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1.
Nat Med ; 30(6): 1547-1555, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886622

RESUMO

In the twenty-first century, the complex relationship between women's health and rights has been influenced by a range of interconnected challenges, including gender inequity, reproductive health disparities, maternal mortality and morbidity, and women's inability to access life-saving, high-quality healthcare services including family planning. Going forward, the world needs to find ways to implement the unfinished agenda of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 1994 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), thus prioritizing health and rights for women and girls as essential not only to their survival but also to their progress, agency and empowerment. It is also important to consider the interconnection between women's health and rights and climate change, with its disproportionate impact on the well-being of girls and women, and to address the impact and opportunities afforded by digital technologies. By embracing a holistic approach, societies might be able to advance the cause of women's health and rights in a more inclusive and sustainable manner.


Assuntos
Saúde da Mulher , Direitos da Mulher , Humanos , Saúde da Mulher/tendências , Feminino , Mudança Climática
2.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 31: e2024029, 2024.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896752

RESUMO

The interview marks the 40th anniversary of the Programa de Assistência Integral à Saúde da Mulher (Program for Integral Assistance to Women's Health), and aims to revisit the history of this innovative health policy, the context in which it was created and the generation that took it forward, from the narrative of a key person, Ana Maria Costa, who played a leading role in the process of its creation, from conception to the elaboration of its final text. Launched in 1983, the policy was a pioneer in proposing and incorporating the principles of universality, equity and integrality, which would be the foundations of the Sistema Único de Saúde, and introducing the perspective of women's reproductive rights.


A entrevista marca os 40 anos do Programa de Assistência Integral à Saúde da Mulher e tem como objetivo revisitar a história dessa política de saúde inovadora, do contexto em que foi criada e da geração que a levou adiante, a partir da narrativa de uma pessoa-chave, Ana Maria Costa, que protagonizou o processo de sua criação, desde a concepção até a elaboração de seu texto final. Lançada em 1983, a política foi pioneira em propor e incorporar os princípios de universalidade, equidade e integralidade, que seriam os fundamentos do Sistema Único de Saúde, e introduzir a perspectiva dos direitos reprodutivos das mulheres.


Assuntos
Saúde da Mulher , Humanos , Saúde da Mulher/história , História do Século XX , Feminino , Brasil , História do Século XXI , Política de Saúde/história , Direitos da Mulher/história , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher/história
3.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 28(5): 90-102, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38920395

RESUMO

The research explores Afghan refugee women's challenges in accessing education, employment, and legal rights in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It seeks to inform policy changes to improve their socioeconomic circumstances and mitigate these hardships. The study employs qualitative methodologies, utilizing interviews, observation, and document analysis to capture rich, in-depth narratives from three Afghan refugee women. Each narrative provides unique insights into the women's struggles with education, employment, and securing legal rights. The research highlights challenges from forced migration, gender inequality, cultural norms, and socioeconomic marginalization, causing a holistic crisis for Afghan refugee women in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. These issues hinder access to education, employment, financial vulnerabilities, and legal uncertainties. The study suggests a comprehensive, multi-pronged approach to policy changes, including education reform for refugee girls, gender-responsive recruitment practices, and legal reforms to secure refugees' rights. It emphasizes gender-responsive support services and involves Afghan refugee women in policy development processes, leveraging their experiences for more effective and inclusive policies.


La recherche explore les difficultés rencontrées par les femmes réfugiées afghanes pour accéder à l'éducation, à l'emploi et aux droits légaux à Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, au Pakistan. Il cherche à éclairer les changements politiques pour améliorer leur situation socio-économique et atténuer ces difficultés. L'étude utilise des méthodologies qualitatives, utilisant des entretiens, des observations et des analyses de documents pour recueillir des récits riches et approfondis de trois femmes réfugiées afghanes. Chaque récit fournit un aperçu unique des luttes des femmes en matière d'éducation, d'emploi et d'obtention de leurs droits légaux. La recherche met en évidence les défis liés à la migration forcée, à l'inégalité entre les sexes, aux normes culturelles et à la marginalisation socio-économique, provoquant une crise holistique pour les femmes réfugiées afghanes à Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, au Pakistan. Ces problèmes entravent l'accès à l'éducation, à l'emploi, souffrent de vulnérabilités financières et d'incertitudes juridiques. L'étude suggère une approche globale et multidimensionnelle des changements politiques, y compris une réforme de l'éducation pour les filles réfugiées, des pratiques de recrutement sensibles au genre et des réformes juridiques pour garantir les droits des réfugiés. Il met l'accent sur les services de soutien sensibles au genre et implique les femmes réfugiées afghanes dans les processus d'élaboration des politiques, en tirant parti de leurs expériences pour des politiques plus efficaces et inclusives.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados , Humanos , Refugiados/psicologia , Feminino , Paquistão/etnologia , Afeganistão/etnologia , Adulto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Emprego , Direitos da Mulher , Cultura , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência
4.
J Law Health ; 37(2): 105-126, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833598

RESUMO

Concern about individual rights and the desire to protect them has been part of our nation since its founding, and continues to be so today. The Ninth Amendment was created to assuage the Framers' concerns that enumerating some rights in the Bill of Rights would leave unenumerated rights unrecognized and unprotected, affirming that those rights are not disparaged or denied by their lack of textual support. The Ninth Amendment has appeared infrequently in our jurisprudence, and Courts initially construed it rather narrowly. But starting in the 1960s, the Ninth Amendment emerged as a powerful tool not just for recognizing unanticipated rights, but for protecting or expanding even enumerated rights. The right to privacy--encompassing the right to contraception and abortion--the right to preserve the integrity of your family, the right to vote, the right to own a firearm as an individual--all these rights have been asserted under and found to be supported by the Ninth Amendment. In its Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health decision overturning Roe, the Supreme Court found that there is no right to abortion because it is not in the Constitution. But the potential of the Ninth Amendment is such that reproductive choice need not be mentioned in the Constitution to be protected. Reproductive choice may rightfully be considered as part of a right to privacy, an unenumerated right that nevertheless has abundant precedent behind it. The Ninth Amendment, and its counterparts found in many state constitutions, has the power to protect not just reproductive choice, but all of our fundamental rights.


Assuntos
Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Decisões da Suprema Corte , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Anticoncepção , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Gravidez , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência
5.
J Law Health ; 37(2): 187-213, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833601

RESUMO

Since the overturning of prior abortion precedents in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization, there has been a question on the minds of many women in this country: how will this decision affect me and my rights? As we have seen in the aftermath of Dobbs, many states have pushed for stringent anti-abortion measures seeking to undermine the foundation on which women's reproductive freedom had been grounded on for decades. This includes right here in Ohio, where Republican lawmakers have advocated on numerous occasions for implementing laws seeking to limit abortion rights, including a 6-week abortion ban advocated for and passed by the Ohio Republican legislature and signed into law by Ohio Governor Mike DeWine. Despite this particular ban being successfully challenged and stayed, significant problems persist regarding due process rights for women in Ohio, particularly in the aftermath of Justice Thomas's concurrence in Dobbs advising the Court to revisit prior precedents, such as Griswold v. Connecticut providing for the right to contraception. If the Court were to revisit and strike down Griswold, it would further undermine privacy and due process rights that have been granted to women across this country, including here in Ohio, for decades. Justice Thomas's concurrence, while merely dicta, encapsulates a Court that has become increasingly hostile to treasured fundamental rights for women, a hostility mirrored in numerous Republican legislatures, including right here in Ohio.


Assuntos
Direitos da Mulher , Humanos , Ohio , Feminino , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Gravidez , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
Lancet ; 403(10445): 2751-2754, 2024 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795714

RESUMO

On June 24, 2022, the US Supreme Court's decision in Dobbs v Jackson Women's Health Organization marked the removal of the constitutional right to abortion in the USA, introducing a complex ethical and legal landscape for patients and providers. This shift has had immediate health and equity repercussions, but it is also crucial to examine the broader impacts on states, health-care systems, and society as a whole. Restrictions on abortion access extend beyond immediate reproductive care concerns, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of the ruling's consequences across micro and macro levels. To mitigate potential harm, it is imperative to establish a research agenda that informs policy making and ensures effective long-term monitoring and reporting, addressing both immediate and future impacts.


Assuntos
Decisões da Suprema Corte , Saúde da Mulher , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Gravidez , Saúde da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/ética
9.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 31: e2024023, 2024.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775524

RESUMO

This text analyzes female participation in Brazilian eugenics and medical discourse on the roles and social functions of the sexes during the first half of the twentieth century. In examining the production of two women, Ítala Silva de Oliveira and Eunice Penna Kehl, we maintain that certain women were effectively engaged in the eugenics movement and worked to bring women closer to eugenics. This analysis makes it possible to explore a pedagogical dimension of eugenics and of the popularization of this movement by attempting to form a hygienist and eugenist consciousness among women.


O texto analisa a participação feminina na eugenia brasileira e os discursos médicos acerca dos papéis e funções sociais dos sexos na primeira metade do século XX. A partir da análise da produção de duas mulheres, Ítala Silva de Oliveira e Eunice Penna Kehl, o objetivo principal é argumentar que determinadas mulheres se engajaram efetivamente no movimento eugênico, trabalhando em prol da aproximação feminina com a eugenia. Tal análise permite explorar uma dimensão pedagógica e de popularização da eugenia por meio da tentativa de formação de uma consciência higiênica e eugênica nas mulheres.


Assuntos
Eugenia (Ciência) , Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Brasil , História do Século XX , Feminino , Humanos , Direitos da Mulher/história , Criança
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e09202023, 2024 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747771

RESUMO

This review aims to disclose the gaps and needs for acknowledging the rights to experience motherhood of women with disabilities. To do so, we map how much is known about these women's experience with motherhood, shedding light on their sexual and reproductive rights. The present work followed the scoping review by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). This research is structured by elaborating the question, identifying the relevant studies, selecting the studies, extracting the data, sorting, summarizing, and creating reports based on the results. Results: we found 1050 articles, of which 53 were selected for the analysis. considering the different themes, we generated three axes: (1) infantilization, dehumanization, and discredit in the experience of motherhood; (2) obstetric ableism - an expression of violence in obstetrics; (3) reproductive justice - politicize motherhood and care. The study showed the urgent need to regard women with disabilities as people having the right to make sexual and reproductive health choices. Health professionals need permanent education to acknowledge and guarantee such a need as interweaving relationships to reach decision-making and autonomy.


Nesta revisão, buscamos identificar lacunas e necessidades para o reconhecimento do direito das mulheres com deficiência ao exercício da maternidade. Objetivamos mapear o conhecimento referente às experiências com a maternidade dessas mulheres, ressaltando a produção de conhecimento relacionada aos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos. Realizamos uma revisão de escopo conforme o Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). A pesquisa se sustentou na: formulação da questão; identificação dos estudos relevantes; seleção dos estudos; extração de dados; separação, sumarização e relatório dos resultados. Resultados: identificamos 1.050 artigos e selecionamos 53 para análise. A separação dos temas convergentes gerou três eixos: (1) infantilização, desumanização e descrédito na experiência da maternidade; (2) capacitismo obstétrico: uma expressão da violência obstétrica; (3) justiça reprodutiva: politizar a maternidade e o cuidado. Concluímos pela urgência de considerar as mulheres com deficiência com direitos de escolhas nas questões referentes à sua saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Os profissionais de saúde precisam de educação permanente para reconhecer e garantir as necessidades como relações de interdependência para decisões e autonomia.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Mães , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Humanos , Feminino , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Direitos da Mulher , Saúde Reprodutiva , Tomada de Decisões
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1359756, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694978

RESUMO

Background: Sexual and reproductive health rights (SRHRs) are integral elements of the rights of everyone to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, but they are the most underdeveloped and least understood sphere of rights, especially in Africa, including the country of Ethiopia. The implementation of women's SRHRs is essential for achieving gender equality and promoting women's rights. Husbands' knowledge and involvement play a significant role in improving women's practice of their SRHRs. However, there is limited information/data about the level of husbands' knowledge and involvement in Northwest Ethiopia, including Bahir Dar City. Therefore, this study aimed to assess husbands' knowledge, involvement, and factors influencing their involvement in women's SRHRs. Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from March 20 to April 5, 2023, in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia, among 391 husbands. Multi-stage sampling and simple random sampling technique were applied to select kebeles and study participants, respectively. Participants were interviewed face-to-face using structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was applied to identify associated factors, and a p-value of <0.05 was a cutoff point to declare statistical significance. Results: In this study, 50.6% (198/391) of the husbands had good knowledge about their wives' SRHRs and 44.2% (173/391) (95% CI, 39.3-49.1%) of the husbands were involved when their wives practiced their SRHRs. Access training/education about sexual health [AOR = 5.99; 95% CI (2.7-13.2)], husbands' advance educational level [AOR = 8.81; 95% CI (2.04-38)], good knowledge about SRHRs [AOR = 7.94; 95% CI (4.3-14.4)], low monthly income (<4,600 birr) [AOR = 9.25; 95% CI (4.2-20.5)], and had open discussion with family members and friends about SRHRs [AOR = 1.92; 95% CI (1.01-3.6)] were found to have significant association with husbands' involvement. Conclusion: Husbands' level of knowledge on SRHRs of women and their involvement remain low. Therefore, responsible concerned bodies need to work on the strategies that help to improve men involvement and knowledge, and tackle the above-mentioned factors influencing their involvement.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cônjuges , Humanos , Etiópia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Cônjuges/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adulto Jovem , Saúde Sexual , Direitos da Mulher
13.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 63, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is high among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, empowering women enables them to confront and mitigate IPV. In this study, we examined the association between the survey-based women's empowerment index (SWPER) and IPV in SSA. METHODS: We used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 19 countries conducted from 2015 to 2021. Our study was restricted to a weighted sample of 82,203 women of reproductive age who were married or cohabiting. We used spatial maps to show the proportions of women who experienced past-year IPV. A five-modelled multilevel binary logistic regression analysis was adopted to examine the association between SWPER and IPV. The results were presented using the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: With physical and emotional violence, the country with the highest prevalence was Sierra Leone, with a prevalence of 39.00% and 38.97% respectively. Rwanda (10.34%), Zambia (11.09%), Malawi (15.00%), Uganda (16.88%), and Burundi (20.32%) were the hotspot countries for sexual violence. Angola (34.54%), Uganda (41.55%), Liberia (47.94%), and Sierra Leone (59.98%) were the hotspot countries for IPV. A high SWPER score in attitudes to violence significantly decreased the odds of IPV [AOR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.66, 0.75]. Also, women with medium score in decision-making were less likely to experience IPV compared to those with lower scores [AOR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.83, 0.95]. However, higher odds of experiencing IPV was found among women with medium score in autonomy compared to those with low scores [AOR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.14]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown that the three dimensions of SWPER significantly predict IPV among women. Consequently, it is crucial that sub-Saharan African countries implement various initiatives, such as IPV advocacy programs and economic livelihood empowerment initiatives. These initiatives should not only aim to improve women's attitudes to domestic violence but also to enhance their social independence, autonomy, and decision-making capacity.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Direitos da Mulher
14.
Salud Colect ; 20: e4601, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753982

RESUMO

The purpose of this research is to identify predominant problematizations in Colombian feminist Instagram accounts regarding gender-based violence during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Employing a qualitative approach, a digital ethnography based on the principles of netnography was conducted as an alternative to detail the social worlds constructed from online groups. Fifty pieces of content from @lainsumisa and twenty pieces of content from @feministasenconstrucción, published between March 2020 and March 2021, were selected based on observations made within the online fieldwork framework. These were analyzed using discourse analysis techniques. The findings discuss the following emerging categories: unpaid household work, romanticized harassment, fatphobia, and the violation of Black and racialized women's rights. In this context, cyberactivism is presented as an opportunity for the emergence of collectives and support networks for women advocating for gender equality and their rights, towards questioning patriarchal ideas that jeopardize their well-being.


El propósito de esta investigación es identificar las problematizaciones predominantes en cuentas feministas colombianas de Instagram, sobre las violencias basadas en género durante el primer año de la pandemia de covid-19. Desde un enfoque cualitativo, se realizó una etnografía digital basada en los preceptos de la netnografía, como alternativa para detallar los mundos sociales construidos a partir de los grupos en línea. A partir de las observaciones realizadas en el marco del trabajo de campo en línea se seleccionaron 50 contenidos de @lainsumisa y 20 contenidos de @feministasenconstrucción, publicados entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021, los cuales se analizaron mediante técnicas de análisis del discurso. Entre los hallazgos se discuten las siguientes categorías emergentes: el trabajo no remunerado en el hogar, el acoso romantizado, la gordofobia y la vulneración a las mujeres negras y racializadas. Al respecto, se plantea el ciberactivismo como una oportunidad para el surgimiento de colectivos y redes de apoyo para las mujeres que luchan por la equidad de género y por sus derechos, hacia el cuestionamiento de ideas patriarcales que atentan contra su bienestar.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência de Gênero , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Colômbia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Direitos da Mulher , Pandemias , Feminismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Masculino , Antropologia Cultural
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 28(6): 1092-1102, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461476

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rwanda stands out in East Africa with the lowest infant mortality ratio at 29 per 1000 live births. It also leads in gender equality on the African continent, ranking sixth globally according to the 2022 Global Gender Gap Report. This makes Rwanda an ideal case for studying the link between women's empowerment and infant mortality. METHOD: This study aims to assess the impact of women's empowerment on infant mortality using data obtained from the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2005, 2010, and 2015. A three-category women's empowerment index was created using the principal component analysis method. The statistical analysis employed in this study is multivariate binary logistic regression.   RESULTS: Results demonstrate a significant impact of women's empowerment on reducing infant mortality, considering regional and residential inequalities, bio-demographic factors, and healthcare variables. CONCLUSION: The findings contribute to existing literature and highlight the importance of empowering women to improve maternal and child health outcomes. Such empowerment not only enhances health but also supports sustainable development and social progress. Policymakers, healthcare providers, and organizations should prioritize investing in women's empowerment to achieve maternal and child health goals, as empowered women play a pivotal role in driving positive change for a healthier and more equitable society.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Mortalidade Infantil , Humanos , Ruanda , Feminino , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Lactente , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Adolescente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Direitos da Mulher
17.
Nat Med ; 30(3): 660-669, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454127

RESUMO

The human right to health is universal and non-exclusionary, supporting health in full, and for all. Despite advances in health systems globally, 3.6 billion people lack access to essential health services. Women and girls are disadvantaged when it comes to benefiting from quality health services, owing to social norms, unequal power in relationships, lack of consideration beyond their reproductive roles and poverty. Self-care interventions, including medicines and diagnostics, which offer an additional option to facility-based care, can improve the autonomy and agency of women in managing their own health. However, tackling challenges such as stigma is essential to avoid scenarios in which self-care interventions provide more choice for those who already benefit from access to quality healthcare, and leave behind those with the greatest need. This Perspective explores the opportunities that self-care interventions offer to advance the health and well-being of women with an approach grounded in human rights, gender equality and equity.


Assuntos
Autocuidado , Saúde da Mulher , Humanos , Feminino , Pobreza , Direitos da Mulher
18.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 16, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women in Mozambique are often disempowered when it comes to making decisions concerning their lives, including their bodies and reproductive options. This study aimed to explore the views of women in Mozambique about key elements of empowerment for reproductive decisions and the meanings they attach to these elements. METHODS: Qualitative in-depth interviews were undertaken with 64 women of reproductive age (18-49 years) in two provinces in Mozambique. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Data collection took place between February and March 2020 in Maputo city and Province, and during August 2020 in Nampula Province. A thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Women described crucial elements of how power is exerted for reproductive choices. These choices include the ability to plan the number and timing of pregnancies and the ability either to negotiate with sexual partners by voicing choice and influencing decisions, or to exercise their right to make decisions independently. They considered that women with empowerment had characteristics such as independence, active participation and being free. These characteristics are recognized key enablers for the process of women's empowerment. CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings contribute to an expanded conceptualization and operationalization of women's sexual and reproductive empowerment by unveiling key elements that need to be considered in future research and approaches to women's empowerment. Furthermore, it gave women the central role and voice in the research of empowerment's conceptualization and measurement where women's views and meanings are seldom considered.


Women who are empowered seem to make better health decisions for themselves. Nevertheless, women's views about and understanding of empowerment are seldom considered in the study of empowerment and its definitions. In this study we explore how women in Mozambique view, understand and experience empowerment, i.e., gaining power and control in the household, and specifically around decision-making processes concerning their reproductive lives. A total of 64 adult women were interviewed in rural and urban areas within two provinces of Mozambique. Through the data analysis, we identified key characteristics of the empowerment process that Mozambican women perceived to be of relevance in their context. Women who have power were perceived as financially and socially independent, free to choose their own pathway, and be active participants in the household decision-making process. In reproductive decisions, women show power through the ability to negotiate with their partner, or by making sole decisions and by planning the number of pregnancies and the size of the family. The elements identified provide important information for improving the definition and the measurement of empowerment in Mozambique, as well as for the support of women in their pathways to empowerment within this context.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Reprodução , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique , Empoderamento , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Direitos da Mulher
19.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296910, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the evolution of China's social structure and values, there has been a shift in attitudes towards marriage and fertility, with an increasing number of women holding diverse perspectives on these matters. In order to better comprehend the fundamental reasons behind these attitude changes and to provide a basis for targeted policymaking, this study employs natural language processing techniques to analyze the discourse of Chinese women. METHODS: The study focused on analyzing 3,200 comments from Weibo, concentrating on six prominent topics linked to women's marriage and fertility. These topics were treated as research cases. The research employed natural language processing techniques, such as sentiment orientation analysis, Word2Vec, and TextRank. RESULTS: Firstly, the overall sentiment orientation of Chinese women toward marriage and fertility was largely pessimistic. Secondly, the factors contributing to this negative sentiment were categorized into four dimensions: social policies and rights protection, concerns related to parenting, values and beliefs associated with marriage and fertility, and family and societal culture. CONCLUSION: Based on these outcomes, the study proposed a range of mechanisms and pathways to enhance women's sentiment orientation towards marriage and fertility. These mechanisms encompass safeguarding women and children's rights, promoting parenting education, providing positive guidance on social media, and cultivating a diverse and inclusive social and cultural environment. The objective is to offer precise and comprehensive reference points for the formulation of policies that align more effectively with practical needs.


Assuntos
Casamento , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Direitos da Mulher , Fertilidade , Atitude , China
20.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 164 Suppl 1: 12-20, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360032

RESUMO

The Maputo Protocol, adopted over 20 years ago, is a promising regional treaty for advancing gender equity and sexual and reproductive health and rights. This instrument has driven progress in women's health and rights across Africa, with much remaining to achieve to realize its full potential for women and girls, including access to safe abortion. The present paper shares the strategies and lessons from the Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) reform centered on the domestication of the Protocol, specifically applying its commitments on abortion decriminalization and access. With a vision of addressing maternal mortality and rectifying the impacts of widespread sexual violence against women during war, abortion as a human right and health imperative was at the heart of the DRC's reform. Governmental commitment, broad coalition building, evidence generation, and an intersectional advocacy agenda were critical to overcoming opposition, stigma, and other challenges. This paper shares key learnings from the DRC's complex yet collaborative reform strategies and its processes. The strategy prioritized domestication of the Protocol for numerous reforms, including paving the path to legal abortion on the broad grounds of rape or incest, and saving women's health and/or life. With a commitment to maximizing quality, access, task sharing, and equity, progressive national comprehensive abortion guidelines were created alongside an implementation roadmap for accountability. The DRC's experience leveraging the Maputo Protocol's obligations to advance abortion rights and access offers valuable insights for consideration globally.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Direitos da Mulher , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , República Democrática do Congo , Domesticação , Direitos Humanos , Aborto Legal
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