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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(4): 1011-1026, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228350

RESUMO

Motivated by the observation that vortex flow structure was evident in the energy loss at the surcharged junction manhole due to changes of hydraulic and geometrical parameters, a physical model was used to calculate energy loss coefficients and investigate the relationship between flow structure and energy loss at the surcharged three-way junction manhole. The effects of the flow discharge ratio, the connected angle between two inflow pipes, the manhole geometry, and the downstream water depth on the energy loss were analyzed based on the quantified energy loss coefficients and the identified flow structure. Moreover, two empirical formulae for head loss coefficients were validated by the experimental data. Results indicate that the effect of flow discharge ratio and connected angle are significant, while the effect of downstream water depth is not obvious. With the increase of the lateral inflow discharge, the flow velocity distribution and vortex structure are both enhanced. It is also found that a circular manhole can reduce local energy loss when compared to a square manhole. In addition, the tested empirical formulae can reproduce the trend of total head loss coefficient.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Movimentos da Água , Drenagem Sanitária/métodos , Água
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262425, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030221

RESUMO

In this study, we examined the total bacterial community associated with ureolytic biomineralization from urine drainage systems. Biomineral samples were obtained from 11 California Department of Transportation public restrooms fitted with waterless, low-flow, or conventional urinals in 2019. Following high throughput 16S rRNA Illumina sequences processed using the DADA2 pipeline, the microbial diversity assessment of 169 biomineral and urine samples resulted in 3,869 reference sequences aggregated as 598 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Using PERMANOVA testing, we found strong, significant differences between biomineral samples grouped by intrasystem sampling location and urinal type. Biomineral microbial community profiles and alpha diversities differed significantly when controlling for sampling season. Observational statistics revealed that biomineral samples obtained from waterless urinals contained the largest ureC/16S gene copy ratios and were the least diverse urinal type in terms of Shannon indices. Waterless urinal biomineral samples were largely dominated by the Bacilli class (86.1%) compared to low-flow (41.3%) and conventional samples (20.5%), and had the fewest genera that account for less than 2.5% relative abundance per OTU. Our findings are useful for future microbial ecology studies of urine source-separation technologies, as we have established a comparative basis using a large sample size and study area.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Bactérias/genética , Biomineralização/genética , California/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Drenagem Sanitária/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Toaletes
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 135 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361913

RESUMO

As deficiências na infraestrutura sanitária e urbana, a ineficiente gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos, as ocupações das planícies aluviais e a impermeabilização do solo são alguns dos principais fatores que condicionam ao estado de poluição em cursos hídricos, bem como potencializam os riscos de transbordamentos de rios e córregos urbanos. A conservação de bacias hidrográficas tem se tornado essenciais frente ao desafio de assegurar a disponibilidade de água em padrões de qualidade. Implantado em 2019, o Programa Novo Rio Pinheiros, tem a meta de reduzir o esgoto lançado em seus afluentes e melhorar a qualidade das águas até 2022. Com o objetivo de contribuir no alcance das metas do Programa, analisou-se o potencial das Soluções baseadas na Natureza (SbN) como medidas complementares às infraestruturas convencionais de saneamento. Para tanto, a pesquisa foi dividida em três partes, a primeira analisou estudos de caso com SbN por meio de uma revisão sistemática de literatura. A segunda e terceira compreenderam estudos que identificaram as sub-bacias dos córregos do Jaguaré, Pirajuçara, Pau Arcado/Morumbi, Morro do S, Cordeiro, Água Espraiada, Zavuvus, Pedreira, Olaria, Poli, Sapateiro, e o dreno do Brooklin, em condições mais críticas de poluição das águas superficiais ou de alagamentos urbanos na bacia hidrográfica do rio Pinheiros. Os resultados identificaram que as SbN proporcionam oportunidades como: (1) solução decentralizada e de baixo custo para conter alagamento e poluição na água, fornecendo alternativas de tratamento próximo das fontes geradoras; (2) soluções eficientes para remover compostos de fósforo, nitrogênio, substâncias orgânicas e sedimentos; (3) recuperação de áreas degradadas e contaminadas; e (4) integração dos serviços ecossistêmicos e paisagísticos. O desafio no uso de SbN está na apropriação dos espaços urbanos densamente povoados, sendo que as regiões centrais com urbanização mais consolidada, que dispõe de mais áreas verdes como as praças e parques, as tipologias de SbN como biovaletas e os jardins pluviais são mais favoráveis e, nas regiões periféricas, com a predominância de ruas estreitas e ausência de áreas verdes, os parques lineares são mais favoráveis para melhorar a qualidade ambiental dos córregos e a ampliação de espaços de lazer. Concluiu-se que o uso de SbN tem o potencial de aprimorar as ações do eixo saneamento, contribuindo para alcançar as metas do Programa Novo Rio Pinheiros.


Deficiencies in sanitary and urban infrastructure, inefficient management of urban solid waste, occupation of floodplains and soil sealing are some of the main factors that condition the state of pollution in water courses, as well as potentiate the risks of river overflows. and urban streams. The conservation of watersheds has become essential in the face of the challenge of ensuring the availability of water with quality standards. Implemented in 2019, the Novo Rio Pinheiros Program has the goal of reducing the sewage discharged into its tributaries and improving water quality by 2022. In order to contribute to the achievement of the Program's goals, the potential of Nature-based Solution (NbS) as complementary measures to conventional sanitation infrastructures. Therefore, the research was divided into three parts, the first analyzed case studies with NbS through a systematic literature review. The second and third comprised studies that identified the sub-basins streams of Jaguaré, Pirajuçara, Pau Arcado/Morumbi, Morro do S, Cordeiro, Água Espraiada, Zavuvus, Pedreira, Olaria, Poli, Sapateiro, and the Brooklin drain, in more critical conditions of surface water pollution or urban flooding in the Pinheiros river basin. The results identified that the NbS provide opportunities such as: (1) a decentralized and low-cost solution to contain flooding and water pollution, providing treatment alternatives close to the generating sources; (2) efficient solutions to remove phosphorus compounds, nitrogen, organic substances and sediments; (3) recovery of degraded and contaminated areas; and (4) integration of ecosystem and landscape services. The challenge in using NbS is in the appropriation of densely populated urban spaces, with central regions with more consolidated urbanization, which have more green areas such as squares and parks, NbS typologies such as biovaletas and rain gardens are more favorable, although in peripheral regions, with the predominance of narrow streets and the absence of green areas, the linear parks are more favorable to improve the environmental quality of streams and the expansion of leisure spaces. It was concluded that the use of NbS has the potential to improve the actions of the sanitation axis, contributing to achieving the goals of the Novo Rio Pinheiros Program.


Assuntos
Poluição da Água , Poluição de Rios , Recursos Hídricos , Drenagem Sanitária , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Resíduos Sólidos , Área Urbana
4.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(2): 232-239, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) have rapidly emerged in Europe, being responsible for nosocomial outbreaks. AIM: Following an outbreak in the burn unit of Ghent University Hospital, we investigated whether CPE can spread between toilets through drain water and therefrom be transmitted to patients. METHODS: In 2017, the burn centre of our hospital experienced an outbreak of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae that affected five patients staying in three different rooms. Environmental samples were collected from the sink, shower, shower stretcher, hand rail of the bed, nursing carts, toilets, and drain water to explore a common source. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was performed on K. pneumoniae outbreak isolates and two random K. pneumoniae isolates. FINDINGS: OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae was detected in toilet water in four out of six rooms and drain water between two rooms. The strain persisted in two out of six rooms after two months of daily disinfection with bleach. All outbreak isolates belonged to sequence type (ST) 15 and showed isogenicity (<15 allele differences). This suggests that the strain may have spread between rooms by drain water. Unexpectedly, one random isolate obtained from a patient who became colonized while residing at the geriatric ward clustered with the outbreak isolates, suggesting the outbreak to be larger than expected. Daily application of bleach tended to be superior to acetic acid to disinfect toilet water; however, disinfection did not completely prevent the presence of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae in toilet water. CONCLUSION: Toilet drain water may be a potential source of hospital room-to-room transmission of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Hospitais , Infecções por Klebsiella/transmissão , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Bélgica , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Drenagem Sanitária , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classificação , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , beta-Lactamases/genética
5.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 39(11): 2124-2135, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701177

RESUMO

Floodplains downstream of urban catchments are sinks for potentially toxic trace elements. An intensification of the hydrological cycle and changing land use will result in floodplains becoming inundated for longer durations in the future. We collected intact soil cores from a floodplain meadow downstream of an urban catchment and subjected them to an inundation/drainage cycle in the laboratory to investigate the effect of flood duration on trace element concentrations in the soil porewater. The porewater concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Zn increased, whereas Cu and Pb decreased with flood duration. All the Cr present in porewaters was identified as Cr(III). Copper concentrations increased after drainage but Pb mobility remained suppressed. Both pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased with flood duration but were lower in treatments that were drained for the longest duration (which were also the treatments flooded for the shortest duration). The porewater concentrations of Cr and Ni decreased after drainage to levels below those observed before inundation, mirroring the DOC concentrations. We concluded that the duration of floodplain inundation does have an influence on the environmental fate of trace elements but that flooding does not influence all trace elements in the same way. The implications of an intensification of the hydrological cycle over the coming decades are that floodplains may become a source of some trace elements to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:2124-2135. © 2020 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Inundações , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Carbono/química , Ecossistema , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Porosidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água/química
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233570, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479523

RESUMO

The pursuit of flood prevention safety and the mitigation of drainage contradiction against an unnecessary influx of floodwater require a modern and efficient model to optimize the management of the initial allocation of flood drainage rights. We attempted to formulate a framework for initial flood drainage rights allocation to promote the sustainable drainage of the Sunan Canal, China. The Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model was constructed using a literature review and interviews with experts and directors using 18 key indicators being determined from field surveys and library studies. We then assessed the flood status of Zhenjiang City, Changzhou City, Wuxi City and Suzhou City in the Sunan Canal zone using an entropy-based matter-element model. The flood drainage rights for a total of 400m3/s was allocated to the four cities in accordance with their flood status. Our research demonstrated that, overall, the four cities may gain the flood drainage rights of 106.67m3/s,120.40m3/s, 118.22m3/s and 54.71m3/s, respectively. Specifically, the calculation of the flood drainage for Wuxi was very close to the actual allocation in 2016, whereas there were differences in the other cities that should not be neglected.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária/métodos , Inundações , Modelos Teóricos , China , Drenagem Sanitária/normas , Entropia
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 90: 1-9, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081306

RESUMO

Small diameter gravity sewers (SDGS) are extensively used to collect rural sewage as they are low in cost and quick to construct. However, the characteristics of biofilms in rural SDGS are still not clear. In this study, biofilms characteristics of aerobic rural SDGS were investigated using simulations in a lab under different flow conditions and slopes. Results indicated that the average thickness of aerobic rural SDGS biofilms was in the range of 350-650 µm, decreasing at locations with variable flow and high slopes. Protein was the most abundant substance in extracellular polymeric substance of SDGS biofilms. The most abundant bacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, and functional bacteria showed different distributions when analyzed through Illumina HiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA. The relative abundances of denitrifying bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were lower during variable flow than during stable flow. High slopes (15‰) decreased SRB presence, which could be used to mitigate H2S accumulation in aerobic SDGS. Overall, this study describes the characteristics of aerobic rural SDGS biofilms and provides valuable suggestions for the optimal design of SDGS based on these characteristics.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Drenagem Sanitária , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Esgotos , Bactérias , RNA Ribossômico 16S
8.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 36(4): 249-252, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647110

RESUMO

Man-made stormwater and sewage infrastructure, particularly roadside catch basins, provides widespread habitats for immature mosquitoes in urban and suburban environments. Historically, throughout much of the USA, stormwater, sewage, and industrial wastewater were conducted together through "combined" sewer systems, discharging a combination of stormwater and wastewater into streams. Within recent decades, many cities have replaced these combined sewers with "stormwater only" systems that separate stormwater from wastewater. The objective of this research was to evaluate the implications of this infrastructure conversion for production of Culex pipiens, a primary vector for West Nile virus. On a weekly basis over 14 wk, 20 catch basins (10 combined sewer and 10 stormwater only) were sampled for mosquito larvae and emerging adults using the dipping collection method and floating emergence traps. Abundance of larval Cx. pipiens was higher in combined sewer compared with stormwater-only catch basins, while to the contrary, abundance of adult Cx. pipiens was lower in combined sewer compared with stormwater-only catch basins. This study is the first to reveal that habitat attractiveness and quality for Cx. pipiens may vary between combined sewer and stormwater-only catch basins, and our results contribute to a growing body of research to inform vector management and urban planning efforts as municipalities consider the environmental and public health implications of conversion from combined sewage management to separation of stormwater and wastewater.


Assuntos
Culex , Drenagem Sanitária , Animais , Larva , Densidade Demográfica
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(5): 4630-4639, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625115

RESUMO

Sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) have emerged as an effective and attractive approach for stormwater management, prevention of water pollution and flood control due to its sustainable, environmentally friendly and cost-effective approaches. One of the SuDS devices widely used to infiltrate, store and treat surface runoff which allows it to recharge groundwater is the pervious paving systems (PPS). Previous studies have demonstrated relatively high pollution removal efficiencies typically ranging from 98.7% for total hydrocarbons to 89% of COD. Although a small number of the studies have assessed the performance characteristics of the PPS system in long-established installations in terms of retention of pollutants, hydrological features, biodegradation of pollutants etc., none has assessed the risk of potential groundwater and soil pollution by pollutants such as metals retained in the PPS materials either as a disposed waste material (in the case of used geotextiles) or during re-use as secondary aggregates. Thus, this study evaluated potential risks associated with the decommissioning and beneficial use of wastes produced during the disassembly of a PPS. The authors believe that this was the first PPS to be addressed in this way. The method involved the determination of leachable concentrations of 14 metals in the PPS samples made up of extracts from the model profile which included the geotextile fibre (G), dust alone (D), aggregates and dust (AD), aggregates alone (AA) and pavement blocks (P) which were analysed and compared with two different groups of regulatory threshold limits. The results showed that the measured concentrations of all the metals were below the appropriate threshold values for irrigation purposes as specified by FAO and USEPA. Furthermore, results all indicated that the dismantled materials were all below EU LFD WAC limits for inert waste, indicating relative ease of disposal and suitability for use as recycled aggregate. This, admittedly limited data, indicates that recycling of aggregates from demolition wastes arising from end of life PPS would not be limited by the potential leaching of heavy metals, including re-use within another PPS. This would minimise dependence on virgin aggregates and hence reduce rate of exploitation of natural resources and improve sustainability score card of SuDS.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Reciclagem , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35270-35274, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741277

RESUMO

Rodents infest urban environments, causing damage and acting as vectors for disease transmission. Currently, anticoagulants are the most widely used chemical rodenticides, and their extensive and widespread use can contaminate the environment. To ensure effectiveness and avoid accumulation of rodent baits in the environment, it is important to evaluate how long rodent baits maintain their palatability and efficacy. In rodent control programs, rodent baits are placed in locations such as sewers, but after a few days, baits appear altered, causing doubts about the control efficacy. For this reason, baits are replaced periodically, which increases costs and generation of chemical waste. The objective of this study was to evaluate the palatability and efficacy of commercial paraffin-type rodent bait blocks placed in sewers in São Paulo City over a period of 90 days. Bait blocks were placed in sewers and collected after 30, 60, and 90 days. Additionally, in a laboratory two-choice test, wild-caught urban Norway rats were offered 40-60 g of bait and an equal volume of standard rat pellets. The amount of bait and rat pellet consumed was registered, the palatability was calculated, and the efficacy was measured as the percentage mortality over 14 days. The results showed that, even when they had an altered appearance, bait blocks remained palatable to the rats and were effective after at least 90 days. Leaving bait blocks for longer periods could be an effective strategy for reducing costs and could help to ensure the control of urban rodents in an environmentally sustainable way.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Masculino , Ratos , Rodenticidas/análise
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(2): 274-281, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537763

RESUMO

Connecting storm-sewers located at rather different elevations may be made with vortex drop shafts in which the energy dissipation is made by the friction between the vertical shaft and the flow and downstream by the impinging jet in a dissipation chamber. Following the first model design in the 1940s, different types of vortex drop shafts have been developed. One of the most used type is the so-called spiral vortex drop shaft developed to work in supercritical flow with good performance in both energy dissipation and space constrains. In this paper, an experimental flow characterization in a spiral vortex drop shaft is conducted covering the three main components of these structures, namely the inlet channel, the vertical shaft and the dissipation chamber. The results include measurement of water depths, pressure and velocity.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Movimentos da Água , Baías , Pressão
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 1304-1321, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539962

RESUMO

Demands on global water supplies are increasing in response to the need to provide more food, water, and energy for a rapidly growing population. These water stressors are exacerbated by climate change, as well as the growth and urbanisation of industry and commerce. Consequently, urban water authorities around the globe are exploring alternative water sources to meet ever-increasing demands. These alternative sources are primarily treated sewage, stormwater, and groundwater. Stormwater including roof-harvested rainwater has been considered as an alternative water source for both potable and non-potable uses. One of the most significant issues concerning alternative water reuse is the public health risk associated with chemical and microbial contaminants. Several studies to date have quantified fecal indicators and pathogens in stormwater. Microbial source tracking (MST) approaches have also been used to determine the sources of fecal contamination in stormwater and receiving waters. This review paper summarizes occurrence and concentrations of fecal indicators, pathogens, and MST marker genes in urban stormwater. A section of the review highlights the removal of fecal indicators and pathogens through water sensitive urban design (WSUD) or Best Management Practices (BMPs). We also discuss approaches for assessing and mitigating health risks associated with stormwater, including a summary of existing quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) models for potable and non-potable reuse of stormwater. Finally, the most critical research gaps are identified for formulating risk management strategies.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Chuva , Esgotos/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1192-1200, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466159

RESUMO

This work for the first time shows possible advantage of using ferrous as a catalyst to selectively oxidise hydrogen sulphide in sewer water where biological activity is present. Ferrous catalysed the oxidation reaction in all conditions, but the oxygen requirement for the chemical oxidation of sulphide varied depending on the initial conditions (pH, concentrations of sulphide and oxygen). For initial concentrations of O2 and S2- exceeding 2 mg/L, and a pH between 7.3 and 8.3, approximately 1 mg-O2 was required to oxidise 1 mg-S2-. For the typical conditions experienced in a sewer (pH < 8.0 and O2 and S2- < 2.0 mg/L), approximately 2.0 mg-O2 is required to oxidise 1 mg-S2-. The most efficient O2 usage of 0.25-0.5 mg-O2 was observed with initial O2 and S2- concentrations below 2.0 mg/L and a pH >8.1. The developed mathematical model described the experimental results over a wide range using only three coefficients. The catalytic effect of ferrous selectively increased the oxidation rate of S2- in sewer water samples in which biochemical oxygen utilisation competes for oxygen. Further trials are needed to optimise the method for application in sewer systems where biofilm is present and varying conditions (temperature, H2S concentration, oxygen consumption rate) exist.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Biofilmes , Corrosão , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Esgotos , Sulfetos
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26563-26576, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292865

RESUMO

In order to mitigate urban flooding and combined sewer overflows, an integrated assessment method was proposed to identify the optimum reconstruction scheme of a drainage system by considering environment, economy, and society. The integrated assessment framework consisted of the drainage system model establishment, analytic hierarchy process theory, and regret value method. Five drainage system reconstruction schemes for Chaohu city were proposed in this study, and they were evaluated according to nine assessment factors by the integrated assessment method at the initial and future stages. The integrated assessment results show that setting up interceptive equipment for a combined drainage network is the optimal reconstruction scheme at both the initial and future stages of the life cycle. This means that an interceptive combined drainage network is better than a separate drainage network or setting up storage tanks in particular situations from a comprehensive perspective.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Inundações , Cidades , Drenagem Sanitária/métodos , Modelos Teóricos
16.
Water Res ; 162: 11-21, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254882

RESUMO

Urban drainage system (UDS) researchers have applied the concept of resilience for minimizing the magnitude and duration of urban flooding in response to climate change. Currently, the relationship between conventional design and resilience analysis still remains unknown, while persistent rain has not been included in resilience assessment. The present study proposes new metrics by means of resilience profile graph for UDS stressed by synthetic short-duration storms and real persistent rains. The graph unifies the concepts of reliability, robustness, resilience and failure, as well as design standards for sewer surcharging, sewer flooding and property flooding, which are linked into curves to show a complete performance under climate stress scenarios. The obtained results show that resilience profile curves for short-duration storms are well fitted by power functions with coefficient of determination 98.13%-99.9%. Chicago hyetograph was used as critical input hyetograph where the error range was -0.34%-6.83% compared with actual hyetograph. Resilience profile graphs for persistent rains reveal that resilience assessment based on short-duration storms underestimates the effect of persistent rains, and it can be obtained by using segmental and reference reliability metrics to reduce working time from weeks to hours. For the rain of the same intensity, resilience to persistent rain was 18.4-33.1% lower than for single rains. Threat of persistent rain doesn't fall under the rains of high intensity but under large rainfall in total (which exceeds 25% of local annual rainfall), while re-planning water landscape as retarding basin reduces the impact of persistent rains to 5.8-11.8%.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Chuva , Chicago , Cidades , Mudança Climática , Drenagem Sanitária , Inundações , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(6): 343, 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055667

RESUMO

The characteristics of surface runoff and the infiltration properties of urban green land are important to determine the effects of runoff reduction by low-impact development (LID) facilities. In this paper, two typical types of urban green land (lawn and shrub) in Shanghai were selected to study the runoff characteristics under eight rainfall events. The sensitivity of the runoff parameters was analyzed, and then, the optimal parameters were determined using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM). The results showed that the interception and infiltration capacities of shrub were greater than those of lawn. The rainfall intensity and rainfall pattern were the major factors that influenced the interception and infiltration of rainwater. The threshold value that generates runoff varied across the eight rainfall events ranged from 1.6 to 28.5 mm for lawn and 4.5 to 32.0 mm for shrub. The maximum reduction ratios of runoff and peak flow for shrub were 52 and 57% higher than them for lawn, respectively. The parameters for shrub were more sensitive to runoff and peak flow compared with those for lawn. Under light rainfalls with a short duration, the maximum infiltration rate and depression storage were more sensitive than those under heavy rainfalls with a long duration. Antecedent dry weather period was not found to be a sensitive parameter except for the shrub under light rainfalls. The relative errors of runoff and dynamic mean runoff (60 min) for lawn and shrub were within ± 9.5%. The errors of peak flow ranged between - 21 and 16.6%. The dynamic runoff characteristics and the parameters for lawn and shrub determined in this study can provide references for simulating urban runoff and planning LID areas.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Drenagem Sanitária/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Calibragem , China , Cidades , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(6): 1060-1070, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070586

RESUMO

Brazil faces a severe lack of wastewater coverage. Even in urban areas, wastewater is directly disposed of in watercourses without any treatment for a large part of the population. Although the federal, state, and local governments have invested in water and wastewater services (WWS), the expected results have not been achieved. To overcome this problem, the present paper provides an opportunity to observe an ex-ante regulatory impact assessment (RIA) as a policy tool in Brazil. The regulatory policy options will be appraised through the multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) according to the following objectives: (i) protect the customers with respect to social aspects; (ii) safeguard the economic, operational and infrastructure sustainability; and (iii) protect the environment. The results show that by making decisions based on evidence, policy makers should reduce the households not connected to wastewater services by 75% and for that they should incur BRL 33 million to the year 2023. Hence, the extra revenues to be obtained with these new connections are capable of making a surplus estimated as BRL 42 million for the same period. This study promotes the use of RIA as a rational, robust and transparent decision framework by the regulatory agencies worldwide.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias , Brasil , Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Drenagem Sanitária/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental
19.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(6): 1113-1122, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070591

RESUMO

Sediment deposition in sewers and urban drainage systems has great effect on the hydraulic capacity of the channel. In this respect, the self-cleansing concept has been widely used for sewers and urban drainage systems design. This study investigates the bed load sediment transport in sewer pipes with particular reference to the non-deposition condition in clean bed channels. Four data sets available in the literature covering wide ranges of pipe size, sediment size and sediment volumetric concentration have been utilized through applying decision tree (DT), generalized regression neural network (GR) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) techniques for modeling. The developed models have been compared with conventional regression models available in the literature. The model performance indicators, showed that DT, GR and MARS models outperform conventional regression models. Result shows that GR and MARS models are comparable in terms of calculating particle Froude number and performing better than DT. It is concluded that conventional regression models generally overestimate particle Froude number for the non-deposition condition of sediment transport, while DT, GR and MARS outputs are close to their measured counterparts.


Assuntos
Árvores de Decisões , Drenagem Sanitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Modelos Estatísticos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(6): 1152-1163, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070595

RESUMO

Urban flooding due to accelerated urbanization and the resulting drainage problems have become a worldwide issue and the subject of several studies in recent decades. Alternative and holistic approaches such as sustainable drainage systems have been gaining prominence. Compensatory techniques represent one of these promising alternatives for managing flooding risk in the transition to regenerative urban environments. The goal of this study is to assess the effect of a drainage network together with compensatory techniques on the susceptibility to urban flooding in Campeche District. This study applies the analytical hierarchy process together with a consistency analysis, using overlapping influential parameters in three scenarios. The results show that introducing a drainage system decreases the susceptibility to urban flooding in approximately 27% of Campeche District. In general, considering the absence of a drainage network, it is concluded that its implementation together with compensatory structures provides a reduction of approximately 32% in the susceptibility to urban flooding. It should be noted that, although costly, interventions for the implementation of a drainage infrastructure associated with compensatory techniques are extremely important for disaster reduction and sustainable development.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Inundações/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Desastres , Modelos Teóricos , Urbanização
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