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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770245

RESUMO

Religious fasting in the Holy Month of Ramadan is an important element of the Muslim culture during which no eating or drinking is permitted from dawn till dusk. A considerable number of Muslim soccer players abide by these restrictions, which may cause a negative impact on key running performance parameters during competitive matches. Alterations to diet and water intake during the Holy Month of Ramadan may affect various running performance parameters in elite Muslim professional adult soccer players. This study was conducted with two groups of soccer players from the Russian Premier League (RPL): The Exposure Group (EG) consisted of 13 Muslims age 24.0 ± 2.8 years abiding by religious fasting and the Control Group (CG) included 13 non-Muslim age 26.0 ± 4.4 years. Using the Instat system, the running performance of each player was controlled in both groups during matches from the RPL before and in the third week of Ramadan (a total of two matches for every player). None of the measured parameters demonstrated significant changes in any match. In conclusion, restrictions in diet and liquid intake during the Holy Month of Ramadan had no negative influence on the running performance of elite Muslim professional adult soccer players during daytime matches.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adulto , Ingestão de Líquidos , Jejum , Humanos , Islamismo , Federação Russa , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27541, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731154

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects specific groups of people. The relationship between breakfast consumption frequency and the risk of IBS is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between breakfast consumption frequency and the risk of IBS among Chinese female college students.In this cross-sectional study (n = 706) conducted in October 2018, the frequency of breakfast consumption was categorized as 0 to 3 times/week, 4 to 6 times/week, or daily. IBS was diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria and was based on the presence of abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 3 months during the previous 6 months, with at least 2 or more of the following conditions: changes in frequency or form of stool and/or decrease in pain after defecation. We adjusted for confounding factors, including age, only child (yes or no), parents' educational levels (senior high school or below, college, or postgraduate), parents' marital status (married, widowed, or divorced), smoking status (smoker or nonsmoker), drinking status (drinker or nondrinker), body mass index, and depressive symptoms. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between breakfast frequency and the risk of IBS.Among 706 participants, 23.7% were the only child in their family, and the proportion of parents divorced or widowed was 18.5%. The proportion of fathers and mothers with high school education or above was 93.3% and 96.3%, respectively. The prevalence of IBS among the participants was 17.3% (122/706). Multivariate logistic regressions analysis showed that breakfast consumption frequency is negatively associated with the risk of IBS after adjusting for confounding factors. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for IBS in the breakfast frequency category of 0 to 3 times/week, 4 to 6 times/week, and daily were 1.00 (reference), 0.96 (0.58, 1.60), and 0.45 (0.26, 0.78), respectively (P = .002).Our data revealed that regular breakfast consumption is associated with a lower risk of IBS among Chinese college students. Future cohort and/or interventional studies should be conducted to further explore the association between breakfast consumption frequency and IBS.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Desjejum/etnologia , Economia/tendências , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Estado Civil , Pais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2989-2998, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664474

RESUMO

In this study, the concept, research value, and research advances of tree transpiration were concisely narrated. From the perspective of measurement and estimation, we summarized the main calculation methods for water consumption of tree transpiration. By comparing the advantages, disadvantages, applicability, limitations, application status, and applicable scale of different methods, we showed that the measurement methods could be applied to the measurement of water consumption at multiple spatial scales, and that the estimation methods were often applied to the measurement of evapotranspiration at large spatial scales. As the measurement method was the basis of the estimation method, it is necessary to carry out reasonable quality control and evaluation of the measured results of measurement methods, in order to provide data basis for the estimation results of the correction estimation method. Whether it was at a particular large spatial scale or at different spatial scales, the combination of measurement methods and estimation methods could improve the accuracy of evapotranspiration measurement. Improving the accuracy of calculating the dispersion of trees at a large spatial scale in complex underlying surface and harsh climate environments would become a research hotspot but may also be a difficulty in the future. With the continuous progress of science and technology, both measurement devices and methods would be improved, and new methods for accurately measuring the water consumption of forest transpiration would be available.


Assuntos
Transpiração Vegetal , Árvores , Transporte Biológico , Ingestão de Líquidos , Florestas
4.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641597

RESUMO

Ubiquitous occurrences of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) or phthalates in a variety of consumer products have been demonstrated. Nevertheless, studies on their occurrence in various types of bottled drinks are limited. In this study, fifteen PAEs were analyzed in six categories of bottled drinks (n = 105) collected from the Chinese market, including mineral water, tea drinks, energy drinks, juice drinks, soft drinks, and beer. Among the 15 PAEs measured, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate with concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 41,000 ng/L at a detection rate (DR) of 96%, followed by DIBP (DR: 88%) and DBP (DR: 84%) with respective concentration ranges of below LOQ to 16,000 and to 4900 ng/L. At least one PAE was detected in each drink sample, and the sum concentrations of 15 PAEs ranged from 770 to 48,004 ng/L (median: 6286 ng/L). Significant differences with respect to both PAE concentrations and composition profiles were observed between different types of bottled drinks. The median sum concentration of 15 PAEs in soft drinks was over five times higher than that detected in mineral water; different from other drink types. Besides DEHP, DBIP, and DBP, a high concentration of BMEP was also detected in a tea drink. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDIdrink) through the consumption of bottled drinks was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of bottled drink items. The EDIdrink values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BMEP, DAP, BEEP, BBP, DCP, DHP, BMPP, BBEP, DEHP, DOP, and DNP through the consumption of bottled mineral water (based on mean concentrations) were 0.45, 0.33, 12.5, 3.67, 2.10, 0.06, 0.32, 0.16, 0.10, 0.09, 0.05, 0.81, 112, 0.13, and 0.20 ng/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. Overall, the EDIdrink values calculated for phthalates through the consumption of bottled drinks were below the oral reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA).


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , China , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ingestão de Líquidos , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Ésteres/análise , Humanos
5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684527

RESUMO

Caffeine ingestion may influence balance control via numerous mechanisms. Although previously investigated using various study designs and methods, here we aimed to create the first evidence-based consensus regarding the effects of caffeine on the control of upright stance via systematic review (PROSPERO registration CRD42021226939). Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science databases were searched on 27 January 2021 to identify placebo-controlled trials investigating caffeine-induced changes in human standing balance. Reference lists of eligible studies were also searched. Overall, nine studies involving a total of 290 participants were included. All studies were moderate to strong in quality according to the QualSyst tool. Balance-related outcome measures were collected across a range of different participant ages, stances and sensory conditions. The results show that younger participants' balance was generally unaffected by caffeine ingestion. However, a significant balance impairment was observed following caffeine ingestion in all studies involving older participants (average age >65 years). Our results therefore suggest an age-dependent effect of caffeine ingestion on human standing. Further research into this effect is warranted as only one study has directly compared younger and older adults. Nonetheless, an important implication of our findings is that caffeine ingestion may increase fall risk in older adults. Furthermore, based on our findings, caffeine ingestion should be considered as a potential confounding factor when assessing human standing balance, particularly in older adults.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Equilíbrio Postural/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos das Sensações/induzido quimicamente , Posição Ortostática , Adulto , Idoso , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(5): 1125-1135, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534110

RESUMO

The Water Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (Red del Agua UNAM) and the Program for the Management, Use, and Reuse of Water in UNAM (PUMAGUA) carried out a survey with the aim of knowing the water consumption practices of the university community in its campuses located in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico. A sample of 2,095 students, academics, administrative and support staff participated in this survey. The results show that 74% of the sample consume bottled water and that their average spending is between 0.50 and 1 dollar per day (11 to 20 Mexican pesos). The rates of bottled water consumption contrasts with the perception about water quality, since only 13% consider water quality distributed in the water fountains located within university campuses as 'poor' or 'very poor'. The rates of bottled water consumption among university community are similar to the ones reported by studies in Mexico City and in Mexico as a whole, even though UNAM has a Water Observatory that allows people to know in real time water quantity and quality in university campuses.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Universidades , Ingestão de Líquidos , Humanos , México , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3875-3883, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468680

RESUMO

The scope of the study was to evaluate the probability of the adequacy of water intake among residents of São Paulo, and to investigate if the quality of diet differs according to the adequacy of water intake. Data were extracted from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional, population-based study. Water intake (drinking water beverages and food) was evaluated using two 24-hours dietary recalls and a supplementary dietary intake questionnaire. Adequacy and classification of water intake was assessed using the corresponding Adequate Intake for sex and age of the individual. Dietary quality was evaluated using the revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI). The associations were tested using the Theil-Sen median test and logistic regression models. A low probability of adequate water intake was observed, and this decreased with advancing age. Except among the elderly, among whom no association was observed, a positive association between water intake and the BHEI was observed, and for the total and integral fruit components, which was maintained after confusion adjustments. Among adults, it was observed that those who ingested less water had even lower scores for saturated fats. The residents of São Paulo have low water intake, and the quality of diet is worse among those who drink less water.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Frutas , Humanos
8.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578876

RESUMO

Insufficient water intake is associated with adverse health outcomes, including chronic disease prevalence and mortality. Adherence to Institute of Medicine total water intake (TWI) recommendations has been low in recent decades, and TWI has been consistently lower in Latinx adults compared with non-Hispanic (NH) white adults. While overall plain water intake is similar between Latinx and NH white adults, Latinx adults consistently consume significantly more bottled water and less tap water. The purpose of this review is to identify factors that may contribute to low water intake and low tap water intake, particularly in Latinx adults. The decision to drink water is complex and is influenced by a myriad of factors including context, environment, eating behaviors, geography, and beverage attributes. Plain water preferences appear to be related, in part, to perceptions of tap water safety as Latinx adults are significantly more likely to perceive their tap water as unsafe compared to NH white adults. Although recent investigations have not consistently or comprehensively evaluated the same factors, we have compiled their findings to describe the complex, interrelated determinants of tap water safety perceptions in Latinx adults. The present review proposes that perceptions are influenced by water insecurity, demographics, prior experiences, organoleptic (sensory) perceptions and availability and sources of information. Existing interventions designed to improve TWI primarily focus on improving access to water and/or educating individuals on the importance of hydration. However, this may not be sufficient in Latinx populations where water is not trusted. Future work should comprehensively assess these factors in Latinx samples and include validated plain water intake, TWI, and hydration status measures. A greater understanding of these relationships could inform interventions to improve TWI and hydration status in Latinx adults.


Assuntos
Atitude , Bebidas , Ingestão de Líquidos , Hispano-Americanos , Água , Desidratação/etiologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Água Potável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Percepção , Segurança , Paladar , Confiança , Estados Unidos , Insegurança Hídrica
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579019

RESUMO

Low-intake dehydration is a common and often chronic condition in older adults. Adverse health outcomes associated with low-intake dehydration in older adults include poorer cognitive performance, reduced quality of life, worsened course of illness and recovery, and a high number of unplanned hospital admissions and increased mortality. The subjective methods to assess (risk of) dehydration are not reliable, and the evidence about preventive measures are also limited. So is the knowledge about the optimal intake of beverages per day. This narrative review presents the state of the science on the role of low intake hydration in older adults. Despite its simple cause-the inadequate intake of beverages-low-intake dehydration appears to be a very complex problem to address and much more research is needed in the area. Based on the existing evidence, it seems necessary to take setting specific differences and individual problems and needs into account to tackle dehydration in older adults. Further, it is necessary to increase awareness of the prevalence and severity of low-intake dehydration among older adults and in nursing staff in care homes and hospitals as well as among caregivers of older adults living at home.


Assuntos
Desidratação/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Líquidos , Humanos
10.
Anesth Analg ; 133(3): 581-591, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403386

RESUMO

Perioperative fasting guidelines are designed to minimize the risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastrointestinal contents. The current recommendations from the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (ESAIC) are for a minimum 2-hour fast after ingestion of clear liquids before general anesthesia, regional anesthesia, or procedural sedation and analgesia. Nonetheless, in children, fasting guidelines also have consequences as regards to child and parent satisfaction, hemodynamic stability, the ability to achieve vascular access, and perioperative energy balance. Despite the fact that current guidelines recommend a relatively short fasting time for clear fluids of 2 hours, the actual duration of fasting time can be significantly longer. This may be the result of deficiencies in communication regarding the duration of the ongoing fasting interval as the schedule changes in a busy operating room as well as to poor parent and patient adherence to the 2-hour guidelines. Prolonged fasting can result in children arriving in the operating room for an elective procedure being thirsty, hungry, and generally in an uncomfortable state. Furthermore, prolonged fasting may adversely affect hemodynamic stability and can result in parental dissatisfaction with the perioperative experience. In this PRO and CON presentation, the authors debate the premise that reducing the nominal minimum fasting time from 2 hours to 1 hour can reduce the incidence of prolonged fasting and provide significant benefits to children, with no increased risks.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Ingestão de Líquidos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Jejum , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/normas , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/etiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Indian Prosthodont Soc ; 21(3): 249-255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380811

RESUMO

Aim: To compare speech intelligibility (SI), nasal resonance, and swallowing ability in maxillectomy patients with a customized obturator to the conventional obturator. Settings and Design: Non-randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight maxillectomy patients were recruited and assessment of SI, nasal resonance, and swallowing ability was done at three situations: without obturator, with conventional obturator, and with customized obturator. Recordings of unrehearsed conversation, counting from number 1-20 and four sets of Chapel Hill Multilingual Intelligibility Test in the Hindi language were used to assess SI and nasal resonance. SI was evaluated by untrained listeners and graded according to a 6-point scale. Nasal resonance was evaluated by speech pathologists on a 7-point scale of severity. Swallowing ability was evaluated by water drinking test. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA, Post hoc Bonferroni and Chi square test. Results: SI and nasal resonance showed a statistically significant difference between any two groups (P < 0.001). Water drinking time was significantly different between without obturator and with customized obturator (P < 0.001), but the difference was not statistically significant between without obturator and with obturator (P < 0.004). Conclusion: SI, nasal resonance, and swallowing ability improved with customized obturator in comparison to the conventional obturator.


Assuntos
Deglutição , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Ingestão de Líquidos , Humanos , Nariz , Obturadores Palatinos
12.
J Neurosci ; 41(41): 8589-8602, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429377

RESUMO

The effective development of novel therapies in mouse models of neurologic disorders relies on behavioral assessments that provide accurate read-outs of neuronal dysfunction and/or degeneration. We designed an automated behavioral testing system (PiPaw), which integrates an operant lever-pulling task directly into the mouse home cage. This task is accessible to group-housed mice 24 h per day, enabling high-throughput longitudinal analysis of forelimb motor learning. Moreover, this design eliminates the need for exposure to novel environments and minimizes experimenter interaction, significantly reducing two of the largest stressors associated with animal behavior. Male mice improved their performance of this task over 1 week of testing by reducing intertrial variability of reward-related kinematic parameters (pull amplitude or peak velocity). In addition, mice displayed short-term improvements in reward rate, and a concomitant decrease in movement variability, over the course of brief bouts of task engagement. We used this system to assess motor learning in mouse models of the inherited neurodegenerative disorder, Huntington disease (HD). Despite having no baseline differences in task performance, male Q175-FDN HD mice were unable to modulate the variability of their movements to increase reward on either short or long timescales. Task training was associated with a decrease in the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory activity recorded from striatal medium spiny neurons in the hemisphere contralateral to the trained forelimb in WT mice; however, no such changes were observed in Q175-FDN mice. This behavioral screening platform should prove useful for preclinical drug trials toward improved treatments in HD and other neurologic disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In order to develop effective therapies for neurologic disorders, such as Huntington disease (HD), it is important to be able to accurately and reliably assess the behavior of mouse models of these conditions. Moreover, these behavioral assessments should provide an accurate readout of underlying neuronal dysfunction and/or degeneration. In this paper, we used an automated behavioral testing system to assess motor learning in mice within their home cage. Using this system, we were able to study motor abnormalities in HD mice with an unprecedented level of detail, and identified a specific behavioral deficit associated with an underlying impairment in striatal neuronal plasticity. These results validate the usefulness of this system for assessing behavior in mouse models of HD and other neurologic disorders.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Doença de Huntington/genética , Doença de Huntington/fisiopatologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Recompensa , Animais , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Membro Anterior/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
13.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 47(9): 40-48, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432569

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to assess effects of a hydration management program on the fluid consumption and dehydration parameters (i.e., dehydration risk scores, urine specific gravity, and urine color) of older adults. The study was conducted as a pre-/post-test quasi-experimental study with a control group (intervention group: n = 42, control group: n = 37). The hydration management program applied to the intervention group was completed in 1 week. After the intervention, the knowledge and awareness of the intervention group regarding fluid consumption increased (p = 0.001). The dehydration risk score of the intervention group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p = 0.0001). There was a significant change in average 3-day water intake (p = 0.0001), urine specific gravity value (p = 0.01), and urine color scale score (p = 0.0001) in the intervention group between pre- and post-test. The hydration management program provided a significant improvement in daily water intake and dehydration risk score and increased knowledge and awareness among older adults concerning the importance of fluid intake. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 47(9), 40-48.].


Assuntos
Desidratação , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Idoso , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Líquidos , Humanos , Urinálise , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
14.
J Water Health ; 19(4): 671-681, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371502

RESUMO

Adequate hydration is an essential component of health at every stage of life. Although many factors such as age, gender, physical activity, drug use, and illness affect hydration status, it is vital to maintain water balance, especially in infectious diseases. This study was conducted to estimate the hydration status of young adults living in Turkey during the COVID-19 pandemic. The total water intake (TWI) and total water loss of the individuals were determined using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ), which consists of questions about physical activity status, frequency of food and beverage consumption, water consumption, and water loss with urine and feces. The TWI of men and women was found to be 4,776.1 and 4,777.3 mL/day, respectively (p > 0.05). It was determined that 29% of the total water was obtained from drinking water, 49% from other beverages, and 22% from food. A positive net water balance was found in all body mass index (BMI) groups, men, and women. The net water balance was statistically lower in men (2,230.6 mL) than women (2,783.8 mL) (p < 0.05). As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, studies should be done on hydration status in the more balanced populations in terms of BMI and age groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444913

RESUMO

This study was performed to investigate the association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a Korean population and examine whether the association can be altered by adjustment for intake of coffee additives. We conducted a case-control study involving 923 colorectal cancer cases and 1846 controls matched by sex and age (within 5 years). A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess coffee intakes. High coffee consumption was associated with lower odds of developing colorectal cancer (≥3 cups/day vs. no drinks, OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.96). When we additionally controlled for consumption of coffee additives including sugar and cream, the inverse association became stronger (≥3 cups/day vs. no drinks, OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.14-0.33), and a significant inverse linear trend was shown (Ptrend < 0.0001). The inverse associations were observed for proximal (Ptrend = 0.0001) and distal (Ptrend = 0.0003) colon cancer, and rectal cancer (Ptrend < 0.0001) in the stratified analysis by anatomical sub-sites. Regarding sex, inverse associations between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer were found for men (Ptrend < 0.0001) and women (Ptrend = 0.0021). In the stratified analysis by obese status of subjects, inverse linear trends were observed in both non-obese and obese people (Ptrend < 0.0001). High coffee consumption may be associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer in the Korean population and the degree of decrease in the odds of developing colorectal cancer changes by adjustment for intake of coffee additives.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Café/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/etnologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Líquidos/etnologia , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444723

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research examining hydration and nutrition behaviors in youth American football players. A potentially unique risk factor are league restrictions based on weight (WR) or age (AR). The purpose of this study was to examine hydration status between WR and AR leagues. The secondary purpose was to describe eating patterns in players. An observational cohort design with 63 youth football players (10 ± 1 yrs, 148.2 ± 9.4 cm, 44.9 ± 15.3 kg) was utilized. Independent variables were league (AR (n = 36); WR (n = 27)) and activity type (practice (PX = 8); game (GM = 3)). Dependent variables were hydration status (urine osmolality; percent change in body mass (%BM)), eating attitudes (Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT-26)) and self-reported frequency of meals. On average, players arrived activity mildly hypohydrated (830 ± 296 mOsm/kg) and %BM was minimal (-0.1 ± 0.7%) during events. Players consumed 2 ± 1 meals and 1 ± 1 snack before events. The ChEAT-26 survey reported 21.6% (n = 8) of players were at risk for abnormal eating attitudes. Among these players, eating binges, vomiting, excessive exercise and drastic weight loss were reported. Youth American football players arrived activity mildly hypohydrated and consumed enough fluid during activity to maintain euhydration. Abnormal eating attitudes and the use of unhealthy weight loss methods were reported by some youth American football players.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento Alimentar , Futebol Americano , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Fatores de Risco , Sudorese , Estados Unidos , Perda de Peso
18.
J Exp Biol ; 224(7)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424975

RESUMO

Mastication and drinking are rhythmic and cyclic oral behaviors that require interactions between the tongue, jaw and a food or liquid bolus, respectively. During mastication, the tongue transports and positions the bolus for breakdown between the teeth. During drinking, the tongue aids in ingestion and then transports the bolus to the oropharynx. The objective of this study was to compare jaw and tongue kinematics during chewing and drinking in pigs. We hypothesized there would be differences in jaw gape cycle dynamics and tongue protraction-retraction between behaviors. Mastication cycles had an extended slow-close phase, reflecting tooth-food-tooth contact, whereas drinking cycles had an extended slow-open phase, corresponding to tongue protrusion into the liquid. Compared with chewing, drinking jaw movements were of lower magnitude for all degrees of freedom examined (jaw protraction, yaw and pitch), and were bilaterally symmetrical with virtually no yaw. The magnitude of tongue protraction-retraction (Txt), relative to a mandibular coordinate system, was greater during mastication than during drinking, but there were minimal differences in the timing of maximum and minimum Txt relative to the jaw gape cycle between behaviors. However, during drinking, the tongue tip is often located outside the oral cavity for the entire cycle, leading to differences between behaviors in the timing of anterior marker maximum Txt. This demonstrates that there is variation in tongue-jaw coordination between behaviors. These results show that jaw and tongue movements vary significantly between mastication and drinking, which hints at differences in the central control of these behaviors.


Assuntos
Arcada Osseodentária , Mastigação , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ingestão de Líquidos , Movimento , Suínos , Língua
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444683

RESUMO

Pharmacological treatment modalities for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) are scarce, and discoveries are challenged by lack of predictive animal models adequately reflecting severe human disease stages and co-morbidities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. To mimic human NAFLD/NASH etiology, many preclinical models rely on specific dietary components, though metabolism may differ considerably between species, potentially affecting outcomes and limiting comparability between studies. Consequently, understanding the physiological effects of dietary components is critical for high translational validity. This study investigated the effects of high fat, cholesterol, and carbohydrate sources on NASH development and metabolic outcomes in guinea pigs. Diet groups (n = 8/group) included: low-fat low-starch (LF-LSt), low-fat high-starch (LF-HSt), high-fat (HF) or HF with 4.2%, or 8.4% sugar water supplementation. The results showed that caloric compensation in HF animals supplied with sugar water led to reduced feed intake and a milder NASH phenotype compared to HF. The HF group displayed advanced NASH, weight gain and glucose intolerance compared to LF-LSt animals, but not LF-HSt, indicating an undesirable effect of starch in the control diet. Our findings support the HF guinea pig as a model of advanced NASH and highlights the importance in considering carbohydrate sources in preclinical studies of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Dieta , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso Corporal , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Cobaias , Fígado/química , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Amido/administração & dosagem
20.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(8): 4647-4655, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate fluid intake and urinary osmolality in pediatric patients with functional constipation. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, case-control study that prospectively included two groups: 36 pediatric patients older than 4 years with functional constipation (Rome III criteria) who were consecutively admitted in a public tertiary pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic and 93 controls with normal bowel habits. The control group was recruited from a public school and did not have any of the characteristics of the Rome III criteria. Fluid and food intakes were assessed using a daily diet inquiry and 24 h recording method. Hypohydration was defined as osmolality greater than 800 mOsm/kg H2O in a spot urine sample. RESULTS: The age of the functional constipation group (median, 8.9 years; range 7.3-10.0 years) and the control group (8.8 years) was similar (p = 0.51). The proportion of boys in the functional constipation group (76.6%; 25/36) was higher (p = 0.01) than that in the control group (45.2%; 41/93). The total water intake of the functional constipation group (median 1566 mL) was lower (p < 0.001) than that of the control group (median 2177 mL). Urinary osmolality was higher (p = 0.039) in the functional constipation group (median 859 mOsm/kg H2O) than in the control group (median 775 mOsm/kg H2O). The association between hypohydration and functional constipation did not reach statistical significance (Odds ratio 2.06; 95% confidence interval 0.93-4.55; p = 0.073). CONCLUSION: Compared to the control group, patients with functional constipation have lower fluid intake and higher urinary osmolality.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Ingestão de Líquidos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar
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