores de Referência
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639706

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to examine the capacity development of local self-governments in the field of disaster risk management (DRM). This quantitative research examines the degree of implementation of strategic, legislative, and institutional frameworks, as well as the capacity of local authorities to apply related policies through five analytical scopes: (1) degree of preparedness and legal framework; (2) financial framework; (3) policy aspects; (4) cooperation and partnership; (5) communication. The ability of municipalities and towns to respond to disasters was also analyzed and compared. In this paper, our initial hypothesis was that the effective implementation of the concept of DRM policy in towns of Serbia requires the continual strategic, tactical, and operational transformation of the public administration and public management system in order to strengthen the capacity of local self-governments for disaster prevention, preparation, response, and recovery. This multimethod research was conducted over the period of 2014-2017 and included the following two target groups: (a) heads of disaster sectors in local self-government units (mayor) and (b) employees of the DRM sector in local self-government units. The results of this research will enable decision makers to successfully respond to challenges and help to improve the capacity of local self-governments and public local administrations within the scope of DRM in the Republic of Serbia, based on the principles of prevention and proactive action, coordination, cooperation, partnership, and responsibility.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Cidades , Governo Local , Gestão de Riscos , Sérvia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639845

RESUMO

As future healthcare professionals, nursing students should possess the appropriate knowledge, skills, and positive attitude to respond to public health emergencies or disasters worldwide. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a disaster management training course at improving Hong Kong nursing students' disaster knowledge, willingness, and perceived ability. A mixed-method design using a single group with pre- and post-intervention comparisons followed by qualitative focus group interviews, was conducted. A 45-h disaster management training course with theoretical and practical inputs was conducted. A total of 157 students participated in and completed the pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Positive significant results in disaster knowledge (t(156) = -8.12, p < 0.01, d = -0.84) and perceived ability (t(156) = -7.95, p < 0.01, d = -0.72) were found, but no substantial change in willingness to respond to disasters was observed. The participants expressed various concerns regarding their willingness to respond, which can be summarized and grouped as (1) personal risk perceptions, (2) contextual factors of the disaster events, and (3) organizational support. Incorporating disaster training into the tertiary education curricula for basic nursing professionals' training could be a long-term strategy to prepare and expand the competent workforce for future disasters. Government or healthcare organizations are recommended to provide strategies and adequate support to alleviate nursing professionals' concerns and enhance their willingness.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Currículo , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 35(6): 321-325, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647914

RESUMO

Trauma clusters are formed when 2 or more disasters occur simultaneously and/or consecutively. These disasters have the propensity to potentiate health disparities. The purpose of this article is to share thoughts about critical caring theory and how the theory can inform holistic nursing action when health disparity amplifies trauma clustering.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
19.
Health Secur ; 19(5): 532-540, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609918

RESUMO

Emergency preparedness systems plan for antibiotic distribution and vaccine administration to respond to public health threats. The arrival of a COVID-19 vaccine underscores the importance of organized logistics for rapid administration to populations. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Cities Readiness Initiative encourages frontline responders from 72 US cities and metropolitan statistical areas to use planning software, such as RealOpt-POD-v8.0.2, to design dispensing operations and predict staffing needs. However, planning can be difficult for local jurisdictions given uncertainty about how long it may take to complete various processes during a dispensing operation, including assessment of countermeasure needs for each person (eg, based on age or pregnancy status) and the careful dispensing of countermeasures and accompanying education. The Union County Health Department in Ohio gathered data on the timing of typical processes for an anthrax medical countermeasures distribution site through a small-scale drill and used these data to parameterize a RealOpt model capable of serving the rural county's population of just over 50,000 people within 24 hours. Results help fill a gap in parameterizing RealOpt-based planning models by highlighting the use of a small-scale drill to inform time estimates, which can be applied to RealOpt as part of county-level planning in advance of larger-scale drills to evaluate dispensing capabilities and effectiveness. The findings provide a methodological basis of future resource typing for adaptable and scalable dispensing, particularly for rural areas. Both the approach and resulting antibiotics dispensing schematic presented here could be tailored to support planning for population-based countermeasure administration to combat emerging pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Planejamento em Desastres , Contramedidas Médicas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Software
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257345, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597308

RESUMO

Infrasonic signals measured before an earthquake carry information about the size and development speed of the source fracture, the stress at the fracture site and the elastic properties of the geologic medium. The infrasonic signal has a stable time scale, and compared with other precursors, infrasound has a unique sensitivity to earthquake disasters. However, to date, there has been no relevant theoretical research on the mechanism of infrasonic anomalies, and information on the development of fracture sources cannot be obtained from these characteristics, which makes the application of this anomaly in earthquake prediction challenging. In this study, we obtained the characteristics of short-term and impending infrasonic anomalies based on the infrasound data of more than 100 strong earthquakes. With a range of elastic medium models with a large number of fractures, we completed the theoretical simulation of the formation process of infrasonic precursors during the formation of the main fractures, analyzed the physical evolution of acoustic signals when cracks are generated, and quantitatively described the stages of large fracture formation caused by the initiation and propagation of seismic cracks. Specifically, this study revealed the causes of various and complex forms of infrasonic precursors near the critical point and the causes of the time- and space-dependent characteristics of these precursors, such as a noticeable attenuation of the pulse number, a low frequency and a large amplitude, which verified the effectiveness of infrasonic anomalies as strong earthquake precursors.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Desastres , Terremotos , Acústica , Planejamento em Desastres
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