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1.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 7672692, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120154

RESUMO

Due to the extensive development of globalization, the ethnic makeup of the world is becoming more and more complex, and the issue of cultural diversity has emerged as a key concern for all nations' educational systems. Cross-cultural education is an educational prescription for many western countries to deal with cultural diversity and strengthen national cohesion in order to address this issue and promote mutual respect, understanding, and communication between different groups and individuals. One of the most recent developments in global education is cross-cultural education, which has also given rise to a brand-new area of study in the field of education. The research has identified cross-cultural education as making up about 50% of all education. Numerous nations have practiced cross-cultural education, which has been promoted by UNESCO, with many issues that merit study. The traditional English teaching approach cannot meet the learning needs of today's students in light of the recent curriculum reform, and students have long engaged in passive learning. College English instructors must modify traditional teaching philosophies, adapt to contemporary developments, integrate information technology, use a variety of teaching techniques, fully pique students' interest in learning, and encourage them to take the initiative in their own education if they want to reclaim the initiative from the students in their classrooms.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Leitura , Comunicação , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Estudantes
2.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(8): 513-516, 2022.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117483

RESUMO

Background  Of the total Dutch population, 25.7% has a migration background. The countries of origin, migration motives and time in the Netherlands are very diverse. Aim  To provide an overview of the cultural diversity within the psychiatry of different groups of people with a migration background, and to address the challenges and mental health care to these groups and the position of transcultural psychiatry in the Netherlands. Method  Based on integration of a narrative literature review (without a systematic search), own experiences and a fictitious case, we discuss the most important groups. This concerns the so-called guest workers as a specific group of first-generation migrants, second-generation migrants with their specific problems, and finally refugees and undocumented migrants with an accumulation of risk-increasing factors. Results  In addition to predisposition and migration factors, insufficient understanding of cultural context contributes to the psychiatric problems of first- and second-generation migrants. Refugees and undocumented migrants also have limited access to care. There is a reimbursement system in the Netherlands for undocumented migrants, through which they can also rely on care. By understanding cultural backgrounds, professionals can further improve their skills and communication in the field of intercultural psychiatry. Conclusion  Cultural diversity of patient groups demands additional attention to diagnosis and therapy.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Migrantes , Diversidade Cultural , Etnopsicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 670, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cultural safety training is not yet standard in Colombian medical education. If incorporated, it could address currently adversarial interactions between health professionals and the 40% of people who use traditional medicine practices. In 2019, a randomised controlled trial tested the impact of cultural safety training for medical students using participatory serious game design. The quantitative evaluation showed improved cultural safety intentions of Colombian medical trainees. We report here a qualitative evaluation of the most significant change perceived by trial participants. METHODS: This qualitative descriptive study used the most significant change technique. We invited the trial participants engaged in clinical settings to describe stories of change in their supervised clinical practice that they attributed to the intervention. Using a deductive thematic analysis based on a modified theory of planned behaviour, two independent reviewers coded the stories and, by consensus, created themes and sub-themes. RESULTS: From 27 stories of change, we identified seven themes and 15 subthemes: (a) Conscious knowledge: benefits of cultural safety training, consequences of culturally unsafe behaviour, cultural diversity and cultural practices; (b) Attitudes: respect and appreciation for cultural diversity, openness, and self-awareness; (c) Subjective norms: positive perception of cultural practices and less ethnocentrism; (d) Intention to Change; (e) Agency to accept cultural diversity and to prevent culturally unsafe actions; (f) Discussion; and (g) Action: better communication and relationship with patients and peers, improved outcomes for patients, physicians, and society, investigation about cultural health practices, and efforts to integrate modern medicine and cultural health practices. CONCLUSION: The narratives illustrated the transformative impact of cultural safety training on a results chain from conscious knowledge through to action. Our results encourage medical educators to report other cultural safety training experiences, ideally using patient-related outcomes or direct observation of medical trainees in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on ISRCTN registry on 18/07/2019. REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN14261595.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Colômbia , Diversidade Cultural , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
4.
J Christ Nurs ; 39(4): 236-243, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048596

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A review of literature was conducted to discover and compare various instruments that could be used in daily nursing practice to assess spiritual and religious coping in a variety of multicultural clinical settings. Fifteen spiritual and religious (S/R) instruments were identified, used in 31 studies in multiple countries. These S/R coping tools may be useful to nurses in assessment and for planning interventions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Espiritualidade , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274224, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084129

RESUMO

Mothers-in-law in multicultural families tend to experience psychological burden. This study aimed to verify the effects of the cultural adaptation promotion resilience program (CAPRP) on resilience, acculturation stress, depression, and quality of life among mothers-in-law in multi-cultural families. Forty-two participants from multicultural family support centres in the metropolitan city A were assigned to either the intervention group or the control group. The CAPRP was performed for 60 minutes, twice a week for four weeks. The intervention group showed a significant decrease in the acculturation stress (p = .002), and depression (p = .006), while resilience (p < .001) and quality of life (p < .001) significantly increased compared to the control group. The intervention group reported significant improvements in resilience, acculturation stress, depression, and quality of life in comparison with the control group. The results indicated that the CAPRP, developed based on positive cognitive appraisal, was an efficient nursing intervention for mothers-in-law in multicultural families.


Assuntos
Mães , Resiliência Psicológica , Aculturação , Adaptação Psicológica , Aconselhamento , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida
7.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 104(18): e80, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129676

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Orthopaedic surgery has historically been one of the least diverse fields in medicine in the U.S. Despite having been declared a critical issue by the American Orthopaedic Association, a lack of diversity and inclusion across all metrics remains a persistent problem. In order to balance representation within orthopaedic surgery, a multiyear and multilevel approach should be considered across the life cycle of a surgeon. Talented individuals from diverse backgrounds must be identified and given early exposure to orthopaedic surgery. They must be nurtured, mentored, and retained. Representation at the medical student, resident, and faculty level is vital to ensuring diversity across the next generation of surgeons.We cannot alter representation within orthopaedics unless we broaden the candidate selection pool. Medical school classes provide the selection pool for residency, residency provides the candidates for fellowship, fellowships provide the candidates for employment, and employment provides the pool for promotion to leadership positions. Through each progression, there is a loss of underrepresented applicants, which leads to a lack of balanced representation in orthopaedic surgery. With stronger efforts to identify and retain individuals at each phase of a surgeon's career, we hope to mitigate the loss of talented and diverse individuals from this field.We challenge the paradigm of increasing diversity that focuses only on the resident selection level. Instead, efforts must begin at the medical student level. Efforts for early and meaningful exposure to the field through a musculoskeletal curriculum and rotations as well as connection through mentorship and sponsorship are vital for retention. At each ascending level of education, reinvestment in each individual is critical. Exposure, mentorship, retention, and promotion should lead to a more diverse and rich future. To achieve this, deliberate and longitudinal action should be instituted to increase diversity within orthopaedics.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Ortopedia , Escolha da Profissão , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Ortopedia/educação , Faculdades de Medicina , Estados Unidos
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274093, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099254

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to analyze the positioning and interactions of the principal actors in the creative industries, in particular their relations with the structures tasked with implementing the Timișoara European Capital of Culture 2021 project, and the press coverage of the developing project. We started from the hypothesis that such an event stimulates the creative industries, but also induces tensions, which can degenerate into blockages. Quantitative and qualitative methods (20 observation sheets; 19 interviews and 227 press articles) combine to portray the dynamics and effectiveness of the city's creative spaces and the role actors play in local territorial co-production, the press analysis providing additional data. The article supplements previous literature on politico-territorial arenas by spotlighting spatio-temporal reconfigurations that spark synergies and tensions within an urban environment with a long-standing multicultural tradition. The results of our research highlight, on the one hand, the tensions and blockages in the public sector in the implementation of the project, marked by political rivalries at various levels, and on the other hand the critical attitude and difficulties in coagulating the energies of the local creative cultural sector. The press analysis reflects a complex and contradictory reality, with both positive aspects (cultural events, dynamics, public involvement, etc.) and negative ones (leadership, dissensions, underfunding). We demonstrate the response of creative industries facing a major cultural project with great potential for stimulating urban development but whose success may be threatened by weaknesses in leadership, in participating governance, and in local civic involvement.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Liderança , Diversidade Cultural
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 686, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cultural competence development in the formative process of healthcare professionals is crucial for the provision of culturally appropriate health care. This educational issue is highly relevant in the growing multicultural composition of southern Chile. The objective of this study was to examine how the healthcare professions curricula at the Universidad de La Frontera, in La Araucanía Region, prepares future professionals to respond to patients' cultural needs. METHOD: A sequential transformative mixed methods design composed of two phases was carried out. Phase 1 reviewed all printed material and documentation to explore content that developed cross-cultural skills and competencies in the curricula. In Phase 2 semi-structured interviews were conducted with academics with responsibilities for the development of the curriculum in each career, to detect how academics envisage the incorporation of cultural competence in the curricula. RESULTS: Regarding curricular contents, findings indicated that the healthcare professions curricula at The Universidad de La Frontera have similar approaches to the inclusion of CCT in subjects' syllabuses, with inclusion of the different CCT, particularly in the Dental and Medical curricula. However, this coverage showed significant variations in the undergraduate healthcare curricula. The analysis revealed that themes around the Ethics and human values for professional practice; the Psychosocial and cultural determinants of health; the Relationship health-family-community, and to a lesser extent, the Clinician-patient relationship were well covered in the courses. On the other hand, Inequalities in health was the theme with the least contact time in all three courses. Academics called for a better organisation of the inclusion of CCT in the curricula. They also highlighted the challenges of maintaining the dominant paradigm underlying healthcare models, practices, and orientations within the academic staff and health discipline. CONCLUSION: Curricula contents findings indicate that the healthcare professions curricula at Universidad de La Frontera have similar approaches to the inclusion of CCT in subjects' syllabuses. However, its depth of coverage allows for improvements. The systematization of CCT and teaching-learning methodologies in healthcare professions curricula is necessary to develop formative processes that allow future professionals to be aware of and respectful with patients' cultural characteristics and needs.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Currículo , Diversidade Cultural , Odontologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
10.
Asunción; OPS; 2022-09-23. (OPS/PRY/22-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56354

RESUMO

En el 2022 se celebra el 120.º aniversario de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS). En calidad de organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la OPS brinda cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para abordar las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, como Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para la Región de las Américas, participa en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible a nivel de país. A nivel subregional, la OPS trabaja con los mecanismos de integración para que la salud y sus determinantes tengan un lugar en la agenda política. En el informe anual correspondiente al 2021 se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS en los países y territorios en este período, con la aplicación de las estrategias de cooperación en los países, la respuesta a sus necesidades y prioridades, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la OPS y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. En consonancia con el tema general de "responder a la COVID-19 y prepararse para el futuro", se ponen de relieve las medidas que ha adoptado la OPS con respecto a la pandemia de COVID-19 y sus esfuerzos continuos en áreas prioritarias como las emergencias de salud, los sistemas y servicios de salud, las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles y la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y la equidad en la salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del bienio 2020-2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emergências , Sistemas de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis , Equidade , Equidade de Gênero , Diversidade Cultural , Cooperação Técnica , América , Paraguai
11.
San José; OPS; 2022-09-23. (OPS/CRI/22-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56341

RESUMO

En el 2022 se celebra el 120.º aniversario de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS). En calidad de organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la OPS brinda cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para abordar las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, como Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para la Región de las Américas, participa en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible a nivel de país. A nivel subregional, la OPS trabaja con los mecanismos de integración para que la salud y sus determinantes tengan un lugar en la agenda política. En el informe anual correspondiente al 2021 se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS en los países y territorios en este período, con la aplicación de las estrategias de cooperación en los países, la respuesta a sus necesidades y prioridades, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la OPS y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. En consonancia con el tema general de "responder a la COVID-19 y prepararse para el futuro", se ponen de relieve las medidas que ha adoptado la OPS con respecto a la pandemia de COVID-19 y sus esfuerzos continuos en áreas prioritarias como las emergencias de salud, los sistemas y servicios de salud, las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles y la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y la equidad en la salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del bienio 2020-2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emergências , Sistemas de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis , Equidade , Equidade de Gênero , Diversidade Cultural , Cooperação Técnica , América , Costa Rica
12.
Pediatrics ; 150(3)2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Academic medicine diversity is important for addressing health disparities and training the next generation. A recent study highlighted the lack of diversity among pediatric trainees over time. However, trends in US pediatric faculty diversity have not been clearly illuminated. The aim of this study is to evaluate pediatric faculty diversity trends and compare racial/ethnic representation between pediatric faculty and the US population. METHODS: Repeat cross-sectional study of the Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster of pediatric faculty from 2000 to 2020. Trends in sex, race, ethnicity, and rank were compared with the Cochran-Armitage test. Data on faculty race/ethnicity were compared with the general and child population by using US Census Bureau data. RESULTS: Trends in underrepresented in medicine (URiM) faculty representation significantly increased at all ranks: professor (+3.5%, P < .0001), associate professor (+3.0%, P = .0001), and assistant professor (+2.5%, P = .0001). URiM male representation remained unchanged (P = .14), whereas significantly increased trends occurred in URiM female representation (+3.4%, P < .0001). African American/Black males significantly decreased representation at associate (-0.4%, P = .04) and assistant professor levels (-0.6%, P < .0001), and American Indian/Alaska Native males significantly decreased representation at the assistant professor rank (-0.1%, P < .0001). The percentage of URiM pediatric faculty representation was considerably lower compared with 2020 US overall and longitudinal child population representation. CONCLUSION: The stagnation of URiM male representation and lack of faculty diversity reflective of the US population may have a critical impact on the ability to recruit/retain a diverse pediatric workforce and promote equitable care.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Etnicidade , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Docentes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Estados Unidos
14.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 260(11): 1283-1290, 2022 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943914

RESUMO

Advancing equality and equity in society is creating positive change, and the time has come to critically evaluate veterinary medicine, which, by all metrics, lacks diversity. To keep pace with increasingly diverse demographics and recent surges in pet ownership among all racial/ethnic groups, significant efforts to enhance diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging (DEIB) must occur in veterinary colleges and the profession. Recruiting more underrepresented students, building pipelines for diverse faculty/staff, and creating inclusive, welcoming environments where all can thrive are critical steps toward enhancing DEIB within our organizations and profession. Our goal is to share experiences and lessons learned from our intentional commitment to strengthen DEIB, with the hope that our journey will be helpful to others. Increasing diversity in the veterinary profession will be facilitated through removing barriers, creating inclusive work environments where all people feel they belong, and ensuring fair and equitable hiring and personnel management practices. These steps should in turn improve access and quality of veterinary care, ensure we are more representative of the communities we serve, increase revenue, and preserve the human-animal bond. "You cannot change any society unless you take responsibility for it, unless you see yourself belonging to it, and responsible for changing it." - Grace Lee Boggs.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Animais , Humanos
15.
J Physician Assist Educ ; 33(3): 171-178, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998047

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to identify perceived barriers faced by physician assistant (PA) students who identified as an underrepresented minority in medicine (URM-med), sexual or gender minority (SGM), coming from low socioeconomic status (low SES), or a person with a disability (PWD). METHODS: More than 2700 PA students across the United States provided information regarding their PA school application process and program experiences. This study examined differences among URM-med, SGM, low SES, and PWD compared to those who were not in those groups to determine the relationship between these factors and student concerns about bias in the application process, as well as a variety of experiences in PA school. RESULTS: Using ordinal logistic regression analyses to examine the odds of experiencing a variety of barriers or experiences in applying to PA school and postmatriculation experiences, results suggested that, among disadvantaged groups within the PA student body, barriers include concerns about bias in the application process, lack of belonging, and the lack of academic and social support. DISCUSSION: PA students who identified as URM-med, SGM, low SES, and/or PWD faced barriers as they navigated the path to becoming a PA. To decrease these barriers, emphasis on raising awareness and interest in pursuing a career as a PA should occur early. Programs should work to identify biases within admissions processes, diversify faculty, and identify ways to support minority students once matriculated. Ultimately, increasing the diversity of healthcare providers has the potential to increase access to and quality of care for patients.


Assuntos
Assistentes Médicos , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Assistentes Médicos/educação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272134, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917359

RESUMO

The advantage of sex, and its fixation in some clades and species all over the eukaryote tree of life, is considered an evolutionary enigma, especially regarding its assumed two-fold cost. Several likely hypotheses have been proposed such as (1) a better response to the negative frequency-dependent selection imposed by the "Red Queen" hypothesis; (2) the competition between siblings induced by the Tangled Bank hypothesis; (3) the existence of genetic and of (4) ecological factors that can diminish the cost of sex to less than the standard assumed two-fold; and (5) a better maintenance of genetic diversity and its resulting phenotypic variation, providing a selective advantage in randomly fluctuating environments. While these hypotheses have mostly been studied separately, they can also act simultaneously. This was advocated by several studies which presented a pluralist point of view. Only three among the five causes cited above were considered yet in such a framework: the Red Queen hypothesis, the Tangled Bank and the genetic factors lowering the cost of sex. We thus simulated the evolution of a finite mutating population undergoing negative frequency-dependent selection on phenotypes and a two-fold (or less) cost of sexuality, experiencing randomly fluctuating selection along generations. The individuals inherited their reproductive modes, either clonal or sexual. We found that exclusive sexuality begins to fix in populations exposed to environmental variation that exceeds the width of one ecological niche (twice the standard deviation of a Gaussian response to environment). This threshold was lowered by increasing negative frequency-dependent selection and when reducing the two-fold cost of sex. It contributes advocating that the different processes involved in a short-term advantage of sex and recombination can act in combination to favor the fixation of sexual reproduction in populations.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Reprodução , Diversidade Cultural , Ecossistema , Eucariotos , Reprodução/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Sexo
17.
Big Data ; 10(4): 313-336, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969694

RESUMO

Derived from the notion of algorithmic bias, it is possible that creating user segments such as personas from data results in over- or under-representing certain segments (FAIRNESS), does not properly represent the diversity of the user populations (DIVERSITY), or produces inconsistent results when hyperparameters are changed (CONSISTENCY). Collecting user data on 363M video views from a global news and media organization, we compare personas created from this data using different algorithms. Results indicate that the algorithms fall into two groups: those that generate personas with low diversity-high fairness and those that generate personas with high diversity-low fairness. The algorithms that rank high on diversity tend to rank low on fairness (Spearman's correlation: -0.83). The algorithm that best balances diversity, fairness, and consistency is Spectral Embedding. The results imply that the choice of algorithm is a crucial step in data-driven user segmentation, because the algorithm fundamentally impacts the demographic attributes of the generated personas and thus influences how decision makers view the user population. The results have implications for algorithmic bias in user segmentation and creating user segments that not only consider commercial segmentation criteria but also consider criteria derived from ethical discussions in the computing community.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Big Data , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diversidade Cultural
18.
Nursing ; 52(9): 41-42, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006751
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