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1.
BMJ ; 378: e070642, 2022 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835466

Assuntos
Dorso , Adolescente , Humanos
2.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(6): 814-816, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686419

RESUMO

Lipomas are benign mesenchymal tumors that comprise almost one-half of all soft tissue tumors. Lipomas can occur at any site where fat cells are present but are rare in the oral cavity, especially the tongue, which is a very rare site. Lipoma has several variants. Fibrolipoma is a rare variant and accounts for 25-40% of lipomas of the tongue. In only 14 cases, the diagnosis of fibrolipoma has been made histologically. Most cases of lipomas occur above 40 years of age. Herein, we report a case of fibrolipoma of the tongue in a young female of 18 years. The patient presented with complaint of swelling on the dorsum of the tongue for 8 years. The swelling was surgically excised and microscopically a diagnosis of fibrolipoma was made. In conclusion, oral lipomas especially lingual lipomas are a rare entity. Although oral lipomas mostly occur above 40 years of age, they can occur at a younger age. Key Words: Fibrolipoma, Tongue, Histopathology.


Assuntos
Lipoma , Dorso/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoma/diagnóstico , Lipoma/patologia , Lipoma/cirurgia , Língua/patologia , Língua/cirurgia
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267361, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476847

RESUMO

The center of mass (CoM) is the location in a body where mass distribution is balanced. It has a fundamental role in balance and motion which has been poorly described in the dog. The objective of this study was to estimate the variance of the center of mass (CoM) in a heterogeneous population of client-owned dogs and to describe the relationship between CoM, subject morphometrics and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) box positioned ventrally on a neck collar. A single force platform and a reaction board were used to determine CoM in the transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes in thirty-one healthy adult dogs. A series of morphometric measurements were acquired with each dog standing, including distances relative to an IMU box positioned ventrally on a neck collar. Mean transverse plane CoM was 48% the distance from ischium to the IMU box, near the xiphoid process. Mean sagittal place CoM was 59% the width of the chest on the left side. Mean dorsal plane CoM was 41% the distance from the most dorsal to the most ventral aspect of the body. Dog length was the primary variable required to maximize the relationship between three-dimensional CoM and identifiable variables measured. A CoM based normalization procedure should be considered to normalize mass or motion based outcome measure output (e.g., ground reaction forces, vector acceleration) in a heterogeneous population of dogs. Future research will be needed to determine if CoM-based normalization procedures reduce variance in outcome measures affected by subject morphometrics.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Dorso , Animais , Cães
4.
Appl Ergon ; 102: 103765, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405455

RESUMO

Back support exosuits can support workers in physically demanding jobs by reducing muscle load, which could reduce risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This paper presents a two-session evaluation of a commercial exosuit, the Auxivo LiftSuit 1.1. In session 1, 17 participants performed single repetitions of lifting and static leaning tasks with and without the LiftSuit. In session 2, 10 participants performed 50 box lifting repetitions with and without the LiftSuit. In session 1, the exosuit was considered mildly to moderately helpful, and reduced erector spinae and middle trapezius electromyograms. In session 2, the exosuit was not considered helpful, but reduced the middle trapezius electromyogram and trunk and thigh ranges of motion. These effects are likely due to placement of elastic elements and excessive stiffness at the hips. Overall, the LiftSuit appears suboptimal for long-term use, though elastic elements on the upper back may reduce muscle activation in future exosuit designs.


Assuntos
Remoção , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso , Dorso/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Músculos Paraespinais
5.
Appl Ergon ; 102: 103756, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Investigate the influence of sex, strength capacity, and relative load mass on low-back exposure and lower extremity joint power generation in backboard lifting. BACKGROUND: Sex and strength have been shown to influence lifting strategy, but without load mass being scaled to strength it is unknown which factor influences low-back exposures, and whether there are interactions with load mass. METHODS: Motion capture and force plate data from 28 participants were collected during backboard lifting at load masses scaled to strength capacity. Differences in normalized peak low-back moment, peak knee-to-hip power magnitude ratio and timing were tested as a function of sex, strength, and load mass. RESULTS: Stronger participants had lower normalized peak low-back moments (average 32% change from low-capacity across all load masses), with no significant sex effect (p = 0.582). As load mass increased, normalized peak low-back moment, peak knee-to-hip power magnitude and synchronicity decreased. CONCLUSION: Training to both increase strength capacity and hip-joint power generation may be a strategy to reduce low-back exposure in backboard lifting.


Assuntos
Dorso , Remoção , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Joelho , Articulação do Joelho
8.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 44(3): e28, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35171890

Assuntos
Dorso , Eritema , Humanos
9.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(3): 632-634, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001397

RESUMO

Annular lichen planus is a rare clinical variant of the lichen planus presenting with round-oval, red to brown macules and plaques with no central atrophy and slightly raised, nonscaly borders. Histopathological features are indistinguishable from typical lichen planus. Given that the accurate diagnosis relies on both the clinical presentation and typical histological features, it is important to be aware of the clinical spectrum of lichen planus. Click https://wileyhealthlearning.com/#/online-courses/6be3b20c-e9c3-40e9-8f36-bfcda6718a73 for the corresponding questions to this CME article.


Assuntos
Dorso/patologia , Líquen Plano/patologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Líquen Plano/diagnóstico , Líquen Plano/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Prednisolona/análogos & derivados , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 934, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042941

RESUMO

Multiple studies have reported high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among supermarket workers. Technical field measurements can provide important knowledge about ergonomic risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in the physical working environment, but these measurements are lacking in the supermarket sector. Therefore, using wearable electromyography and synchronous video recording in 75 supermarket workers, this cross-sectional study measured muscular workload during stocking activities in six different types of general store departments and during the thirteen most common work tasks across five different supermarket chains. Our results showed that muscular workload varies, especially for the low-back muscles, across (1) supermarket chains, (2) departments, and (3) specific stocking activities. Highest workloads of the low-back and neck/shoulders were seen in the fruit and vegetables department and during heavy, two-handed lifts of parcels (especially without using technical aids). In conclusion, physical work demands during supermarket stocking activities differ between chains, departments, and work tasks. These results can be used by company representatives and work environment professionals to specifically address and organize the stocking procedures to reduce the muscular workload during supermarket stocking.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto , Dorso , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Remoção , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Sistema Musculoesquelético , Fatores de Risco , Ombro , Supermercados , Local de Trabalho
11.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; 28(1): 68-75, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568001

RESUMO

Background. Many of the approaches available for modifying manual materials handling (MMH) exertion emphasize lower back protection but often do not consider how interventions affect other body regions. This study focused on the influence of lift training on resultant joint moments and muscular demand trade-offs between the lower back and shoulders during MMH tasks. Methods. Three recommended lifting techniques (straddle lift, pivot technique and tripod lift) were compared to a priori (untrained) self-selected lifting techniques. Results. Mean and cumulative resultant moments indicated that using the lifting techniques evaluated in this investigation protected the shoulders more than the lower back. Mean and peak shoulder muscle activity also decreased following training (p < 0.05). Although there were no peak and mean changes to lower back muscle activity (p>0.05), there was a significant decrease in cumulative lower back muscle activity (p < 0.05). Reported perceived exertion values decreased following training across the lifting techniques for all evaluated body regions (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Overall, the recommended MMH techniques protected both the lower back and the shoulders, and no exposure trade-offs between them were identified.


Assuntos
Remoção , Ombro , Dorso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Ombro/fisiologia
12.
Ergonomics ; 65(1): 134-146, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427545

RESUMO

When work-related physical stress is assessed using non-weighted integration, it is assumed that different loading conditions have a sufficiently comparable effect on the human body as long as the area under the loading curve is the same. Growing evidence cast doubt on whether this simple calculation can adequately estimate physical work-related strain. This study investigates in vivo, focussing on the lower back, whether the non-weighted method adequately reflects work-related physical strain of the lower back. Strain data resulting from lifting/lowering tasks performed in a laboratory study with an identical area under the loading curve but different load intensities were compared. Results showed that the non-weighted method does not sufficiently reflect the resulting muscular, cardiovascular and perceived strain but underestimates the influence of higher load intensity even in the range of medium physical exposure. Further research is needed regarding the determination of weighting factors and limit values. Practitioner Summary Given the dynamic nature of most physical work activities, the assessment of time-varying loading of the lower back is of particular interest in practice. Results show that the widely used non-weighted calculation method does not accurately reflect the resulting physical strain but underestimates the influence of higher load intensity.Abbreviations: MSD: musculoskeletal disorders; WMSD: work-related musculoskeletal disorders; KIM-LHC: Key Indicator Method Lifting, Holding, Carrying; RES: right erector spinae longissimus; LES: left erector spinae longissimus; HR: heart rate; RPE: rating of perceived exertion; EMG: surface electromyography; ECG: electrocardiography; SENIAM: Surface ElectroMyoGraphy for the Non-Invasive Assessment of Muscles; MVC: maximum voluntary contraction; ANOVA: analysis of variance; Std. error: standard error HIGHLIGHTSResults of this empirical investigation suggest that the widely used non-weighted calculation method is not fully suitable for calculating cumulative loading of the lower back.Even in the range of medium physical exposure the non-weighted calculation method does not accurately reflect the resulting strain on the human body but tends to underestimate the influence of higher load intensity due to higher external weight.Despite the same cumulative loading value obtained when using the non-weighted method, the resulting physical strain values are generally about 20-25% higher.The results may be used to further develop ergonomic assessment methods in order to avoid a misclassification of loading conditions and to prevent the risk of overexertion.


Assuntos
Remoção , Músculo Esquelético , Dorso , Eletromiografia , Ergonomia , Humanos , Músculos Paraespinais
13.
Appl Ergon ; 100: 103666, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923297

RESUMO

During a driving task, the seat-driver interface is particularly influenced by the external environment and seat features. This study compares the effect of two different seats (S1 - soft & S2 - firm) and the effect of visual simulation of different road types (city, highway, mountain, country), on pressure distribution and perceived discomfort during prolonged driving. Twenty participants drove two 3-h sessions (one per seat) on a static simulator. Contact Pressure (CP), Contact Surface (CS), and Seat Pressure Distribution Percentage (SPD%) were analyzed throughout, using two pressure mats positioned on seat cushion and backrest. Whole-body and local discomfort for each body part were rated every 20 min. The softer seat, S1, induced a greater contact surface on cushion and backrest and a lower SPD%, reflecting better pressure distribution. Pressure profiles were asymmetrical for both S1 and S2, with higher CP under left buttock (LBu) and right lower back (RLb) and greater CS under thighs and RLb. Pressure distribution was less homogeneous on mountain and city roads than on monotonous roads (highway and country). Despite the pressure differences between the seats, however, both led to similar increases in perceived whole-body discomfort throughout the driving session. Moreover, the highest discomfort scores were in the neck and the lower back areas, whatever the seat. These findings on pressure variables may have implications for the design of backrests and cushions to ensure more homogeneous pressure distribution, even though this is not shown to minimize perceived driver discomfort.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Sistemas de Proteção para Crianças , Dorso , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Postura
14.
Ann Plast Surg ; 88(1): 7-13, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928242

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to provide a guide for plastic surgeons, regardless of experience level, seeking to improve his/her endonasal rhinoplasty skills and comfort level. We have presented the advantages of our technique and its unifying principles and demonstrated how endonasal rhinoplasty can be used to achieve safe, anatomical, and predictable outcomes. Endonasal rhinoplasty is a separate thought process from open rhinoplasty and should not be viewed as a competing but rather parallel technique that is broadly applicable to many nasal deformities.We have described the basic goals of all rhinoplasties and highlighted 2 false assumptions that are responsible for most adverse rhinoplasty outcomes and 4 anatomical deficits that surgeons must recognize preoperatively to maximize function, proportion, and contour. Finally, the majority of primary rhinoplasties can be performed with 1 of 2 operative strategies that depend on the relationship of the dorsum to the lower nose. Because surgeons often presume that they will not be able to "see well enough" in endonasal rhinoplasty or worry they have not been adequately trained in the technique, we have provided a step-by-step guide to help overcome such fears and help these surgeons to achieve results that will exceed their patients' goals.


Assuntos
Doenças Nasais , Rinoplastia , Cirurgiões , Dorso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nariz
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23515, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873238

RESUMO

Ligamentum flavum hypertrophy (HLF) is the most important component of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). Analysis of hypertrophied ligamentum flavum (HLF) samples from patients with LSCS can be an important que. The current study analyzed the surgical samples of HLF samples in patients with LCSC using quantitative and qualitative high performance-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. We collected ligamentum flavum (LF) tissue from twelve patients with LSCS and from four patients with lumbar disk herniation (LDH). We defined LF from LSCS patients as HLF and that from LDH patients as non-hypertrophied ligamentum flavum (NHLF). Total lipids were extracted from the LF samples and evaluated for quantity and quality using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total lipid amount of the HLF group was 3.6 times higher than that of the NHLF group. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs), ceramides (Cers), O-acyl-ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs), and triglycerides (TGs) in the HLF group were more than 32 times higher than those of the NHLF group. PC(26:0)+H+, PC(25:0)+H+, and PC(23:0)+H+ increased in all patients in the HLF group compared to the NHLF group. The thickness of the LF correlated significantly with PC(26:0)+H+ in HLF. We identified the enriched specific PCs, Cers, OAHFAs, and TGs in HLF.


Assuntos
Hipertrofia/patologia , Ligamento Amarelo/patologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Canal Medular/patologia , Estenose Espinal/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Dorso/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Masculino
16.
Elife ; 102021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812141

RESUMO

Adaptations of the lower back to bipedalism are frequently discussed but infrequently demonstrated in early fossil hominins. Newly discovered lumbar vertebrae contribute to a near-complete lower back of Malapa Hominin 2 (MH2), offering additional insights into posture and locomotion in Australopithecus sediba. We show that MH2 possessed a lower back consistent with lumbar lordosis and other adaptations to bipedalism, including an increase in the width of intervertebral articular facets from the upper to lower lumbar column ('pyramidal configuration'). These results contrast with some recent work on lordosis in fossil hominins, where MH2 was argued to demonstrate no appreciable lordosis ('hypolordosis') similar to Neandertals. Our three-dimensional geometric morphometric (3D GM) analyses show that MH2's nearly complete middle lumbar vertebra is human-like in overall shape but its vertebral body is somewhat intermediate in shape between modern humans and great apes. Additionally, it bears long, cranially and ventrally oriented costal (transverse) processes, implying powerful trunk musculature. We interpret this combination of features to indicate that A. sediba used its lower back in both bipedal and arboreal positional behaviors, as previously suggested based on multiple lines of evidence from other parts of the skeleton and reconstructed paleobiology of A. sediba.


One of the defining features of humans is our ability to walk comfortably on two legs. To achieve this, our skeletons have evolved certain physical characteristics. For example, the lower part of the human spine has a forward curve that supports an upright posture; whereas the lower backs of chimpanzees and other apes ­ which walk around on four limbs and spend much of their time in trees ­ lack this curvature. Studying the fossilized back bones of ancient human remains can help us to understand how we evolved these features, and whether our ancestors moved in a similar way. Australopithecus sediba was a close-relative of modern humans that lived about two million years ago. In 2008, fossils from an adult female were discovered at a cave site in South Africa called Malapa. However, the fossils of the lower back region were incomplete, so it was unclear whether the female ­ referred to as Malapa Hominin 2 (MH2) ­ had a forward-curving spine and other adaptations needed to walk on two legs. Here, Williams et al. report the discovery of new A. sediba fossils from Malapa. The new fossils are mainly bones from the lower back, and they fit together with the previously discovered MH2 fossils, providing a nearly complete lower spine. Analysis of the fossils suggested that MH2 would have had an upright posture and comfortably walked on two legs, and the curvature of their lower back was similar to modern females. However, other aspects of the bones' shape suggest that as well as walking, A. sediba probably spent a significant amount of time climbing in trees. The findings of Williams et al. provide new insights in to our evolutionary history, and ultimately, our place in the natural world around us. Our lower back is prone to injury and pain associated with posture, pregnancy and exercise (or lack thereof). Therefore, understanding how the lower back evolved may help us to learn how to prevent injuries and maintain a healthy back.


Assuntos
Dorso/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Hominidae/fisiologia , Locomoção , Postura
17.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 28: 131-137, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A comparison of Linea Alba (LA) length and engagement of the Transverse Abdominis (TrA), External Oblique (EO) and Internal Oblique (IO) between core-orientated and lower back orientated exercises (e.g. glute bridge and hip extension) is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the length of the LA and the engagement of TrA, EO and IO when performing the prone plank, bird dog, dead bug, lateral plank, glute bridge and hip extension. METHODS: Thirteen apparently healthy participants volunteered to this study. Ultrasound scanning of the anterior and antero-lateral abdominal walls at baseline and whilst performing prone plank, bird dog, dead bug, lateral plank, glute bridge and hip extension exercises was performed. LA length and thickness of the TrA, EO and IO were measured from ultrasound images. RESULTS: LA length (p = 0.77) and TrA thickness (p = 0.23) were not different between exercises. EO thickness was larger for the lateral plank compared to the bird dog (p = 0.01, d = 1.73), glute bridge (p < 0.01, d = 2.64), and hip extension (p < 0.01, d = 1.89). The dead bug was also larger in comparison to the glute bridge (p < 0.01, d = 2.05) and to the hip extension (p = 0.01, d = 1.45). For the IO thickness, the lateral plank was larger than the bird dog (p = 0.03, d = 1.21) and the dead bug (p = 0.04, d = 1.12). CONCLUSION: No difference was observed between exercises for the length of the LA or for the thickness of the TrA, which suggests that this muscle is similarly engaged in the assessed exercises, leading to a consistent stretch for the LA.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais , Músculos Abdominais Oblíquos , Músculos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Dorso , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Ultrassonografia
18.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 43(11): 763-772, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651592

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Sebaceous carcinomas (SC) are rare tumors and are currently classified into ocular and extraocular variants. Both variants of SC have very different clinical behavior and different histomorphologic appearance; however, published data are confounding as literature describes prognosis of both variants is similar or even that extraocular variants are more aggressive. In this study we evaluated the clinical and the histopathology of ocular and extraocular SC to confirm the difference between them. We performed a retrospective review of SC in which we studied the clinical and histomorphologic features of 106 cases, including 39 cases of ocular SC and 67 cases of extraocular SC. Only 2/67 cases of extraocular SC had multiple recurrences and none of them metastasized as opposed to our cases of ocular SC wherein 21/39 cases were locally aggressive with multiple recurrences and 5 cases metastasized. Histologically, both neoplasms showed major distinct morphologic features including poor differentiation in cases of ocular SC and well-differentiated tumors in the extraocular anatomic sites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series of SC that compares the clinicopathologic features of ocular and extraocular variants. Awareness of such discrepancy is key to understand this disease and to possibly diagnose and manage these patients accordingly.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Sebáceo/secundário , Neoplasias Palpebrais/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Sebáceas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Braço , Dorso , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ombro , Tórax
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20619, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663847

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the remaining motion of an immobilized cervical spine using an innovative cervical collar as well as two traditional cervical collars. The study was performed on eight fresh human cadavers. The cervical spine was immobilized with one innovative (Lubo Airway Collar) and two traditional cervical collars (Stifneck and Perfit ACE). The flexion and lateral bending of the cervical spine were measured using a wireless motion tracker (Xsens). With the Weinman Lubo Airway Collar attached, the mean remaining flexion was 20.0 ± 9.0°. The mean remaining flexion was lowest with the Laerdal Stifneck (13.1 ± 6.6°) or Ambu Perfit ACE (10.8 ± 5.8°) applied. Compared to that of the innovative Weinmann Lubo Airway Collar, the remaining cervical spine flexion was significantly decreased with the Ambu Perfit ACE. There was no significant difference in lateral bending between the three examined collars. The most effective immobilization of the cervical spine was achieved when traditional cervical collars were implemented. However, all tested cervical collars showed remaining motion of the cervical spine. Thus, alternative immobilization techniques should be considered.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Restrição Física/métodos , Contenções/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dorso/cirurgia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Braquetes/tendências , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Imobilização/métodos , Masculino , Mandíbula/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento (Física) , Restrição Física/fisiologia , Contenções/normas
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640745

RESUMO

Postural disorders, their prevention, and therapies are still growing modern problems. The currently used diagnostic methods are questionable due to the exposure to side effects (radiological methods) as well as being time-consuming and subjective (manual methods). Although the computer-aided diagnosis of posture disorders is well developed, there is still the need to improve existing solutions, search for new measurement methods, and create new algorithms for data processing. Based on point clouds from a Time-of-Flight camera, the presented method allows a non-contact, real-time detection of anatomical landmarks on the subject's back and, thus, an objective determination of trunk surface metrics. Based on a comparison of the obtained results with the evaluation of three independent experts, the accuracy of the obtained results was confirmed. The average distance between the expert indications and method results for all landmarks was 27.73 mm. A direct comparison showed that the compared differences were statically significantly different; however, the effect was negligible. Compared with other automatic anatomical landmark detection methods, ours has a similar accuracy with the possibility of real-time analysis. The advantages of the presented method are non-invasiveness, non-contact, and the possibility of continuous observation, also during exercise. The proposed solution is another step in the general trend of objectivization in physiotherapeutic diagnostics.


Assuntos
Dorso/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Anatômicos , Postura , Algoritmos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
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