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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013285, 2022 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many accepted airway clearance techniques (ACTs) for managing the respiratory health of people with cystic fibrosis (CF); none of which demonstrate superiority. Other Cochrane Reviews have reported short-term effects related to mucus transport, but no evidence supporting long-term benefits. Exercise is an alternative ACT thought to produce shearing forces within the lung parenchyma, which enhances mucociliary clearance and the removal of viscous secretions. Recent evidence suggests that some people with CF are using exercise as a substitute for traditional ACTs, yet there is no agreed recommendation for this. Additionally, one of the top 10 research questions identified by people with CF is whether exercise can replace other ACTs. Systematically reviewing the evidence for exercise as a safe and effective ACT will help people with CF decide whether to incorporate this strategy into their treatment plans and potentially reduce their treatment burden. The timing of this review is especially pertinent given the shifting landscape of CF management with the advent of highly-effective small molecule therapies, which are changing the way people with CF are cared for. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of exercise to other ACTs for improving respiratory function and other clinical outcomes in people with CF and to assess the potential adverse effects associated with this ACT. SEARCH METHODS: On 28 February 2022, we searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. We searched online clinical trial registries on 15 February 2022. We emailed authors of studies awaiting classification or potentially eligible abstracts for additional information on 1 February 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected randomised controlled studies (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing exercise to another ACT in people with CF for at least two treatment sessions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias for the included studies. They assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. Review authors contacted investigators for further relevant information regarding their publications. MAIN RESULTS: We included four RCTs. The 86 participants had a wide range of disease severity (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) ranged from 54% to 95%) and were 7 to 41 years old. Two RCTs were cross-over and two were parallel in design. Participants in one RCT were hospitalised with an acute respiratory exacerbation, whilst the participants in three RCTs were clinically stable. All four RCTs compared exercise either alone or in combination with another ACT, but these were too diverse to allow us to combine results. The certainty of the evidence was very low; we downgraded it due to low participant numbers and high or unclear risks of bias across all domains. Exercise versus active cycle of breathing technique (ACBT) One cross-over trial (18 participants) compared exercise alone to ACBT. There was no change from baseline in our primary outcome FEV1, although it increased in the exercise group before returning to baseline after 30 minutes; we are unsure if exercise affected FEV1 as the evidence is very low-certainty. Similar results were seen for other measures of lung function. No adverse events occurred during the exercise sessions (very low-certainty evidence). We are unsure if ACBT was perceived to be more effective or was the preferred ACT (very low-certainty evidence). 24-hour sputum volume was less in the exercise group than with ACBT (secondary outcome). Exercise capacity, quality of life, adherence, hospitalisations and need for additional antibiotics were not reported. Exercise plus postural drainage and percussion (PD&P) versus PD&P only Two trials (55 participants) compared exercise and PD&P to PD&P alone. At two weeks, one trial narratively reported a greater increase in FEV1 % predicted with PD&P alone. At six months, the other trial reported a greater increase with exercise combined with PD&P, but did not provide data for the PD&P group. We are uncertain whether exercise with PD&P improves FEV1 as the certainty of evidence is very low. Other measures of lung function did not show clear evidence of effect. One trial reported no difference in exercise capacity (maximal work rate) after two weeks. No adverse events were reported (1 trial, 17 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Adherence was high, with all PD&P sessions and 96% of exercise sessions completed (1 trial, 17 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There was no difference between groups in 24-hour sputum volume or in the mean duration of hospitalisation, although the six-month trial reported fewer hospitalisations due to exacerbations in the exercise and PD&P group. Quality of life, ACT preference and need for antibiotics were not reported. Exercise versus underwater positive expiratory pressure (uPEP) One trial (13 participants) compared exercise to uPEP (also known as bubble PEP). No adverse events were recorded in either group (very low-certainty evidence). Trial investigators reported that participants perceived exercise as more fatiguing but also more enjoyable than bubble PEP (very low-certainty evidence). There were no differences found in the total weight of sputum collected during treatment sessions. The trial did not report the primary outcomes (FEV1, quality of life, exercise capacity) or the secondary outcomes (other measures of lung function, adherence, need for antibiotics or hospitalisations). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: As one of the top 10 research questions identified by clinicians and people with CF, it is important to systematically review the literature regarding whether or not exercise is an acceptable and effective ACT, and whether it can replace traditional methods. We identified an insufficient number of trials to conclude whether or not exercise is a suitable alternative ACT, and the diverse design of included trials did not allow for meta-analysis of results. The evidence is very low-certainty, so we are uncertain about the effectiveness of exercise as an ACT. Longer studies examining outcomes that are important to people with CF are required to answer this question.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Drenagem Postural/métodos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Depuração Mucociliar , Adulto Jovem
3.
Heart Lung ; 53: 89-98, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active cycle breathing technique (ACBT), which includes cycle of breathing control, thoracic expansion exercises and forced expiratory technique (FET), appears to have beneficial effects in patients with a variety of respiratory diseases. This systematic review provides an update on the new related studies, expanding the evidence base through the last 12 years and specifically evaluating the effectiveness of ACBT on pulmonary function-related outcome variables in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. METHODS: MEDLINE/Pubmed, PEDro, and Cochrane Library for Randomized Controlled Trials were searched between September 2008 and December 2021, in continuance of a previous systematic review, to identify randomized clinical trials and/or crossover studies comparing ACBT to other respiratory treatment techniques in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis, or bronchiectasis. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included and the quality of most of them was moderate to good. The outcomes most frequently assessed were forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), sputum wet weight, forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow rate. Secondary outcomes were quality of life and dyspnea. Various comparators were identified and most of them assessed the ACBT as an effective method in comparison with other respiratory treatment modalities. Most studies revealed that ACBT/FET had at least an equally beneficial short-term effect on sputum wet weight, FEV1 and FVC compared to other treatment methods. CONCLUSION: The results of this updating review reinforced the data of a previous systematic review regarding the beneficial impact of ACBT for the short-term improvement in respiratory tract secretions clearance and pulmonary function. ACBT is effective in increasing the expectorated sputum volume, in reducing viscoelasticity of the secretion and in relieving symptoms such as dyspnea.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia , Qualidade de Vida , Bronquiectasia/terapia , Drenagem Postural/métodos , Humanos , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Escarro
4.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 1395958, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the application value of precise positioning for sputum expectoration in intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalized patients with pulmonary infection (PI). METHODS: A total of 183 patients with PI treated in the ICUs of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from June 2019 to June 2020 were divided into a control group (n = 91) and an observation group (n = 92), all of whom received conventional drug therapy. The control group was given routine nursing intervention, based on which, the observation group was supplemented with precise positioning for sputum expectoration. The 24-hour sputum volume, respiratory rate (RR), blood gas analysis indexes, inflammatory indicators, Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS), Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale score, and quality of life (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, SF-36) were observed in both arms before and after intervention. The incidence of adverse reactions was counted. RESULTS: The observation group showed better mMRC scores than the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the sputum volume, RR, and CPIS score were lower, and the SF-36 score was higher in the observation group 7 days after intervention (P < 0.05). After intervention, the oxygen saturation (SaO2) and partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) were higher, while the carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and leukocyte count were lower in the observation group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of complications between the two arms (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The application of precise positioning for sputum expectoration in nursing intervention of ICU patients with PI can alleviate the severity of PI and dyspnea, reduce inflammatory reaction, and improve the quality of life of patients.


Assuntos
Drenagem Postural/enfermagem , Posicionamento do Paciente/enfermagem , Pneumonia/enfermagem , Escarro/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Biologia Computacional , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia
6.
Brasília; CONITEC; fev. 2022.
Não convencional em Português | BRISA/RedTESA, BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1369024

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: A FC é uma doença genética, com incidência nacional de aproximadamente 1:7.576 nascidos vivos. A FC é uma doença complexa e multissistêmica, de característica progressiva e potencialmente letal, que afeta o epitélio do sistema respiratório, gastrointestinal, hepático e geniturinário e que ocorre mais frequentemente em populações descendentes de caucasianos. As manifestações pulmonares da doença são a principal causa de morbimortalidade. A fisioterapia respiratória tem por objetivo preservar a capacidade respiratória e física, e deve ser iniciada logo após o diagnóstico. Existem vários tipos de fisioterapia respiratória, as quais auxiliam no processo de remoção muco. Algumas devem ser realizadas por profissionais treinados, enquanto outras podem ser realizadas pelo próprio paciente após treinamento. A escolha de uma técnica em detrimento da outra leva em conta a idade, o estilo de vida e a preferência do paciente, uma vez que a adesão ao tratamento é responsável pelo sucesso terapêutico. A fisioterapia respiratória deve almejar a independência e autonomia do paciente. TECNOLOGIA: Fisioterapia com dispositivo individual de pressão expiratória positiva do tipo máscara (PEP)/pressão expiratória nas vias aéreas (EPAP) para o tratamento da Fibrose Cística. PERGUNTA: A fisioterapia com equipamento fisioterápico de pressão expiratória positiva de uso individu


Assuntos
Humanos , Drenagem Postural/métodos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/instrumentação , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Máscaras , Sistema Único de Saúde , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD009595, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autogenic drainage is an airway clearance technique that was developed by Jean Chevaillier in 1967. The technique is characterised by breathing control using expiratory airflow to mobilise secretions from smaller to larger airways. Secretions are cleared independently by adjusting the depth and speed of respiration in a sequence of controlled breathing techniques during exhalation. The technique requires training, concentration and effort from the individual but it has previously been shown to be an effective treatment option for those who are seeking techniques to support and promote independence.  However, at a time where the trajectory and demographics of the disease are changing, it is important to systematically review the evidence demonstrating that autogenic drainage is an effective intervention for people with cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical effectiveness of autogenic drainage in people with cystic fibrosis with other physiotherapy airway clearance techniques. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, as well as two ongoing trials registers (02 February 2021). Date of most recent search of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 06 July 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: We identified randomised and quasi-randomised controlled studies comparing autogenic drainage to another airway clearance technique or no therapy in people with cystic fibrosis for at least two treatment sessions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data extraction and assessments of risk of bias were independently performed by three authors. The authors assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE system. The authors contacted seven teams of investigators for further information pertinent to their published studies. MAIN RESULTS: Searches retrieved 64 references to 37 individual studies, of which eight (n = 212) were eligible for inclusion. One study was of parallel design with the remaining seven being cross-over in design; participant numbers ranged from 4 to 75. The total study duration varied between four days and two years. The age of participants ranged between seven and 63 years with a wide range of disease severity reported. Six studies enrolled participants who were clinically stable, whilst participants in two studies received treatment whilst hospitalised with an infective exacerbation. All studies compared autogenic drainage to one (or more) other recognised airway clearance technique. Exercise is commonly used as an alternative therapy by people with cystic fibrosis; however, there were no studies identified comparing exercise with autogenic drainage. The certainty of the evidence was generally low or very low. The main reasons for downgrading the level of evidence were the frequent use of a cross-over design, outcome reporting bias and the inability to blind participants. The review's primary outcome, forced expiratory volume in one second, was the most common outcome measured and was reported by all eight studies; only three studies reported on quality of life (also a primary outcome of the review). One study reported on adverse events and described a decrease in oxygen saturation levels whilst performing active cycle of breathing techniques, but not with autogenic drainage. Seven of the eight included studies measured forced vital capacity and three of the studies used mid peak expiratory flow (per cent predicted) as an outcome. Six studies reported sputum weight. Less commonly used outcomes included oxygen saturation levels, personal preference, hospital admissions, intravenous antibiotics and pseudomonas gene expression. There were no statistically significant differences found between any of the techniques used with respect to the outcomes measured except when autogenic drainage was described as being the preferred technique of the participants in one study over postural drainage and percussion. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Autogenic drainage is a challenging technique that requires commitment from the individual. As such, this intervention merits systematic review to ensure its effectiveness for people with cystic fibrosis, particularly in an era where treatment options are changing rapidly. From the studies assessed, autogenic drainage was not found to be superior to any other form of airway clearance technique. Larger studies are required to better evaluate autogenic drainage in comparison to other airway clearance techniques in view of the relatively small number of participants in this review and the complex study designs. The studies recruited a range of participants and were not powered to assess non-inferiority. The varied length and design of the studies made the analysis of pooled data challenging.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Drenagem Postural , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saturação de Oxigênio , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
8.
Lima; IETSI; mar. 2021.
Não convencional em Espanhol | BRISA/RedTESA, BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1358461

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El presente documento de evaluación de tecnología sanitaria (ETS) expone la evaluación de la eficacia y seguridad del drenaje pleural con set de drenaje torácico digital (SDTD) en pacientes adultos con derrame pleural maligno (DPM) o fístula pulmonar en comparación con el set de drenaje torácico convencional (SDTC). El derrame pleural maligno (DPM) y las fistulas broncopleurales (FBP) son condiciones amenazantes para la vida del paciente. El DPM es una condición que ocurre en su mayoría en pacientes en etapas avanzadas de cáncer y cuya expectativa de vida es muy baja. Por otro lado, las FBP son comunicaciones patológicas entre el árbol bronquial y espacio pulmonar, que aparecen como consecuencia de una cirugía de reseccion pulmonar, por lo general por causas oncológicas, y con menor frecuencia debido a quimioterapias y radioterapias. El DPM y las FBP pueden producir la invasión de colecciones líquidas y aire en el espacio pleural; causando desestabilización de su presión negativa1 y consecuentemente colapso pulmonar y disnea respiratoria. Ambas condiciones deben ser tratadas a tiempo para favorecer el restablecimiento del espacio pleural y reexpansión pulmonar. Uno de los tratamientos del DPM o las FBP es el drenaje pleural, que permite descomprimir el espacio pleural del exceso de líquido o aire, permitiendo una mejor respiración, así como menor compromiso de otros órganos vitales. En el contexto de EsSalud, los pacientes con diagnóstico de DPM o FBP son tratados con la tecnología set de drenaje torácico convencional (SDTC); sin embargo, los médicos especialistas del Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins (HNERM) han solicitado la incorporación al Petitorio de EsSalud de la tecnología sanitaria set de drenaje torácico digital (SDTD). La justificación de la inclusión de esta tecnología según los especialistas es que el SDTC requiere de un sistema de succión de pared, que limitaría la movilidad del paciente. Además, la lectura de los indicadores de drenaje y fuga aérea con esta tecnología debe ser realizada cualitativamente por un profesional, pudiendo existir subjetividad de la evaluación, así como variabilidad interobservador. Por el contrario, señalan que el SDTD cuenta con un sistema de succión portátil, y además, permite un registro digital evolutivo de los indicadores de ausencia de drenaje y fuga aérea en estos pacientes, lo que podría traducirse en un mayor beneficio clínico para ellos, en términos de recuperación y tiempo de estancia hospitalaria. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de información con el objetivo de identificar la mejor evidencia disponible a la fecha (02 de marzo de 2020) sobre la eficacia y seguridad del drenaje pleural con SDTD, comparado con SDTC, en pacientes adultos con DPM o FBP. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica avanzada en las bases de datos de PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS). La búsqueda sistemática fue suplementada con una búsqueda manual en la lista de referencias bibliográficas de la evidencia incluida en el presente dictamen. Además, se realizó una búsqueda de literatura gris en el motor de búsqueda Google, a fin de poder identificar GPC y ETS de relevancia que pudiesen haber sido omitidas por la estrategia de búsqueda o que no hayan sido publicadas en las bases de datos consideradas. Asimismo, se realizó una búsqueda dentro de bases de datos pertenecientes a grupos que realizan ETS y GPC, incluyendo, el National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), la Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), la Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS), el Institut für Qualitát und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG), además de la Base Regional de Informes de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud de las Américas (BRISA) y páginas web de sociedades especializadas en el manejo del DPM y las FBP. Por último, se realizó una búsqueda de estudios clínicos en ejecución o aún no publicados en las páginas web de ClinicalTrials.gov y del International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP). RESULTADOS: A través de la búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos, se identificaron 420 documentos. Luego de eliminar los documentos duplicados, 401 fueron elegibles para tamizaje por título y resumen. De ellos, 20 documentos fueron elegibles para evaluación a texto completo. Finalmente, dos documentos fueron elegidos para incluirse en el presente dictamen. Como producto de la búsqueda bibliográfica y selección sistemática de la evidencia, se han incluido dos GPC que emiten recomendaciones para el tratamiento de pacientes con DPM (Tabla 1). No se encontraron RS con o sin MA, ECA o estudios observacionales elegibles para evaluación. A continuación se reporta brevemente el cuerpo de evidencia de acuerdo con la pirámide de jerarquía de Haynes, siguiendo lo indicado en los criterios de elegibilidad. CONCLUSIONES: El presente dictamen preliminar tuvo por objetivo realizar una síntesis de la mejor evidencia disponible a la fecha (02 de marzo del 2021) sobre la eficacia y seguridad del drenaje pleural empleando SDTD en comparación con SDTC en pacientes con DPM o FBP con indicación de drenaje pleural. En el contexto de EsSalud, los pacientes con DPM o FBP son tratados con drenaje pleural empleando SDTC; sin embargo, los especialistas de la entidad han propuesto la incorporación de SDTD debido a que este superaría algunos potenciales inconvenientes de la tecnología de uso actual en EsSalud, como el riesgo de evaluación subjetiva de ausencia de drenaje y fuga aérea, y la necesidad de estar conectada a un sistema de succión de pared. Por ello, se realizó una evaluación de la eficacia y seguridad de SDTD, en comparación con SDTC, para el manejo de estos pacientes. Luego de la búsqueda sistemática de información (02 de marzo del 2021) se incluyeron dos GPC sobre el manejo de pacientes con DPM para su evaluación (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence 2019, Feller-Kopman et al. 2018). No se encontraron GPC sobre el manejo de pacientes con FBP. Tampoco se encontraron ECA, RS con o sin MA, o estudios obseservacionales que comparen a las tecnologías SDTD y SDTC en procedimientos de drenaje pleural en pacientes con DPM o FBP. Ninguna de las GPC evaluadas mencionó al SDTD o SDTC entre sus recomendaciones de drenaje pleural para el manejo paliativo de pacientes con DPM. Aunque una de las GPC recomienda la colocación de catéter permanente (tecnología que puede ser conectada a SDTD o SDTC) para realizar el drenaje pleural, no se mencionó a qué sistema de drenaje se debe conectarse el dispositivo para realizar el procedimiento (Feller-Kopman et al. 2018). Asimismo, ninguno de los estudios empleados como sustento para estas recomendaciones menciona que sistema de drenaje se utilizó para llevar a cabo el drenaje pleural. En consecuencia, existe incertidumbre sobre cuál es el sistema de drenaje de elección (SDTD o SDTC) para llevar a cabo estos procedimientos. Durante la búsqueda de la literatura se observaron estudios de bajo nivel metodológico (reportes de casos y resúmenes de congreso) que evaluaron el uso de la tecnología SDTD en pacientes con DPM o FBP. Esto se condice con lo mencionado por la literatura acerca de la escasa evidencia de alto nivel metodológico para el cuidado paliativo de pacientes, como es el caso de pacientes con DPM. En ese sentido, para realizar una evaluación objetiva de la eficacia y seguridad de la tecnología SDTD es necesario contar con ECA bien diseñados. Por otro lado, aunque existen estudios de alto nivel metodológico (i.e. ECA) que comparan a las tecnologías SDTD y SDTC, estos fueron realizados en pacientes con marcadas diferencias en la fisiopatología, pronóstico, necesidad de tratamiento y objetivo del drenaje pleural, en comparación con la población de pacientes con DPM o FBP. Por lo tanto, los resultados de estos estudios no pueden extrapolarse a los pacientes con DPM o FBP. De igual manera, es preciso señalar que, según el fabricante de la tecnología SDTD solicitada, la indicación de uso de la misma es para drenaje torácico y pleural de pacientes sometidos a cirugía torácica o cardiaca, la cual difiere de la población de interés para la PICO, y explicaría la ausencia de estudios de alto nivel metodológico en esta población. Por todo lo expuesto, debido a que a la fecha no existen argumentos técnicos que apoyen el uso de la tecnología SDTD en pacientes con DPM o FBP, y que además, la indicación de uso de la tecnología no incluye a esta población, sino a pacientes sometidos a cirugía torácica y cardiaca, el IETSI no aprueba el uso de SDTD en pacientes adultos con derrame pleural maligno o fístula pulmonar.


Assuntos
Humanos , Toracoscopia/métodos , Drenagem Postural/métodos , Derrame Pleural Maligno/cirurgia , Eficácia , Análise Custo-Benefício
9.
J Mother Child ; 24(3): 16-24, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest physiotherapy plays a crucial role in managing cystic fibrosis, especially during pulmonary exacerbations. This study evaluated the effects of adding a new airway clearance device to chest physiotherapy in subjects with cystic fibrosis hospitalised due to pulmonary exacerbations. METHODS: This prospective open-label study was carried out at the Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis Centre in Poland between October 2017 and August 2018. Cystic fibrosis patients aged 10 to 18 years who were admitted to the hospital and required intravenous antibiotic therapy due to pulmonary exacerbations were consecutively allocated (1:1) to either chest physiotherapy alone or chest physiotherapy with a new airway clearance device (Simeox; PhysioAssist). Patients performed spirometry and multiple-breath nitrogen washout for lung clearance index assessment upon admission and prior to discharge. RESULTS: Forty-eight cystic fibrosis patients were included (24 in each group). Spirometry parameters in both groups improved significantly after intravenous antibiotic therapy. A significant improvement in the maximum expiratory flow at 25% of forced vital capacity was observed only in the group with a new airway clearance device (p < 0.01 vs. baseline). Trends towards a lower lung clearance index ratio were similar in both groups. No adverse events were observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Spirometry parameters increased significantly in cystic fibrosis patients treated for pulmonary exacerbations with intravenous antibiotic therapy and intensive chest physiotherapy. The new airway clearance device was safe and well tolerated when added to chest physiotherapy and may be another option for the treatment of pulmonary exacerbation in cystic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Drenagem Postural/métodos , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar/fisiologia , Terapia Respiratória/instrumentação , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Estudos Prospectivos , Espirometria , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital
10.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(10): 873-875, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732744

RESUMO

A 65-yr-old man visited a primary care hospital with a continued fever of 38°C for 3 days. As his fever did not improve until 8 days after, he was admitted into another acute care hospital, where his respiratory condition rapidly worsened. Therefore, the patient was transferred to our hospital. On the day of transfer (day 1), he was started on mechanical ventilation. COVID-19 was diagnosed using a polymerase chain reaction assay 6 days after admission (day 6). The rehabilitation therapy was begun on day 6. The initial rehabilitation programs focused on positioning and postural drainage. The patient was extubated on day 19, and he began standing and stepping on the same day. Gait exercises began on day 22, and endurance training was initiated on day 28. The patient was discharged from our hospital on day 34 as he met the physical function milestones. One month after discharge, the Medical Research Council sum score and Barthel Index had each improved; therefore, muscle strength and daily activities had returned to normal. It was assumed that mobilization should be performed as soon as possible after the end of sedation during the acute phase of severe COVID-19 infection in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/reabilitação , Drenagem Postural/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/reabilitação , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(supl.5): 164-167, jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196660

RESUMO

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease characterized by obstruction or obstruction of airflow in a reversible or partial nonreversible airway. Dyspnea is a common symptom in COPD sufferers; this can cause problems with oxygen saturation, or the oxygen saturation value is below normal. Non-pharmacological actions given in the form of breathing exercises can be done by a nurse to help reduce shortness of breath in COPD patients. The exercise is given by adjusting the resting position that is comfortable and comfortable so that the extra breath muscles can work well. The position that can do the position of the tripod with Active Cycle of Breathing and Pursed lips are breathing so that shortness of breath is reduced and SaO2 can have increased so that more oxygen has obtained in Lung Hospital, West Sumatra. This research is quantitative research, with quasi-experimental research methods. They used two pre-test-posttest design groups. The sample in this study amounted to 30 people with quota sampling technique. In this study showed that there was a difference in the increase in oxygen saturation of COPD patients which was effective in the tripod position group with Active Cycle Breathing Technique (ACBT) with a p-value of 0.00 while in the tripod position group with the Active Respiratory and Lip Cycle there was a difference of p-value 0.023. It has concluded that the tripod position with ACT and PBLT could increase oxygen saturation and nasal breathlessness reduced, but the tripod position with ACT is more effective in COP patients because with chronic respiratory patients who are short of breath due to sputum buildup, then with ACT will clean the airway and the flow of the road effective breathing so that shortness of breath have reduced and oxygen saturation increases. Furthermore, it has recommended that in hospitals, especially nurses, in dealing with COPD patients in addition to the correct position of breathing exercises with ACT to help patients


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/enfermagem , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Terapia Respiratória/enfermagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Exercícios Respiratórios/enfermagem , Drenagem Postural/métodos
12.
Physiother Res Int ; 25(3): e1836, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The bubble-positive expiratory pressure (PEP) device may be used for sputum clearance in people with daily sputum production. However, this device has never been studied in people with bronchiectasis. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the effect of bubble-PEP device, the active cycle of breathing technique (ACBT) and no intervention (control) on sputum clearance in people with bronchiectasis. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. Adult participants with stable bronchiectasis and productive of sputum daily were recruited. Participants performed 30-min of bubble-PEP, ACBT or control in random order whilst sitting, followed by 60-min of quiet sitting, on three separate days at the same time within a 10-day period. Primary outcome measure was wet weight of expectorated sputum during 30-min intervention, 60-min post intervention and total wet weight (30 min plus 60 min). RESULTS: Thirty-five-participants (11 males, mean [standard deviation] age 75 [8] years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s 72 [20] % predicted) were recruited and 34 completed the study. There was no significant difference in sputum wet weight between bubble-PEP and ACBT during 30-min intervention (mean difference [95% confidence interval]) -0.59 g [-1.37, 0.19] and total wet weight (0.74 g [-0.54, 2.02]). Sputum wet weight was significantly greater in bubble-PEP than ACBT at 60-min post intervention (1.33 g [0.19, 2.47]). CONCLUSION: Sputum wet weight was significantly greater with bubble-PEP than control at all time periods, and greater than ACBT at 60-min-post. Bubble-PEP could be considered an alternative sputum clearance technique to ACBT.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/terapia , Drenagem Postural/métodos , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Escarro , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória
13.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 11(1): e919, Ene.-2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1118247

RESUMO

Introducción: La ascitis maligna es la acumulación anormal de fluido en la cavidad peritoneal como consecuencia de patologías como el cáncer, además es un factor desencadenante de clúster de síntomas (dolor, disnea, pérdida de apetito, náuseas, reducción a la movilidad y cambios en el aspecto físico) que se convierten en un problema clínico de difícil manejo. Dentro de los tratamientos encaminados al mejoramiento de esta condición se encuentra la paracentesis terapéutica, procedimiento médico cuya técnica se hace mediante drenaje y que en ocasiones se requiere practicar de manera repetitiva, pudiendo ser un síntoma refractario que conlleva al requerimiento de la implantación de un catéter peritoneal como una medida paliativa para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida del paciente y su familia. Materiales y Métodos: Se realiza una revisión de la literatura existente, estableciéndose una búsqueda inicial donde se obtuvieron 747 artículos de los cuales se incluyen 277 potencialmente relevantes, a los que se le verificaron el cumplimiento de los criterios de inclusión, y posterior a la depuración de la información y de eliminar artículos duplicados y se incluyeron en la revisión los 8 estudios que cumplieron la totalidad de estos parámetros. Resultados: La técnica del catéter peritoneal es 100% exitosa, no presenta complicaciones inmediatas, óptima medida paliativa para los pacientes con ascitis refractaria permitiendo más de 30 días de durabilidad del dispositivo, además, de un fácil uso por profesionales, paciente y familia, permitiendo un manejo ambulatorio que disminuye costos, reingresos por complicaciones tardías potencialmente prevenibles e identificables como lo son filtración, desplazamiento, infecciones, oclusión del dispositivo hospitalarios y proporcionando confort y control de síntomas de manera inmediata. Discusión y Conclusiones: Con los resultados expuestos en la presente revisión se define el catéter peritoneal óptimo en el manejo de la ascitis maligna como medida paliativa. En el tratamiento de esta y de los demás síntomas desencadenados en pacientes con patologías oncológicas avanzadas, permitiendo un mejoramiento en la calidad de vida de las personas.


Introduction: Malignant ascites is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity as a consequence of pathologies such as cancer. It is also a trigger factor for a symptom cluster (pain, dyspnea, loss of appetite, nausea, reduced mobility and changes in physical appearance) that becomes a clinical problem that is difficult to deal with. One of the treatments aimed at improving this condition is the therapeutic paracentesis, a medical procedure that uses a drainage technique that sometimes requires repeated practice. It can be a refractory symptom that leads to the requirement of the implantation of a peritoneal catheter as a palliative measure to improve the quality of life of patients and their family. Materials and Methods: A review of the existing literature was carried out in which an initial search was established obtaining 747 articles, of which 277 were classified as potentially relevant, which were later verified to meet the inclusion criteria. After filtering information and deleting duplicated articles, 8 studies were included in the literature review as they were found to meet all these parameters. Results: The peritoneal catheter technique is 100% successful without immediate complications, being an optimal palliative measure for patients with refractory ascites as it ensures device durability greater than 30 days. In addition, it is easy to use by professionals, patients and families, which allows outpatient management reducing costs, readmissions for late complications that are potentially preventable and identifiable such as filtration, displacement, infections, occlusion of the device, and hospital complications, which provide immediate comfort and symptom control. Discussion and Conclusions: Based on the results obtained in this review, the optimal peritoneal catheter is defined is as a palliative measure in the treatment of malignant ascites symptoms triggered in patients with advanced oncological pathologies, allowing an improvement in the quality of life of people.


Introdução: Ascite maligna é o acúmulo anormal de líquido na cavidade peritoneal como resultado de patologias como o câncer, é também um gatilho para um conjunto de sintomas (dor, dispneia, perda de apetite, náusea, mobilidade reduzida e alterações no aspecto físico) que se tornam um problema clínico difícil. Entre os tratamentos que visam melhorar essa condição, está a paracentese terapêutica, procedimento médico cuja técnica é realizada por drenagem e que às vezes requer prática repetida, e pode ser um sintoma refratário que leva à necessidade de implante de cateter peritoneal como medida paliativa para a melhoria da qualidade de vida do paciente e de sua família. Materiais e Métodos: É realizada uma revisão da literatura existente, estabelecendo uma pesquisa inicial onde foram obtidos 747 artigos, dos quais 277 potencialmente relevantes foram incluídos, os quais foram verificados o cumprimento dos critérios de inclusão e após a purificação das informações e para eliminar artigos duplicados e os 8 estudos que cumpriram todos esses parâmetros foram incluídos na revisão. Resultados: A técnica do cateter peritoneal é 100% bem-sucedida, não apresenta complicações imediatas, medida paliativa ideal para pacientes com ascite refratária, permitindo mais de 30 dias de durabilidade do dispositivo, além de facilitar o uso por profissionais, paciente e família, permitindo gerenciamento ambulatorial que reduz custos, readmissões por complicações tardias potencialmente evitáveis ​​e identificáveis, como filtragem, deslocamento, infecções, oclusão de dispositivos hospitalares e proporcionando conforto e controle dos sintomas imediatamente. Discussão e Conclusões: Com os resultados apresentados nesta revisão, o cateter peritoneal ideal é definido no tratamento de ascites malignas como uma medida paliativa. No tratamento deste e de outros sintomas desencadeados em pacientes com patologias oncológicas avançadas, permitindo uma melhora na qualidade de vida das pessoas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cuidados Paliativos , Ascite , Drenagem Postural , Neoplasias
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(11)2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest physiotherapy is widely prescribed to assist the clearance of airway secretions in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) devices provide back pressure to the airways during expiration. This may improve clearance by building up gas behind mucus via collateral ventilation and by temporarily increasing functional residual capacity. The developers of the PEP technique recommend using PEP with a mask in order to avoid air leaks via the upper airways and mouth. In addition, increasing forced residual capacity (FRC) has not been demonstrated using mouthpiece PEP. Given the widespread use of PEP devices, there is a need to determine the evidence for their effect. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and acceptability of PEP devices compared to other forms of physiotherapy as a means of improving mucus clearance and other outcomes in people with CF. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. The electronic database CINAHL was also searched from 1982 to 2017. Most recent search of the Group's CF Trials Register: 20 February 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled studies in which PEP was compared with any other form of physiotherapy in people with CF. This included, postural drainage and percussion (PDPV), active cycle of breathing techniques (ACBT), oscillating PEP devices, thoracic oscillating devices, bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPaP) and exercise. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors independently applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria to publications, assessed the risk of bias of the included studies and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE recommendations. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 28 studies (involving 788 children and adults) were included in the review; 18 studies involving 296 participants were cross-over in design. Data were not published in sufficient detail in most of these studies to perform any meta-analysis. In 22 of the 28 studies the PEP technique was performed using a mask, in three of the studies a mouthpiece was used with nose clips and in three studies it was unclear whether a mask or mouthpiece was used. These studies compared PEP to ACBT, autogenic drainage (AD), oral oscillating PEP devices, high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) and BiPaP and exercise. Forced expiratory volume in one second was the review's primary outcome and the most frequently reported outcome in the studies (24 studies, 716 participants). Single interventions or series of treatments that continued for up to three months demonstrated little or no difference in effect between PEP and other methods of airway clearance on this outcome (low- to moderate-quality evidence). However, long-term studies had equivocal or conflicting results regarding the effect on this outcome (low- to moderate-quality evidence). A second primary outcome was the number of respiratory exacerbations. There was a lower exacerbation rate in participants using PEP compared to other techniques when used with a mask for at least one year (five studies, 232 participants; moderate- to high-quality evidence). In one of the included studies which used PEP with a mouthpiece, it was reported (personal communication) that there was no difference in the number of respiratory exacerbations (66 participants, low-quality evidence). Participant preference was reported in 10 studies; and in all studies with an intervention period of at least one month, this was in favour of PEP. The results for the remaining outcome measures (including our third primary outcome of mucus clearance) were not examined or reported in sufficient detail to provide any high-quality evidence; only very low- to moderate-quality evidence was available for other outcomes. There was limited evidence reported on adverse events; these were measured in five studies, two of which found no events. In a study where infants performing either PEP or PDPV experienced some gastro-oesophageal reflux , this was more severe in the PDPV group (26 infants, low-quality evidence). In PEP versus oscillating PEP, adverse events were only reported in the flutter group (five participants complained of dizziness, which improved after further instructions on device use was provided) (22 participants, low-quality evidence). In PEP versus HFCWO, from one long-term high-quality study (107 participants) there was little or no difference in terms of number of adverse events; however, those in the PEP group had fewer adverse events related to the lower airways when compared to HFCWO (high-certainty evidence). Many studies had a risk of bias as they did not report how the randomisation sequence was either generated or concealed. Most studies reported the number of dropouts and also reported on all planned outcome measures. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence provided by this review is of variable quality, but suggests that all techniques and devices described may have a place in the clinical treatment of people with CF. Following meta-analyses of the effects of PEP versus other airway clearance techniques on lung function and patient preference, this Cochrane Review demonstrated that there was high-quality evidence that showed a significant reduction in pulmonary exacerbations when PEP using a mask was compared with HFCWO. It is important to note that airway clearance techniques should be individualised throughout life according to developmental stages, patient preferences, pulmonary symptoms and lung function. This also applies as conditions vary between baseline function and pulmonary exacerbations.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/terapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Drenagem Postural/métodos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Depuração Mucociliar , Muco/metabolismo , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Respir Med ; 153: 52-59, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis affects 1/3200 Caucasians. This genetic disease disturbs the ion and water homeostasis across epithelia, thus rendering mucus more viscous and harder to expel. Conventional treatments rely on the clapping method coupled with postural drainage. Despite the effectiveness of these procedures, they are invasive and enervating. METHODS: Here we study a new mechano-acoustic treatment device to help patients expectorate excess mucus, the Frequencer™. We test both normal and pathological synthetic mucin solutions (1 % and 4 % by weight) in vitro. We varied the frequency applied (from 20 Hz to 60 Hz) as well as the amplitude (from 50 % to 100 % intensity). Moreover, we assessed the effect of NaCl on mucus rehydration. RESULTS: A frequency of 40 Hz coupled with a 0.5 gL-1NaCl solution provokes partial mucus rehydration, regardless of the amplitude selected, as the work of adhesion measurements evidenced. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical solicitation is fundamental to help patients affected by cystic fibrosis expectorate mucus. With an operating frequency of 20 Hz to 65 Hz, the Frequencer™ provides a gentler therapy than traditional methods (conventional chest physiotherapy). The Frequencer™ proved to be effective in the homogenization of synthetic mucin solutions in vitro in 20 min and elicited improved effectiveness in a mucin-rich environment.


Assuntos
Acústica/instrumentação , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Drenagem Postural/instrumentação , Muco/química , Animais , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Muco/efeitos dos fármacos , Muco/fisiologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/normas , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ondas de Rádio/efeitos adversos , Solução Salina/efeitos adversos , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Suínos , Substâncias Viscoelásticas/química
16.
Respir Care ; 64(7): 818-827, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is characterized by abnormal and permanent dilatation of the bronchi, caused mainly by the progression of inflammatory processes and loss of the ability to remove mucus. Techniques to clear the airways are essential for the treatment of these patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the acute effects of oscillatory PEP and thoracic compression on both the clearance of secretions and impedance of airways in subjects with bronchiectasis. METHODS: This was a randomized crossover single-blinded study that involved both subjects with bronchiectasis and healthy subjects evaluated by using an impulse oscillometry system, which assessed resistance at 5 Hz and resistance 20 Hz, reactance at 5 Hz, reactance area, and resonant frequency, before, after, and 30 min after oscillatory PEP, chest compression, or control sessions. Dry and total weights, adhesiveness, purulence of the expectorated secretions, the dyspnea scale score, the acceptability and tolerance scale score, pulse oximetry, and difficulty in expectoration were also assessed. RESULTS: The dry and total weights of secretions were higher after the use of the oscillatory PEP technique than those in a control session (P = .005 and P = .039, respectively). In the bronchiectasis group, there was a decrease after oscillatory PEP in total airway resistance (P = .04), peripheral resistance (P = .005), and reactance area (P = .001). After compression, there was a decrease in peripheral resistance Hz (P = .001) and reactance area (P = .001). In the healthy group, there was an increase in resistance at 5 Hz (P = .02) after oscillatory PEP. There were no differences in acceptability and tolerance, dyspnea, and oxygen saturation. CONCLUSIONS: The oscillatory PEP technique was effective for the removal of secretions and in decreasing total and peripheral respiratory system resistance; thoracic compression had comparable positive effects on the peripheral resistance. Both techniques were safe and well tolerated by the subjects with bronchiectasis. ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT02509637.).


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia , Oscilação da Parede Torácica/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Depuração Mucociliar , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/fisiopatologia , Bronquiectasia/terapia , Estudos Cross-Over , Drenagem Postural/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(41): e12752, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313081

RESUMO

The study aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy of bilateral costotransverse debridement, transpedicular fixation, fusion, and local continuous chemotherapy in 20 patients of contiguous multisegmental thoracic spinal tuberculosis (CMTSTB). We analyzed 20 patients with contiguous thoracic spinal tuberculosis (TB) who underwent surgery via bilateral costotransverse debridement, fusion, posterior instrumentation, and postural drainage with local continuous chemotherapy. The clinical outcomes were evaluated in terms of kyphotic angle, bone fusion, neurologic status, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and intraoperative and postoperative complications. All of the patients (8M/12F), averaged 45.8 ±â€Š15.6 years old. The mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 30.7 ±â€Š4.0 months. There was no recurrent TB infection. The values of ESR returned to normal levels at final follow-up. All patients got bony fusion within 8.1 ±â€Š2.3 months after surgery. The average preoperative Cobb angle was 39.9°â€Š±â€Š8.6°, correcting to 9.8°â€Š±â€Š2.3° postoperatively and 10.8°â€Š±â€Š2.3° at the last follow-up. All patients with neurological deficit had dramatic improvement at the final follow-up. Our results showed that bilateral costotransverse surgery and local continuous chemotherapy are feasible and effective procedures in the treatment of CMTSTB. The approach can provide radical debridement, rebuild spinal stability, and cure TB.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Desbridamento/métodos , Drenagem Postural/métodos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Terapia Combinada , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 13(4): 137-148, oct. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-947664

RESUMO

Chest physiotherapy is currently an outstanding therapeutic tool for the management of pediatric respiratory patients. Many and varied techniques, manual and assisted, have been developed, some requiring patient collaboration. The development of knowledge and the pathophysiological understanding of respiratory diseases in recent years has generated the need to agree on the terminology, the fundamentals and the application of each of the kinesthetic techniques of respiratory treatment in the pediatric field. The objective of this document was to compile the available literature related to the physiological mechanisms, indications, procedural aspects and most frequently used techniques in our country, with the purpose of being a guideline for the clinical practice of professionals and students. The following techniques were included: prolonged slow expiration, slow expiration with glottis opened, autogenic drainage, assisted autogenic drainage, active cycle, compression/decompression, airway clearance, forced expiration techniques, cough and respiratory exercises.


La kinesiología respiratoria es actualmente una herramienta terapéutica destacada para el manejo de los pacientes respiratorios pediátricos. Se han desarrollado muchas y variadas técnicas, manuales y asistidas, algunas requiriendo colaboración del paciente. El desarrollo del conocimiento y la comprensión fisiopatológica de las enfermedades respiratorias en los últimos años ha generado la necesidad de consensuar la terminología, los fundamentos y la aplicación de cada una de las técnicas kinésicas de tratamiento respiratorio en el ámbito pediátrico. El objetivo de este documento fue recopilar la literatura disponible relacionada con los mecanismos fisiológicos, indicaciones, aspectos procedimentales y técnicas más utilizadas en nuestro país, con el propósito de ser una directriz que oriente la práctica clínica de profesionales y estudiantes en formación. Se incluyeron así las siguientes técnicas: espiración lenta prolongada, espiración lenta con glotis abierta, drenaje autógeno, drenaje autógeno asistido, ciclo activo, presión/descompresión, bloqueos torácicos, técnicas de espiración forzada, tos y ejercicios respiratorios.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Pediatria/métodos , Tórax , Especialidade de Fisioterapia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doenças Respiratórias , Vibração , Drenagem Postural , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Descompressão , Expiração , Cinésica
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(31): e11631, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the clinical values of bronchoscopic sputum suction and general sputum suction in respiratory failure patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) combined with sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation at the pulmonary infection control (PIC) window (period of lower sputum production, with thinner viscosity and lighter color, and alleviated clinical signs of infection). METHODS: Patients with AECOPD-induced respiratory failure received orotracheal intubation mechanical ventilation and were randomly divided into bronchoscopic sputum suction group or general sputum suction group, and who were then treated with sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation at PIC window (both groups). Baseline data, postoperative blood gas conditions, and postoperative clinical parameters of the patients such as appearance of PIC window, time of invasive ventilation, total time of ventilation, hospital stay, weaning success rate, reintubation rate, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence, and fatality rate were measured to compare the effect of 2 different ways of sputum suction. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics, postoperative blood gas conditions, between 2 groups (all P > .05). Nevertheless, the bronchoscopic sputum suction group showed earlier appearance of PIC window, shorter time of invasive ventilation, total time of ventilation and hospital stay, lower reintubation rate, VAP incidence and fatality rate, and higher weaning success rate than the general sputum suction group (all P < .05). CONCLUSION: Bronchoscopic sputum suction combined with sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation at PIC window showed clinical effects in treating respiratory failure patients with AECOPD.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/métodos , Drenagem Postural/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Sucção/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Escarro , Resultado do Tratamento , Ventiladores Mecânicos
20.
Urology ; 116: 47-54, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of modified mechanical percussion for eliminating upper urinary tract stone fragments after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assigned patients aged 18-60 years with upper urinary tract calculi to the modified mechanical percussion (trial) or observation (control) group. Kidney-ureter-bladder radiography and ultrasound were used for diagnostic evaluation. The primary outcome was the stone-expulsion rate (SER) at 6 hours. The first stone-expulsion time, the SER at 3, 12, and 24 hours, the stone-free rate, additional interventions, and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients underwent randomization: 60 for each group. The mean first stone-expulsion time in the trial and control groups was 6.75 and 13.58 hours, respectively (P = .001). The SERs at 3, 6, and 12 hours in the trial group were 51.8%, 75.4%, and 76.8%, respectively, which were higher than the control group (all P <.05). Among patients who expelled fragments within 6 hours, the stone-free rates were improved at 1 week (P = .002) and at 2 weeks (P = .000). Patients needed fewer additional interventions in the trial group (P = .035). AEs occurred in 42.9% (24 of 56) and 67.9% (38 of 56) of the patients in the trial and control groups, respectively (P = .008). Age, gender, stone size and location, and SER at 24 hours did not differ significantly among the groups. CONCLUSION: Modified mechanical percussion significantly improved SERs and accelerated stone passage after shock wave lithotripsy, resulting in a stone-free status with a lower risk of AEs and reduced need for additional interventions.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/terapia , Litotripsia , Percussão/métodos , Cálculos Ureterais/terapia , Adulto , Drenagem Postural , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Litotripsia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Posicionamento do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Vibração , Adulto Jovem
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