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4.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151351, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740667

RESUMO

Integrating disruptive technologies within smart cities improves the infrastructure needed to potentially deal with disasters. This paper provides a perspective review of disruptive technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), image processing, artificial intelligence (AI), big data and smartphone applications which are in use and have been proposed for future improvements in disaster management of urban regions. The key focus of this paper is exploring ways in which smart cities could be established to harness the potential of disruptive technologies and improve post-disaster management. The key questions explored are a) what are the gaps or barriers to the utilization of disruptive technologies in the area of disaster management and b) How can the existing methods of disaster management be improved through the application of disruptive technologies. To respond to these questions, a novel framework based on integrated approaches based on big data analytics and AI is proposed for developing disaster management solutions using disruptive technologies.


Assuntos
Desastres , Tecnologia Disruptiva , Inteligência Artificial , Big Data , Ciência de Dados
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 284: 87-89, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920480

RESUMO

Nurses need to take a strategic leadership role in managing disruptive health technologies that can be adopted to improve health and care within the population. While innovative technology developments continue to advance quickly, systematic changes to the health and care systems are not always geared to take advantage of these advances at the same rate. This panel will look at how disruptive technology will impact nursing practice and strategic leadership factors that shape acceptance/resistance to new technologies.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Disruptiva , Humanos , Liderança
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 284: 203-208, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920509

RESUMO

This paper provides a discourse based upon the key development of nursing in response to the emerging 4Ds of health technology re-design. Building informatics capability among health professionals is a workforce issue necessitated through the increasing prevalence of information technology and digitization of healthcare affecting the entire health workforce, specifically front-line nurses. The key concepts will be explored of Digitization, Distribution, Disruption and Diversity, a framework recognising the tsunami of technology such as Big Data analytics, comprehensive decision support systems for nursing, nanobots, robotics, and pharmacogenomics and the impact these have upon the nursing workforce.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Disruptiva , Robótica , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Farmacogenética
7.
Unfallchirurg ; 124(12): 974-976, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714357

RESUMO

Trauma surgery has always been driven forward by innovative technological advancements. The recent appearance of "advanced air mobility" (AAM) represents one of the next steps in these technological developments. These innovative flying systems have major implications for all of the various healthcare stages in trauma surgery: Unmanned aircraft systems, or drones, can deliver critical supplies on demand, just in time, without physical contact, within the "last mile delivery" concept, such as AEDs, critical medication, blood for transfusion etc. Electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) devices add new horizons for healthcare thanks to the smallest take-off and landing areas. These eVTOLs are not only new aircraft but, thanks to the autonomous flying options, they are flying computers with novel technological opportunities on board. With these new, flying operation systems, the whole rescue chain will be completely revolutionized by much faster response intervals, patient transportation times, telemedical applications, optimized emergency medical services, laboratory transportation etc. Hence, this article aims to provide a tentative overview of these new exciting technological developments in the field of trauma surgery for the benefit of our patients.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Disruptiva , Telemedicina , Aeronaves , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
9.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(3): 410-416, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340128

RESUMO

Abstract In the past decade, a new class of hemodialysis (HD) membranes (high retention onset class) became available for clinical use. The high cutoff (HCO) and the medium cutoff (MCO) membranes have wider pores and more uniformity in pore size, allowing an increased clearance of uremic toxins. Owing to the mechanism of backfiltration/internal filtration, middle molecules are dragged by the convective forces, and no substitution solution is needed. The HCO dialyzer is applied in septic patients with acute kidney injury requiring continuous kidney replacement therapy. The immune response is modulated thanks to the removal of inflammatory mediators. Another current application for the HCO dialyzer is in hematology, for patients on HD secondary to myeloma-kidney, since free light chains are more efficiently removed with the HCO membrane, reducing their deleterious effect on the renal tubules. In its turn, the MCO dialyzer is used for maintenance HD patients. A myriad of clinical trials published in the last three years consistently demonstrates the ability of this membrane to remove uremic toxins more efficiently than the high-flux membrane, an evolutionary disruption in the HD standard of care. Safety concerns regarding albumin loss as well as blood contamination from pyrogens in the dialysate have been overcome. In this update article, we explore the rise of new dialysis membranes in the light of the scientific evidence that supports their use in clinical practice.


Resumo Na última década, uma nova classe de membranas de hemodiálise (HD) (classe de início de alta retenção) tornou-se disponível para uso clínico. As membranas de ponto de corte alto (HCO) e ponto de corte médio (MCO) têm poros mais largos e maior uniformidade no tamanho dos poros, permitindo uma maior depuração de toxinas urêmicas. Devido ao mecanismo de retrofiltração/filtração interna, as moléculas médias são arrastadas pelas forças convectivas, não sendo necessária uma solução de substituição. O dialisador de HCO é aplicado em pacientes sépticos com lesão renal aguda que requerem terapia renal substitutiva contínua. A resposta imunológica é modulada graças à remoção de mediadores inflamatórios. Outra aplicação atual para o dialisador de HCO é em hematologia, para pacientes em HD secundária ao rim do mieloma, uma vez que as cadeias leves livres são removidas mais eficientemente com a membrana de HCO, reduzindo seu efeito deletério sobre os túbulos renais. Por sua vez, o dialisador de MCO é utilizado para pacientes em HD de manutenção. Uma miríade de ensaios clínicos publicados nos últimos três anos demonstra consistentemente a capacidade desta membrana de remover toxinas urêmicas de forma mais eficiente do que a membrana de alto fluxo, uma ruptura evolutiva no padrão de cuidado em HD. As preocupações de segurança em relação à perda de albumina, bem como a contaminação do sangue por pirogênios no dialisato foram superadas. Neste artigo de atualização, exploramos o surgimento de novas membranas de diálise à luz das evidências científicas que apoiam seu uso na prática clínica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tecnologia Disruptiva , Soluções para Diálise , Diálise Renal , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina , Membranas Artificiais
10.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 21(Suppl 1): S85-S93, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technological advancements are the drivers of modern-day spine care. With the growing pressure to deliver faster and better care, surgical-assist technology is needed to harness computing power and enable the surgeon to improve outcomes. Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) represent the pinnacle of emerging technology, not only to deliver higher quality education through simulated care, but also to provide valuable intraoperative information to assist in more efficient and more precise surgeries. OBJECTIVE: To describe how the disruptive technologies of VR and AR interface in spine surgery and education. METHODS: We review the relevance of VR and AR technologies in spine care, and describe the feasibility and limitations of the technologies. RESULTS: We discuss potential future applications, and provide a case study demonstrating the feasibility of a VR program for neurosurgical spine education. CONCLUSION: Initial experiences with VR and AR technologies demonstrate their applicability and ease of implementation. However, further prospective studies through multi-institutional and industry-academic partnerships are necessary to solidify the future of VR and AR in spine surgery education and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Tecnologia Disruptiva , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064548

RESUMO

Robotics is a disruptive technology that will change diagnostics and treatment protocols in dental medicine. Robots can perform repeated workflows for an indefinite length of time while enhancing the overall quality and quantity of patient care. Early robots required a human operator, but robotic systems have advanced significantly over the past decade, and the latest medical robots can perform patient intervention or remote monitoring autonomously. However, little research data on the therapeutic reliability and precision of autonomous robots are available. The present paper reviews the promise and practice of robots in dentistry by evaluating published work on commercial robot systems in dental implantology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, prosthetic and restorative dentistry, endodontics, orthodontics, oral radiology as well as dental education. In conclusion, this review critically addresses the current limitations of dental robotics and anticipates the potential future impact on oral healthcare and the dental profession.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Disruptiva , Robótica , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Drug Discov Today ; 26(11): 2489-2495, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015541

RESUMO

Spiralling research costs combined with urgent pressures from the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the consequences of climate disruption are forcing changes in drug discovery. Increasing the predictive power of in vitro human assays and using them earlier in discovery would refocus resources on more successful research strategies and reduce animal studies. Increasing laboratory automation enables effective social distancing for researchers, while allowing integrated data capture from remote laboratory networks. Such disruptive changes would not only enable more cost-effective drug discovery, but could also reduce the overall carbon footprint of discovering new drugs.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , COVID-19 , Mudança Climática , Tecnologia Disruptiva , Descoberta de Drogas , Automação , Pegada de Carbono , Comportamento Cooperativo , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Aprendizado de Máquina , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Bras Nefrol ; 43(3): 410-416, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836041

RESUMO

In the past decade, a new class of hemodialysis (HD) membranes (high retention onset class) became available for clinical use. The high cutoff (HCO) and the medium cutoff (MCO) membranes have wider pores and more uniformity in pore size, allowing an increased clearance of uremic toxins. Owing to the mechanism of backfiltration/internal filtration, middle molecules are dragged by the convective forces, and no substitution solution is needed. The HCO dialyzer is applied in septic patients with acute kidney injury requiring continuous kidney replacement therapy. The immune response is modulated thanks to the removal of inflammatory mediators. Another current application for the HCO dialyzer is in hematology, for patients on HD secondary to myeloma-kidney, since free light chains are more efficiently removed with the HCO membrane, reducing their deleterious effect on the renal tubules. In its turn, the MCO dialyzer is used for maintenance HD patients. A myriad of clinical trials published in the last three years consistently demonstrates the ability of this membrane to remove uremic toxins more efficiently than the high-flux membrane, an evolutionary disruption in the HD standard of care. Safety concerns regarding albumin loss as well as blood contamination from pyrogens in the dialysate have been overcome. In this update article, we explore the rise of new dialysis membranes in the light of the scientific evidence that supports their use in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Disruptiva , Soluções para Diálise , Humanos , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina , Membranas Artificiais , Diálise Renal
19.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(4): 33, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666772

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Moderate or severe calcification is present in approximately one third of coronary lesions in patients with stable ischemic heart disease and acute coronary syndromes and portends unfavorable procedural results and long-term outcomes. In this review, we provide an overview on the state-of-the-art in evaluation and treatment of calcified coronary lesions. RECENT FINDINGS: Intravascular imaging (intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography) can guide percutaneous coronary intervention of severely calcified lesions. New technologies such as orbital atherectomy and intravascular lithotripsy have significantly expanded the range of available techniques to effectively modify coronary calcium and facilitate stent expansion. Calcium fracture improves lesion compliance and is essential to optimize stent implantation. Intravascular imaging allows for detailed assessment of patterns and severity of coronary calcium that are integrated into scoring systems to predict stent expansion, identifying which lesions require atherectomy for lesion modification. Guided by intravascular imaging, older technologies such as rotational atherectomy and excimer laser can be incorporated with newer technologies such as orbital atherectomy and intravascular lithotripsy into an algorithmic approach for the safe and effective treatment of patients with heavily calcified coronary lesions.


Assuntos
Aterectomia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Tecnologia Disruptiva , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Calcificação Vascular , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/terapia
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 153: 105983, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618100

RESUMO

Considering the number of people who have been involved in crashes associated with driver distractions, it is important to understand the characteristics of distracted driving on public roadways. While experiments have indicated that driver distractions are associated with slower driving speeds, the methodologies tend to have limited external validity. Observational studies are often conducted under limited circumstances - be it time or location. Therefore, in order to better understand the nature of driver distractions, the authors investigated the relationships between driving speed, posted speed limits, and phone handling frequency through naturalistic driving data obtained (via disruptive technology) from 8,240 mobile application users on state-maintained highways throughout Texas. As a measure of manual distractions, a phone handling rate (PHR; times/hours driven) was calculated based on phone rotations. Within-subject comparisons were drawn for driving speed and posted speed limits under normal driving conditions and distracted conditions. The analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between PHR and driving speed (rs = -0.87). Paired t-tests revealed significantly lower driving speeds (p = 0.000 < 0.01, d = -0.48, η = 0.69) and posted speed limits (p = 0.000 < 0.01, d = -0.20, η = 0.42) during phone handling events when compared to driving without phone handling. On average, users drove 3.26 mph slower in distracted conditions than in undistracted conditions. Driving speed had a larger effect size than posted speed limits. The findings were in line with existing theories and experiments as well as other observational studies conducted at fixed locations. Although this research did not reveal causal relations, it is noteworthy that speed reduction with manual distractions was observed under real road conditions. Spatial analyses are recommended to conduct in order to paint a more thorough picture of speed reduction, its relationship to space, and crash risks related to distracted driving.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Telefone Celular , Tecnologia Disruptiva , Direção Distraída , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Texas
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